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COLOMBO MUSEUM. 







GUIDE TO THE COLLECTIONS. 



PEEFACE. 



|HE first Guide to the Colombo Museum for the use 
of visitors was compiled by Mr. Amy raid Haly in 
1886 ; a second, abridged edition of it was printed in 
1895. 

The present issue may be regarded as an enlarged third edition 
having the additional advantage of illustrations. 

Most of the principal objects will be found mentioned in the 
text. One rather important omission may be noted here. Among 
the examples of Tamil jewellery referred to on page 17, attention 
should have been directed to the " Thali," the marriage emblem of 
the Tamil race, which is worn round the neck mounted upon a 
more or less elaborate necklace. 

The collection of rocks and minerals has been entirely re- 
arranged and greatly augmented by the Director of the Mineral 
Survey, Mr. A. K. Coomaraswamy, B.Sc, who has kindly written 
the account of the rocks and minerals of Ceylon for this Guide 
(see page 50). 

In the compilation of the rest of the Guide I have had the 
assistance of the Museum staff, more particularly Mr. Gerard A. 
Joseph, Secretary and Librarian ; Mr. H. M. Gunasekara, Assistant 
Librarian ; and Mr. H. F. Fernando, Taxidermist. 

ARTHUR WILLEY, 

February 9, 1905. Director, Colombo Museum. 



COLOMBO MUSEUM 



PLAN OF THE GROUND FLOOR 




COLOMBO MUSEUM. 



PLAN OF THE UPPER FLOOR. 



(For explanation see Text.) 




Scale : 16 Feet to l Inch. 



ffl m 



H 



SAMBUR 
GROUP 




^ £ £ « . . S ^' § •» 




STAIRCASE 




A GUIDE TO THE 



COLLECTIONS IN 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM. 



INTRODUCTION. 




HE collections of objects of antique, local, and general 
interest which are exhibited in the Colombo Museum 
are intended to illustrate solely the products of human 
ingenuity and cultivation, and the forms of nature as manifested 
in the Island of Ceylon and its dependencies. With few exceptions, 
which are specially noted where they occur, nothing is shown in 
the galleries which has not been found in the country or in the 
surrounding seas. 

Owing to considerations of space on the ground floor, the 
various Buddhistical, Ethnographical, and Archaeological exhibits 
are not arranged in such a strictly systematic manner as could be 
desired. 

The Zoological collections occupy the upper floor of the Museum. 
The Mineral Gallery is situated at the back of the main building. 

If reference be made to the ground plan of the Museum it will 
be seen that the rooms to the right of the entrance hall are assigned 
to the Library and Reading Room. The Library contains an 
exhaustive assemblage of books bearing directly or indirectly upon 
the religion, agriculture, archceology,and natural history of Ceylon. 
There is also a valuable collection of native literature in the 
form of Ola iUailuscriptS, relating in one form or another chiefly to 

B 105-04 



( 2 ) 

the Buddhist Scriptures. These documents are written in 
Sinlialese characters by hand with a pointed iron stylus, upon 
properly prepared slips of palm-leaves called " ola," and are com- 
posed either in Sanskrit, in Pali, or in Elu, the pure Sinhalese 
language. 

The ola leaves which are employed for the transcription of 
the Sinhalese texts are made from the fan-shaped fronds of the 
Talipot Palm (Corypha umbraadi/era), which grows principally 
in the Kandyan Districts ; those adapted for Tamil usage by 
school children and others are commonly made from the similarly 
shaped leaves of the Palmyra Palm {Borassus flahelliformis), 
which is especially abundant in the northern parts of the Island. 
The Palmyra Olas are narrower, thicker, and less pliable than 
the Talipot Olas. 

The manuscripts are often consulted by Buddhist priests and 
other readers who frequent the Library, and may be inspected, if 
desired, on application being made to the Librarian. 

CENTRAL HALL. 

The first case to meet the eye of the visitor entering the Museum 
is that which is placed under the archway before the main stair- 
case. It affords a characteristic display of images of Gautama 
Buddha. These figures are executed in brass, bronze, wood, and 
ivory, and they represent the Founder of Buddhism (who lived 
about the fifth century B.C.) in three principal attitudes — sedent, 
erect, and recumbent. The head is generally surmounted by a 
five-rayed emblem called "sirispota," which symbolizes the sacred 
flame. 

On the top of the case there is a large wooden dag'aba or relic 
case. The ancient dagabas at Anuradhapura and elsewhere are 
immense structures supposed to have been erected over various 
relics of Buddha and his disciples. Representations of the dagaba 
on a small scale, in wood, metal, and ivory, are commonly used as 
emblems or as reliquaries, just as the small effigies of Buddha are 
portable copies of the gigantic statues which are scattered about 
the country. 

The lower portion of this case contains, on the front side, a 
selection of llatara .lewellery, dating, at least with regard to the 
designs, from the Dutch period (1655-1796 a.d.). The collection 
comprises necklaces, brooches, hair ornaments, &c. Most of the 
pieces are pariires of the so-called Matara diamonds (zircons), 
white sapphires, and black tourmalines, in a silver or silver-gilt 
setting, manufactured by native jewellers at Matara, Galle, and 
Colombo. 




TALIPOT I'Af.M. 



[To/uce ptK/g : 



( 3 ) 

On the other side of this table case there is a miscellaneous 
display of Tamil silver waist-bands, charms, a Mudaliyar's dress 
sword, &c. 

Products of the Palmyra Palm.— This palm grows in the 
low-lying dry parts of the Island. There are extensive native 
plantations in the Northern Province, especially in the Jaffna 
Peninsula and the outlying islands. It shares with the Cocoanut 
Palm and the Date Palm the distinction of providing more 
serviceable commodities for the use of man than any other single 
species in the vegetable kingdom. As already mentioned, the 
leaves are employed in the manufacture of olas ; they are also 
used for fences, thatching, fans, mats, hats, baskets, water balers, 
and umbrellas. 

The fruits ripen in the months of August and September, when 
they fall to the ground, and are sometimes eaten raw, but more 
generally roasted [W. Ferguson]. They vary in qualities of 
colour, smell, taste, and shape. From the fleshy part of the fruit 
a sweet farinaceous jelly is prepared, called Palmyra Pulp or 
" punatoo." The nuts are sown under loose sandy soil, and the 
very young subterranean saplings, after being cleaned and dried, 
yield the Palmyra Flour. 

Palmyra Toddy is prepared from the sap of the flower buds, 
which are tapped by the toddy drawers during the months of 
November and December, the rainy season of the Northern 
Province. 

Sugar or "jaggery " is prepared from sweet toddy, «.e., from the 
palm juice which has been prevented from undergoing fermenta- 
tion by coating the inside of the toddy receiver with lime or 
" chunam." 

On the top of the case there are models of a Jaffna bungalow 
with Palmyra RooAu^, a shelter for watchers in the paddy fields, 
a manger, and a platform for grain. 

The Palmyra Palm is dioecious, i.e., the male and female flownre 
are on different trees. In a plantation half the trees will be male 
and half female. The female tree yields superior timber and a 
greater quantity of toddy than the male tree. 

The model of the Palmyra Palm and other articles in this case 
were presented by Sir W. C. Twynam, K.C.M.G. 

Commercial Products. — Until 1880 coffee was the staple export 
since the British occupation. During the Dutch administration 
the Government held a monopoly of the cultivation of cinnamon, 
but this industry is fast disappearing under competition with 
other countries. The Cinnamon Gardens of Colombo are noted 
for the extreme rarity of the cinnamon shrubs, whole plantations 



( 4 ) 

of which have been removed during the past ten years to make 
room for building purposes. 

From 1880 to 1886 Ceylon passed through a financial crisis in 
consequence of the failure of the coffee trees, which were destroyed 
by a fungoid disease caused by an organism named Hemileia 
vastatrix, for which no cure could be found. During this time 
cinchona and tea planting came into being, and Ceylon is now 
chiefly famous throughout the world for the excellence of its tea. 

Other products of importance are cacao, cinchona, cardamoms, 
and rubber. 

More than sixty varieties of rice or "paddy" are grown in the 
Island, all of which, with one exception(the variety called " el-vi "), 
require more or less continual irrigation. 

Another grain of great importance to the poorer natives is that 
which is called millet or "kurakkan" (Eleusine coracana). This 
is grown on waste lands called "chena," a corruption of the 
Sinhalese word " hena," meaning ground prepared for cultivation 
at intervals of several years by the cutting and burning of jungle. 

The arecanut is the fruit of the Areca Palm, the tall slender 
stems of which aflEord a pleasing contrast with the unending groves 
of cocoanut palms. It is used for chewing with the betel leaf, and 
also has some medicinal value. 

Native tobacco is extensively cultivated in various parts of the 
Island. 

On the top of the case are specimens of the gum of the cashew or 
caju tree (Anacardium occidentale), a common tree yielding an 
edible nut, but not endemic, having, it is thought, been introduced 
from Brazil by the Portuguese ; and the resin of the tree called 
" hal " in Sinhalese {Valeria acuminata). 

Products of tlit^ Cocoanut Palm. — The objects exhibited in this 
case have on the whole a familiar homely appearance, and bear 
eloquent testimony to the world-wide importance of the tree upon 
which, in the first instance, the wealth of the Island largely 
depends. Almost every part of the tree subserves some useful 
purpose, and its general commercial value far exceeds that of the 
Palmyra Palm. It begins to bear fruit at about the tenth year, 
and a single tree may yield about seventy nuts annually. It is 
monoecious, i.e., male and female fiowers are on the same tree, so 
that every tree in a plantation will be fertile. 

Most compounds of bungalows in Colombo are planted with 
cocoanut palms, which can only be cut down by tenants upon 
payment of ten rupees for each tree. 

The husk of the fruit yields coir fibre, the shell can be used for 
drinking vessels, bowls often handsomely carved, spoons, charcoal, 



i 



( 5 ) 

&c. The kernel is largely used in cookery, being grated fine by 
an instrument called a cocoanut scraper, after which milk can 
be expressed from it; when dried in the sun it is known as copra, 
from which oil is extracted, the residue being used as cattle food. 
The leaves are plaited to form cadjans for thatching roofs, also 
baskets ; and the trunk yields good timber. The young fruit, 
called "kurumba," furnishes food and drink. The sap of the 
unopened flower supplies toddy, arrack, and jaggery. 

The dried frond of the palm is twisted into a bundle and used 
as a torch. These torches are often employed, for purposes of 
illumination on festival occasions, being known as " chulu " lights, 
a corruption of the Sinhalese word " huluatta. " Torches are also 
furnished by the spathes of the tiowers, called " kolapuwa." The 
midribs of the leaflets are tied into bundles and form excellent 
besoms, called " ekel" brooms, a corruption of the Tamil word 
"irekii," meaning the midrib of a palm leaf. 

The preparation of coir fibre is an important industry in the 
Western and Southern Provinces. The following account taken 
from Dr. Shortt's Monograph of the Cocoanut Palm applies 
equally to the methods in use in Ceylon as to the districts in India, 
to which he refers more particularly : — 

'*The husks, removed from the nuts, are collected and thrown 
into pits containing water to soak, and kept there till decompo- 
sition sets in." [Along the railway from Colombo to Galle many 
portions of the backwaters and estuaries are fenced in for this 
purpose.] "The coir, w^hen taken out of the pit, is beaten with 
stout sticks to break up the adhesion and free the fibre from 

impurities. Next it is hand-rubbed" and "subsequently 

rolled into loose pads of about a finger's thickness preparatory to 
being twisted into yarn by the palms of the hands." 

In the bottom shelf is shown the apparatus employed in the 
distillation of arrack, and on the top of the case there is a similar 
apparatus in native pottery. 

Fisheries and Trausport. — Many of the models in this case 
were made for the Chicago Exhibition of 1893. 

On the top shelf are shown models of a bullock cart, a Kandyan 
grain store, fish traps, a rattan bridge, and a " chekku" or oil mill 
for expressing oil from copra and for the manufacture of gingelly 
oil. The " chekku " consists of a huge mortar sunk deeply into the 
ground and made of stone in the Western Province, or of tamarind 
wood in the North-Central Province ; in this a heavy pestle 
revolves, being worked by a horizontal lever driven round by a 
bull or a pair of bulls. A man usually sits on the lever to increat>e 
the weight of the pestle. 



On the second shelf there are more models of carts and 
hackeries, a mud house, and a large native sailing craft called a 
"dhoney." 

On the third shelf there are models of " kattumarams," a Negombo 
canal " padda" boat, and a boat used in the Pearl Fishery with 
representations of the crew and divers. The white man in the 
stern holding a suspicious looking bottle in a compromising attitude 
is the doctor preparing a dose of medicine. 

On the last shelf there are models of outrigger boats, fishing and 
passenger boats, a double canoe, and a river raft. There is also a 
set of chank shells {TurMnella pyruin) and several rings cut 
from this shell. The chank fishery at JafEna has been an 
important source of revenue. During some years as many as 
three millions of these shells have been exported annually to 
Calcutta, where they are used for the manufacture of temple 
conches and of cliauk jewellery which is destroyed at funerals. 

Other noteworthy exhibits on this shelf are a pearl diver's coir 
basket which has been actually in use, presented by J. Hornell, 
Esq., Marine Biologist, and a pearl diver's sinking stone from 
the Pearl Fishery of 1904, presented by the Hon. Mr. E. F. im 
Thurn, C.B., C.M.G., then Lieutenant-Governor. 

The chank shells and rings were presented by Sir William 
Twynam. 

Objects troiii the Maldive Islands.— The Maldive Islands are 
an archipelago of coral atolls inhabited by a Mohammedan popu- 
lation ruled by a Sultan of ancient lineage, who pays annual tribute 
to the Ceylon Government. The Maldivians are an artistic 
people, the commonest articles in daily use being elegantly shaped, 
carved, and lacquered. They make use of European glassware and 
earthenware, but protect their dishes and plates and glasses "in 
boxes or cupholders of the most elegant designs and elaborate 
carving and colouring. Their boats are also elaborately decorated 
when new. On State festivals the capital, Male, presents a most 
gay appearance, the roofs of the houses being covered with richly 
coloured cloths, and all the streets profusely decorated with 
bunting and curious models of modern steam vessels and little 
kiosks furnished with chess tables, the whole being brilliantly 
illuminated at night, when the Sultan, amidst a profusion of fire- 
works, and preceded by his band, visits the numerous mosques " 
[A. Haly]. 

The Maldivian sea-going sailing vessels, called buggalows, are 
often to be seen in Colombo Harbour, and the view from the end 
of the breakwater of one of these boats entering the harbour during 
the north-east monsoon is highly picturesque. 




MALDIVIAX LACE-MAKI>"G PILLOW AND LACQUERED STAJSD. 

(Tutal /leiij/if. \ /oof 2 inc/us.) 



[Tc fam pitga 0. 




^ 



ItlClO MKASUUE. 



PLATH BOX. 
(I)ianu'tjr, 11 iiichej.) 



BOTTLK IJOX. 




MEDKMNK BOX 



I l.dW Kli BOX. 
(/leiyfi/, 8.> incites.) 

MALDIVIAN LACQUEIIED BOXES. 



To fnr.f puijt 7.] 



( 7 ) 

The model of a ship with a mat sail in Case VI. represents, the 
kind of boat used for traffic between the numerous islands of the 
Maldive group. The models in Case VIII. were presented by the 
Sultan of the Maldives, and do not include a copy of the typical 
Maldivian buggalow, which is built on characteristic lines unlike 
anything shown in these cases. In Case VIII. there are two finely 
lacquered drums, spears, and musical instruments. In Case VI. 
the chess boards, spilliliug' tops, stands for lace pillows. Nautilus 
shell spoons, weighing scales, and nautical instruments are 
among the more noteworthy objects exhibited. 

The lac employed in decorating the fancy boxes, dish covers, 
drums, sticks, spears, and stands is imported into the Maldives from 
India. The patterns into which it is worked, as well as the designs 
followed in wood and stone carving (see below, Maldivian 
Tombstones), appear to be exclusively Maldivian. 

Many of the objects in Case VI. were presented by H. C. P. Bell, 
Esq., C.C.S., Archaeological Commissioner. The rest formed part 
of. a collection of Maldivian articles exhibited at the World's 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, and were presented 
by Sultan Ibrahim Noorudin Iskander, Sultan of the Maldives 
from 1882 to 1893. 

Masks aud Musical Instruments. — Masks are used in plays, 
masquerades, and devil-dancing. Their invention is attributed to 
the god of curiosities. Those representing various diseases are 
said to be employed by devil-dancers to exercise the devils who 
occasion the sickness. Their construction appears to be based 
upon the principle of eradicating disease from the system by the 
homoeopathic method of counterfeit presentments. 

In spite of their grotesque character and of the fact that they can 
be made to order at the present day, these masks possess a profound 
interest as affording a clue to the origin of the ancient masks used 
in the Greek plays. The Oriental masks of the demons have been 
regarded as the prototypes of the Birds of Aristophanes, the 
Giants of Pollux, and the frightful forms of Lucian [Dpham]. 
"The mask is the type of the Metempsychosis, the great pivot of 
Oriental doctrine, exhibiting to the spectator, scenically, the 
changes and forms which in different stages of mundane existence 

attach to the vital principle." " Had masks originated with 

the Greeks, it is fair to conclude that, instead of such frightful 
specimens which abound in every museum, they would have given 
the human form as they have beautifully embodied it in their 
painting and sculpture ; hence the physiognomical character of the 
masks may be said to decide their origin and locality to the East" 
[Upham], 



( 8 ) 

The Maha Kola Sanni Yaka, or Yaksha, represented by the 
composite mask in the centre of the case and again over the top of 
Case VIII,,* is the great Demon of Fatal Diseases, all of which are 
attributed directly to devilish derangements of the three humours, 
wind, phlegm, and bile. 

The Gopolu, or Gopola Yaka, is the Demon of Cattle, and all 
cattle sickness is supposed to proceed from him. He is represented 
with horns and tusks and a garment of leaves. 

The Gara, or Garra Yaka, is the demon who possesses newly- 
built houses, and before a house can be finally occupied a cere- 
mony called Gara Yaka Maduwa is generally performed. This 
ceremony is presumably equivalent to the European house- 
warming. 

Suniyama or Huniyama is the art of sorcery, bewitching by 
spells and incantations. The word is sometimes anglicized into 
Hooniyan, this being the name given to evils inflicted by a man 
upon his neighbour or enemy by the agency of charms. In 
Hooniyan charms a small image of wax or wood is made to represent 
the person whose death or injury is desired. "A few hairs of 
his head, some chippings of his finger nails, and a thread or 
two from a cloth worn by him, and sometimes a handful of sand 
from a place on which he has left his footprint, are required." The 
image is then submitted to a ceremony called Ji wama (" endowing 
with life") performed by a Kattadiya or sorcerer, who recites 
mystical words over it. Nails made of a composition of five diflFerent 
metals — gold, silver, copper, tin, and lead— are driven into the 
image through the joints, the heart, and the head, and the name 
of the victim is marked on the image, which is then buried in the 
ground under a stile or at some other spot where the victim is 
likely to pass over it. The passing over, or Panna-wana-wa, is 
essential to the success of the charm, f 

This Hooniyan charm, or Suiilliyiill Yakil, as the specimen is 
labelled in the case, is of particular interest on account of its world- 
wide application in the practice of witchcraft. 

On the top of the case, besides more demon masks, there are 
large masks called the King and the Queen . These are used in the 
native masquerades called Kolama. 

The lower portion of the case contains a collection of musical 
iiistriiinents. The drums are of various kinds, the more charac- 
teristic being the flat drum or timbrel called Rabana ; the 
bobbin-shaped drum called Udikkiya or Udakiya ; Tamniettatna, 

* This K61a Sanni Yaka was presented by Mr. Justice H. L. Wendt. 

I The account t^-iven above of the Hooniyan chariu is taken from an article 
•' On Demonology and Witchcraft in Ceylon," by Dandris de Silva Gooneratno, 
Miidaliyar. in the Journ. Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc, vol. IV., 18G5-6, pp. 1-1 17. 



( 9 ) 

two drumsfastened together as kettle drums ; Demala-bere, Tamil 
tom-tom ; Yak-bere, demon tom-tom. The Rabana is beaten by 
women seated in a group round it on occasions of family rejoicing. 

Among the stringed instruments are to be noted the Wenawa or 
Vina, the Indian lute, an instrument with a good twang, the 
resonator consisting of a cocoanut shell with a skin stretched 
across it. The Bandarinha and Viola, presented by H. Holsinger, 
Esq., are used by the Mechanics* of Ceylon to accompany their 
Lusitanian dances. 

There are also a couple of marionettes, employed in a form of 
entertainment much in vogue among the Sinhalese. 

Other exhibits in the Central Hall include two stands of Kaildyail 
spears with lacquered shafts, together with Kandyan blunderbusses 
and processional fans. 

On the top of Case VIII. there is an interesting relic of the early 
conflicts between the British and the Kandyans in the form of a 
British drum said to have been captured by the latter. 

On a small stand at the foot of the staircase there are some 
antique cannon balls, probably of Portuguese origin, which were 
unearthed at Medamahanuwara, near Kandy, a place which is 
noted for the existence of a cave in which the last King of Kandy 
took refuge after his flight from the British, and where he was 
captured in 1815. 

MEDI/EVAL ROOM. 

CASE IX. 

Ivory Carving's. — This case contains a varied and valuable 
collection of objects made principally of ivory. The specimens 
which are worthy of attention include fan handles in ivory and 
ebony, combs, panels, dagabas, &c. 

The large boxes are carved and shaped after Dutch designs. 

The art of making the compressible scent sprinklers is 
said to be a secret confined to one family of ivory workers 
in the Kegalla District. The little figures of the last King of 
Kandy, two of his Ministers or Adigars, and the Chief Priest 
are said to be contemporary portraits. Sri Wikrama Raja Sinha 
was the last king of the Suluwansa or Lower Dynasty. He 
came to the throne of Kandy in 1798 and reigned until 1815, 
when he was deposed chiefly on account of his cruelty. The ivory 
statuettes of £lielapola and his wife are also of considerable interest. 
Ehelapola became First Adigar of the King of Kandy in 1812. He 

* The Mechanics of Ceylon are a class of artisans, shoemakers, tailors,blacksmiths, 
craftsmen of Portuguese descent, speaking- a lingo of their own, Portuguese with 
an admixture of Tamil and Sinhalese. Cf. Mr. C. M. Fernaudo's article on the 
Music of Ceylon in Journ. Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc, vol. XIII., 1893-1894, pp. 183-189- 

C 105-04 



( 10 ) 

was also Dissave of Sabaragamuwa. Having disobeyed an order to 
proceed to Kandy his family was imprisoned by order of the king, 
and subsequently his children were beheaded in front of the Maha 
Vishnu Dewale at Kandy and his wife was drowned in the tank at 
Bogambra, near Kandy. This incident is known as the Ehelapola 
Tragedy, and constitutes a favourite theme on the modern 
Sinhalese stage. 

On the lowest shelf of this case there are some more ivory 
statuettes of Buddha, ivory flutes, and a richly carved rattle 
mounted on a lacquered stick. 

There is also a handsome ivory Udakiya (without skins) lent by 
P. E. Pieris, Esq., CCS., and an antique ivory cigar mouthpiece 
with receptacle for an extra cigar, presented by Mr. E. R. Gooue- 
ratne, Gate Mudaliyar. 

The quaintly-shaped and lacquered pill boxes and the ola book 
covers with the signs of the zodiac deserve notice. 

The ivory dagabas are reliquaries or karanduwas, the dome being 
screwed upon the base so that it can be removed and a cavity 
disclosed in which any small object of veneration or votive offering 
can be deposited. 

CASE X. 
Besides the numerous examples of Kandyan embossed metal 
work which are exhibited in this case, the most striking object 
is a silver model of the shrine containing the Dalada or Tooth of 
Buddha, the reputed original of which is preserved in the Dalada 
Maligawa at Kandy. This famous Tooth Relic has played an 
important part in the political history of Ceylon. It is esteemed 
bj' Buddhists as the palladium of the country and symbolizes the 
inviolability of the Buddhist religion. It is related that the sacred 
relic was originally rescued by the sage Khema from the great 
teacher's funeral pyre at Kusinagara and given by him to Brahma- 
datta, King of Kalinga, about 2,500 years ago. It was eventually 
brought to Ceylon from Southern India by a Brahman Princess 
of Kalinga, concealed in the folds of her hair, about the years 
310-313 A.D., during the reign of Sri Megahavarna at Anuradha- 
pura, where it was wont to be publicly exposed on sacred days 
with gorgeous ceremonies. When the relic was first brought 
to Ceylon its adventures were recorded in a work called the 
Dhatuwansa or Chronicle of the Tooth, written in Elu, the classical 
language of the Sinhalese. The tooth is said to represent the left 
upper canine or eye-tooth. The legend runs that after all at- 
tempts which have been made to destroy the sacred emblem, it 
has reappeared resting upon a lotus flower, where it now reposes. 
Parakramu Bahu I., surnamed the Great, built a temple for it at 




TEMPLE OF THE TOOTH. KANDV. 



\_To face pttye 10. 




AldDKI. n|- llli; lOO'l'll ItKl.l' 



To tiice paijf; 11 J. 



( 11 ) 

Pulfistipnra, the modern Polonnaruwa, between the years 1190 and 
1195. About the year 1246 a.d. Vijaya Bahu III. enshrined it at 
Dambadeniya, whence some forty years later Bhuvaneka Bahu I. 
removed it to Yapahu. Thence it followed the fortunes of the 
Suluwansa Dynasty to successive capitals, Kurunegala, Gampola, 
and Kotte near Colombo. 

In the year 1560 A.D. it is said to have been captured by the 
Portuguese and taken to Goa, where it was pounded in a mortar 
and consumed in a brazier, but Phcenix-like it rose again from 
its ashes and is now at Kandy.* 

The vicissitudes of the Tooth Relic are matters of speculation 
and controversy, but its political importance as a national 
palladium during the dynastic periods seems to be beyond 
doubt. 

The model here shown was exhibited at Chicago in 1893. 

The same shelf contains a handsome display of silverware, 
amongst which may be specially noted the large silver dagaba 
exhibited at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 : two 
large boxes of beaten silver embossed with deities and scroll 
work ; a large spherical silver box with intricate design in high 
relief ; an elegant silver chatty; a silver chalice for sandalwood ; 
and a silver scent diffuser of the kind used for sprinkling guests 
at wedding ceremonies and for spraying coffins in funeral proces- 
sions. There is also a finely worked brass dagaba. The leaf -shaped 
tassels hanging round the top of the dagabas represent the leaves 
of the sacred Bo-tree {Ficus religiosa). 

On the next shelf below a large series of brass bowls called 
" chembu" is shown. Some of them are further adorned by the 
inlaying of alternating strips of beaten silver and copper. 

The bottom shelf contains further examples of Kaildyail 
brasswork, especially betel trays and rice tables, prominent 
among them being an antique Kandyan rice table presented by 
A. K. Coomaraswamy, Esq., Director of the Mineralogical Survey 
of Ceylon. 

The upper shelves of the case contain on one side a set of 
embossed silver and brass plates, and a pair of carved silver ola 
covers with ola manuscript descriptive of one of the Jatakas or 
Births of Buddha. 

On the other side there are some examples of wood carving, 
a carved calamander cocoanut scraper from Panadure, between 
Colombo and Galle ; sweetmeat moulds or jaggery boards ; game 
boards called "chonka boards," in which the seeds of the 

* Cf. Memoir on the History of the Tooth Relic of Ceylon, by J. Gerson da 
Cunha, 1875. 



( 12 ) 

"olinda" (Abrus precatorius) or any other suitable seedg or 
shells are placed in two depressions at the ends, and the players 
have to make the circuit of the board from pit to pit along the 
sides without occupying the same hole at one time. The player 
who gets the seeds home first wins. 

On the end-wall of the case there are some carved wooden 
sweetmeat pats. Hanging from the top of the case down the 
middle is a richly embroidered silk cloth said to have been worn 
by the wife of Molligoda, the Second Adigar of the last King of 
Kandy. 

CASES XI. AND XIV. 

Embroidered Cloths. — The narrow wall case contains examples 
of dress worn by the old aristocracy of the low country. 

In the centre is a hat of peculiar shape, somewhat boat-shaped, 
called " Jagalatta Toppiya," used by Rajapakse, Chief Mndaliyar 
of Mahabadde, 1701 a.d. 

There is also a Mudaliyar's dress sword and a sword with hilt 
and scabbard of richly carved tortoise-shell dating from the end 
of the 18th century, lent by Tudor Rajapakse, Esq. 

On the top shelf there are some Dutch swords. 

In the case corresponding to this on the opposite side of the 
room (Case XIV.) some further examples of woven cloths are 
shown, including a handsome old embroidered Kandyan betel 
bag, which was formerly carried slung at the side from the 
shoulder. There are also some gold embroidered Chetty costumes. 

CASE XII. 

This case contains an assortment of antique objects in brass 
and bronze, among the more interesting of wLicli are three 
Sinhalese water clocks ; cocoanut oil lamps ; elephant bells ; 
karanduwas (dagabas) ; Pattini bangles, hollow armlets and 
anklets with a slot along one side and pellets inside, used in 
dances on festival occasions such as peraheras, in honour of 
Pattini Deviyo, the goddess of chastity ; epaulettes, also worn by 
dancers. 

The Sinhalese water clock is a clepsydra, consisting of a copper 
bowl, of larger and smaller sizes, with a small pinhole in the 
bottom and with or without silver datum marks let in at the 
sides. The bowl is set floating in a clay water chatty, the water 
gradually entering through the pinhole aperture until a datum 
level is reached, and eventually the bowl sinks. In the larger 
of the clocks shown with graduations the water reaches the 
level of the highest datum mark in exactly forty-eight minutes. 
The Sinhalese hour or " peya " consists of twenty-four minutes, 



( 13 ) 

and the day and night are divided into thirty "peyas " each. 
The water clock is called " pe-teliya."* 

On the top of the case there are some interesting examples of old 
Sinhalese domestic wood carving, an art which, has almost if not 
entirely fallen into disuse. The series includes carved cocoanut 
ladles and spoons with more or less ornate wooden handles, 
carved wooden 8])00ii racks, and a cocoanut scraper. 

CASE XIII. 

This case contains a large series of boxes and implements 
employed in the services of the arecanut and tobacco. The 
arecanut is the principal ingredient in that form of indulgence 
known as betel chewing. A fragment of a nut with other spices 
is wrapped up in a betel (pepper) leaf and eaten. Then the 
finger is dipped in slaked lime called chunam and placed upon 
the back of the tongue, or sometimes a spoon or spatula may be 
employed for this purpose. The lime is kept in metal boxes, 
called cllimam boxes, which are elegantly shaped, embossed, and 
inlaid. The box is suspended by a chain, at the end of which, 
when complete, are carried a small silver or brass earpick, a 
toothpick, and a spatula. The very large chunam boxes be- 
longed to important personages and were carried by an attendant. 

The arecanut is cut into slices by an instrument, resembling 
a nut cracker in shape, called an arecaiiut cutter. The handles 
of these cutters afford considerable scope for artistic display, 
as will be seen by an examination of the large series here 
shown. 

Elderly persons with failing powers of mastication are in the 
habit of pounding their betel bolus before consuming it. For this 
purpose they use a small pestle and mortar called a betel 
poiiuder, several of which are exhibited. 

Above the chunam boxes there are some antique jewel boxes 
made from Dutch designs in brass and copper, embossed and 
engraved in various patterns. These are known as Dutcll boxes, 
other examples of which are to be found in the Ivory Case and 
in Case XV. 

Below the shelf containing the arecanut cutters there is a 
large series of brass tobacco bo.Ves, These have also been made 
from Dutch designs, some of them having been actually manu- 
factured in Holland, whence they were brought here during 
the Dutch Administration. 

* Farther information on " Sinhalese Measures of Time " is contained in an 
article by Mr. Herbert White, C.C.S., in The Orientalist, vol. III., 1888-1889, p. 75 ; 
and in a paper by Mr. F. H. Modder on Sinhalese Weifjhts and Measures, in Journ. 
Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc, vol. XII., 1892, pp. 173- 202. 



( M ) 

The bottom shelf of the case contains some more metal bowls, 
tr.iys, and goblets. 

The picture on the wall over the case is a temple drawing 
representing an incident in the life of Buddha. 

CASE XV. 

A portion of this case contains a number of " Dutch boxes," 
many of which, however, have been made in more recent times. 
They are made with different kinds of wood — satinwood, cala- 
mander, and ebony — and are variously carved and inlaid with 
ivory, brass, tortoise-shell, and porcupine quills. 

The original native wood carving has largely given way to 
the manufacture of these articles and of ebony and cocoanut 
elephants. There is also shown here a well-executed carving 
of a tortoise in calamander wood, the most valuable wood in 
Ceylon. 

Besides the boxes there are some examples of carved combs and 
hairpins in tortoise-shell and in horn. 

On the other side of the case some examples of painted 
kaiulyau pottery are shown. There are three classes of unglazed 
pottery in Ceylon, namely, the plain Villag'e pottery, comprising 
the water chatties, cooking bowls, and curry dishes of every-day 
use : secondly, the painted pottery of Kandy ; and lastly, the 
fii rotesqiie pottery of Matara, examples of which are placed upon 
tlie top of the case. This pottery possesses features of ethno- 
graphic interest in spite of its grotesqueness ; it is made and sold 
chiefly during the time of the Dondra Fair in the summer 
months. 

CASE XVI. 

Kaiidyaii Knives and Swords. — Here are shown numerous 
swords and daggers used by the Kandyans during the later Dynastic 
Period and still worn on State occasions. Many of them are highly 
ornate at the hilt, and the scabbard and base of the blade are often 
richly damascened. The handle is frequently carved out of ivory, 
horn, and black coral, and the sheath in some cases is covered with 
carved tortoise-shell. At the base of the blade in a few instances 
the figure of a lion in brass is let into the steel. This seems to be 
of the nature of heraldry. 

Some of the dagger sheaths contain in addition to the dagger a 
receptacle for a stylus for writing upon the ola slip. 

On the top shelf there is a set of Kandyan Yillag'e jewellery 
in the form of numerous brass and glass bangles ; and some old 
Dutch swords and powder-horns. 

On the top of the case are some antique spear heads. 



( 15 ) 

TABLE CASE XVII. 

A rather heterogeneous assortment of ancient odds and ends is 
provisionally placed in this case, gold and silver fragments, 
beads, and gems from the ruined cities of Ceylon. The excavations 
which have been carried on for many years under the direction of 
the Archaeological Commissioner have not led to any sensational 
discovery of buried treasure. Such precious relics as have been 
unearthed have on the whole been disappointing so far as their 
intrinsic value is concerned. 

In the reverse half of this case there is an ola horoscope and a 
copper sannas or deed conveying a grant of land to a Kandyan 
temple by the last King of Kandy. There is also shown an 
ebony weighing lever, called Tulappadi in Tamil, still used by 
traders in the Vanni and Jaffna, presented by J. P. Lewis, Esq., 
CCS. 

In the glass box over the case there are two old swords, with 
Sinhalese legends dating from the years 1374 and 1416 inscribed 
upon them. The inscriptions relate that the swords were presented 
by the Rajas reigning during the years mentioned (1917 in the 
Buddhist Era = 1374 in the Christian Era ; 1959 A.B. = 1416 A.D.) 
in the town of Jayawardhanapura (the modern Kotte, which lies 
in the outskirts of Colombo) to two members of an aristocratic 
family upon their appointment as generals. These interesting 
swords were presented to the Museum by Mr. C M. Fernando, 
Crown Counsel. 

TABLE CASE XVIII. 

Containing a valuable collection of coins which have at one time 
been current in Ceylon. The coins fall into two classes, namely, 
the ancient Sinhalese currency, comprising the coins of the Kings 
of Ceylon ; and the foreign coins introduced to this Island by 
traders from the days of the Roman Emperors down to the estab- 
lishment of British Rule. The devices on the coins of the Sinhalese 
Kings represent on the obverse the king standing, holding a lotus 
flower in his right hand and a kind of sceptre, sometimes called 
the trisul emblem, of questionable significance, in his left hand. 
On the reverse the same figure is repeated in a sitting attitude with 
the name of the king inscribed to the left of the figure in Nagari- 
Sanskrit characters. 

It has been a too common practice to forge counterfeits of the 
gold coins for the purpose of deceiving collectors. 

The most ancient coins represented in the collection are rectan- 
gular pieces of silver with or without figures of animals punched 
upon them, called Eldlings, which have been found during the 
excavation of the ruined cities. 



( 16 ) 

Among the rarer Sinhalese djmastic coins may be mentioned 
the Lion Coin and the Setu Bull Coin, examples of both of 
which are exhibited. To these may be added the very rare gold 
Lankeswara coin of Vijaya Bahu, lent by P. E. Pieris, Esq., 
CCS. 

Among the foreign coins may be noted the Roman and Arabian 
coins, Venetian gold sequins, Portuguese silver tangas or tangams, 
and gold San Thome coin, the Dutch dukatoons and silver and 
copper stuivers, and challies minted by various States in the Dutch 
Confederation. Some of the Dutch copper coins were actually 
minted in Ceylon, at Colombo, Galle, and Trincomalee. These 
are marked with the letters C, G, and T, respectively. 

The establishment of the Dutch United East India Company 
(Ostindische Vereenigde Compagnie, indicated on the coins by 
the monogram 8^) on the Island of Ceylon dates from the year 
1655 and lasted until 1802, when the Island was formally ceded to 
the British (who had occupied it in 1796) by the Treaty of 
Amiens. 

The copper ingots issued by the Dutch, of the value of 4| 
stuivers, are a singular form of money. 

The general name applied to the ancient Sinhalese coins is 
" massa." They appear to date only from the year 1153 A.D. to 
1296 A.D. 

The common copper coins of the Dutch of small value were 
called challies, a corruption of the Sinhalese word "salliya" 
(plural " salli "), meaning money or cash in general. The smallest 
coin now in use, value half a cent, is still called "tamba-salliya," 
"tamba" meaning copper. The proper coins of the Sinhalese 
King during the famous captivity of Robert Knox (1659-1679) 
were fanams of the size of a spangle. 

Another interesting form of money is aflEorded by the Larins 
or Flsll-hook iiiouey. These are said to have originated at a place 
called Lari or Laristan on the Persian Gulf. They were formerly 
made in the Maldive Islands, and were also in use in Ceylon in 
Knox's time, anybody being allowed to make them. Portuguese 
copper tangams were also current. 

Further information on the ancient coins of Ceylon is contained 
in the well-known memoir by Professor T. W. Rhys Davids " On 
the Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon," published in 1877 in 
the International Numismata Orientalia (London, Triibner & 
Co.). 

The ancient beads, coins, and dice discovered at Anuradhapura, 
Mihintale, and elsewhere have been described and figured by 
Mr. H. C. P. Bell, C.C.S., the Archaeological Commissioner, in his 



( 17 ) 

Fourth Progress Report on the excavations at Anuradhapura and 
the North-Central Province (Sessional Papers, 1892). 

In the large glass shade over this case are shown numerous 
ancient images, mostly sedent figures of Buddha, including eight 
thin gold images of Buddha, filled with clay, from Panduwas 
Nuwara, and above these a similar gold figure from Tissamaharama 
and gold and crystal dagabas from Anuradhapura. At each end 
of the cover inside there is a bronze Buddha on a throne backed 
by a well executed arch called " makara torana." These are 
called "Enthroned Buddhas." There are also figures of Krishna 
playing with a ball, and of the goddess Pattini, the latter from 
Trincomalee. On the top of the case there is a large sedent 
bronze Buddha of unique design in the attitude of teaching, 
holding a flower (?) in the left hand. This was discovered twelve 
miles from Badulla along the new road to Batticaloa, and was 
presented by G. F. K. Horsfall, Esq., in 3876. On either side of 
this image there are two common village coloured wood-carvings, 
one representing a large cobra, the other Buddha seated upon the 
folds of a cobra and protected by its expanded hood. The latter 
is called a " Serpent-canopied Buddha." 

TABLE CASE XIX. 

A selection of silverware occupies the two halves of this case, 
and in the glass shade above there is a set of Tamil silver bangles, 
anklets, and toe rings. 

Besides some richly damascened Kandyan knives, embossed 
silver tobacco boxes, and Dutch relic in the form of a silver plate 
presented by a former Dutch Governor of Ceylon to the person 
named in the inscription, the principal object in the case is a pair 
of handsome silver ola covers with bejewelled button. They 
consist of bars of wood painted with dagaba devices on the under 
side and overlaid with sheets of beaten silver. 

TABLE CASE XX. 

ExaiiipJes of Clietty, Tamil, Sinhalese, and Moorish .Jewellery.— 

The large gold ornaments are represented here by silver-gilt 
replicas. " Chetty" or "Chitty" is the name applied in India to 
all members of the trading castes in the Madras Provinces. The 
Colombo Chetties, a caste from Tinnevelly, emigrated to Ceylon 
about the middle of the sixteenth century. Their language and 
customs are Tamil. 

From an ethnographical point of view among the most interesting 
objects in this case are the Sinhalese "nawaratna" rings set with 
the nine principal gems, or as near an approximation as is possible 
or can be afforded. The nine gems stand for the nine planets 
(including sun and moon), and the ring is worn as a corrective 

D 105-04 



( 1« ) 

for horoscopic purposes ; for example, it is worn by a person born 
under an unfavourable star, and its constant usage is supposed to 
avert disasters. 

STONE GALLERY. 

Many remarkable remains of fallen greatness, illustrating the 
stupendous grandeur of the ancient religious monuments of 
Ceylon during the palmy days of militant Buddhism, are exhibited 
in this gallery. The statues, pillars, friezes, and slabs are carved 
out of gneiss, the country rock of Ceylon, some of them, however, 
consisting almost entirely of crystalline limestone. 

Among the more notable pieces are the three principal archaeo- 
logical treasures of the Colombo Museum mounted in position along 
the centre of the room. Facing the south window at the front end 
of the gallery is a perforated carved slab, 4 feet 8 inches high, 
2 feet 10 inches wide, and 7 inches thick, known as the Yapahil 
window, from Yapahu or Yapahuwa, a village in the North-Western 
Province, about twenty miles north of Kurunegala. It consists 
of a single block of gneiss cut into the semblance of a frame, which 
surrounds a composite hieroglyph consisting of forty-five circles 
in five vertical rows joined together in a moniliform pattern, each 
circle containing an emblematic figure repeated on both sides of 
the stone. The matrix of the slab between the carved portions 
was removed by the artist who designed and executed this unique 
triumph of stone tracery. In the 13th and 14th centuries there 
was a royal palace at Yapahu, and the hall of the palace was 
lighted by two of these tracery windows of exquisite workmanship. 
We are told by Mr. F. H. Modder that one of these windows " was 
perfect in 1850, but the other had fallen and its fragments were 
scattered around. The remaining one would doubtless have soon 
shared its fate had not Mr. O'Grady, then Government Agent of 

the North-Western Province, removed it to Kurunegala 

Thence it was transported to Colombo, and now occupies u 
prominent place among the archuiological exhibits at the Museum." 
The human figures in the lowest circles represent grotesque 
manikins, above these are nautch girls, then animals, some of which 
are provided with a trunk and appear to represent the fabulous 
"gaja-sinha" or elephant-lion. The star-shaped radiating emblems 
are the " dharma-chakra " symbols, the wheel or circle of the laws 
and teaching of Buddha. The birds in the top row are the 
" hansa " or sacred birds, usually represented by geese, sometimes 
by conventional representations of birds.* 

* For further remarks quoted from an article by Mr. John Bailey, C.C.S., who 
explored the ruins in 1850, see the paper by Mr. F. H. Modder on " Ancient Cities 
and Temples in the Kurunegala District : Yapahuwa." Journ. Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc. 
vol. XITL, 189», pp. 97-113. 




THK YAPAHU .STONE WINDOW. 



[To /iicf ptwf 18. 



( 19 ) 

The next megalith which claims attention is the colossal figure 
of a lion called the Lion of Poloiinaruwa. This relic of the past 
• is exceptionally valuable and interesting, because there is a 
Sinhalese inscription on each side near the base giving the date and 
purport of the monument. Upon it was placed the throne of 
King Nissanka Malla, a Chakrawarti or Emperor of Kalinga lineage, 
who wastheLankeswaraor Overlord of Lanka (Ceylon) during the 
years 1187-1196 a.d. 

The lion formerly stood in the Council or Audience Hall of the 
King at Polonnaruwa, whence it was removed to the Colombo 
Museum about thirty years ago. The ancient name of the city was 
Pulastipura, the modern name is Topawewa, meaning the tank 
where the ruined topes or stupas are. It is, however, commonly 
known as Polonnaruwa. an Elu term of doubtful derivation 
adopted by Sir Emerson Tennent {Ceylon, vol. II., 1817). The 
ruins were re-discovered in 1820, and all that remained of the 
Audience Hall where the inscriptions were found were " 48 large 
stone pillars with carved capitals supported on a' stone platform, 
round the base of which are sculptured a row of lions." The 
great lion-throne " was lying almost entirely buried at some distance 
from the Hall, and was set up with great difficulty ; it had probably 
been thrown out of the Hall by the Tamils when they took 
Pulastipura, and may formerly have stood between the inscribed 
pillars."* 

The inscription ou the left side of the lion is terminated by the 
figure of a fish, a symbol of good omen. 

The adventures of the lion during its transport from Polonnaruwa 
to Colombo are recounted by Sir William Gregory {Autobiography, 
second edit., 1894, p. 343), who was at that time (1872-1877) 
Governor of Ceylon: " Every mishap attended the transfer of this 
huge stone beast. Its first dray fell to pieces beneath its weight. 
On descending from the elevated ground where it stood the two 
elephants attached to it pulled over-vigorously, and the dray and 
the lion and the elephants flew apart in different directions. It 
had then to be drawn over a difficult jungle path a distance of 
fifteen miles from the main road ; but the elephants had now 
learned their business, and these obstacles were surmounted. But 



* A facsimile of tTie inscription on the left of the lion, with translation, is 
given by Professor T. W. Rhys Davids in his paper on " Inscriptions at the 
Audience Hall of Parakrama Bahu, Pulastipura, Ceylon," in the Indian Anti- 
quary, vol. II., 1873, pp. 240-249. Pulastipura was the capital of Ceylon from the 
end of the eighth to the beginning of the fourteenth century. Previously 
Anuradhapura had been the capital for over a thousand years. 

Pulastipura enjoyed its period of greatest magnificence during the long reign 
of Parakrama Bahu I., surnamed the Great, in the latter half of the twelfth 
century, preceding the reign of Nissanka Malla. 



( 20 ) 

when it reached the high road the worst of all remained. The 
wooden bridges, constructed to sustain a moderate load, were quite 
unable to bear the combined weight of the lion and the dray, and 
the banks were precipitous and deep. But this, too, was overcome 
by digging out a sloping passage to the bed of the river and another 
on the opposite side. The elephants with their immense strength 
and sagacity sustained the strain of letting down the lion, and 
easily drew it up again. Much of this took place in the solitary 
jungle, but when the inhabited regions were approached, the whole 

country turned out in amazement 

"The procession of elephants, the lion decked with wreaths 
and flowers, was a magnificent sight. The tom-tom mer from each 
village joined the cortege. The headman of the district asked 
permission for his little boy to ride the monster into Matale, 
whence he was to be conveyed by rail to Colombo. The lion now 
stands calmly in the Museum, and few know, or could understand 
if told, all the cares it caused and the excitement it created. It 
is a most valuable archaeological record, and would have been 
undoubtedly destroyed ere this had it not been removed." 

The risk of destruction referred to by Sir William Gregory in 
the foregoing quotation is demonstrated by the fracture on the left 
side of the head, which is said to have been perpetrated by enter- 
prising burglars ignorant of the solid nature of dynastic art who 
hoped to find treasure hidden within the penetralia of the body. 
From the base of the forefoot to the crown of the head the lion 
stands six feet. 

The third object of distinction is an elaborately carved pillar 
which has been recently set up behind the great lion. This is 
called the 9Ie(la»'oda Pillar, and formerly stood in the Pattini 
Dewale at Medagoda, six miles below Ruanwella, in the Province 
of Sabaragamuwa,not far from Yatiyantota. An excellent drawing 
of this pillar, accompanied by a lucid description quoted below, is 
contained in the " Report on the Kegalla District of the Province 
of Sabaragamuwa," by H. C.P. Bell, Esq., C.C.S., Archaeological 
Commissioner (Sessional Papers, 1892, p. 58) : " The monolith 
must originally have been squared to 1 ft. 2 in., the size it assumes 
across the lion's breast, lotus bosses, and capital fillet. Rising 
octagonally from the back of a broad-faced couchant lion of con- 
ventional type, with frilled mane and raised tail, the shaft slides 
gradually into the rectangular by a semi-expanded calyx mould- 
ing. Half way up relief is given by a bordered fillet 2 in. in 
breadth, slightly projecting, carved with a single flower pattern 
repeated round the pillar. From the fillet depend on each face 
twoconcentric pearl-bead strings. Afew inches above this 




STATUK OK 1>AKAKHA.MA 15AHU AT I'OLONXAKUWA. 



I'd fnc" pmii' 'Z\.] 



( 21 ) 

band stand out from alternate faces full-blown lotus] knops, 5 in. 
in circumference, with ornamentation resembling much the Tudor 
flower upon the intervening sides. Where the pillar becomes 
square there are further loops of pearls, four on each side. A 
lower capital of ogee moulding, separated by narrow horizontal 
fillets, and finished with ovolos and a rectangular band, is sur- 
mounted by a four-faced makara and a low abacus. Fcom the 
centre of the roundlet moulding on all four sides drops the 
garlanded chakra symbol." 

Other noteworthy stone carvings in this gallery are the .Janitoi" 
Stones from Hanguranketa presented by 0. H. de Soy sa. Esq ., placed 
before and behind the cement base upon which the Yapahu 
window now stands ; a mystic square stone called yailtra-g'al, with 
twenty-five holes, from Anuradhapura, supposed to be a base stone 
sometimes called a yogi stone (cf. H. C. P. Bell, Seventh Report on 
Anuradhapura, Sessional Papers, 1896, p. 13) ; the Nag'a Stone from 
Anuradhapura, mounted against the east wall, portraying a large 
seven-headed cobra in high relief ; friezes from Horana ; figures 
of Ganesa, the elephant-god, from Horana, presented by Sir C. P. 
Layard ; marble statue of Buddha from Tissamaharama, presented 
by Sir C. P. Layard ; friezes and capitals from Anuradhapura ; 
statue of Buddha in spongy gneiss from Ambagamuwa, presented 
by Hon. Mr. R. B. Downall (against the west wall) ; cast of the 
gigantic statue of Parakrama Bahu the Great at Polonnaruwa ; cast 
of a remarkable Processional Moonstone from Anuradhapura 
(below the south window). The moonstones, perhaps so called in 
consequence of their semilunar shape, are employed as steps leading 
into the porticos of the temples. They are often of fine design 
and execution, and are characteristic of Sinhalese Buddhist 
architecture. In the cast exhibited here there is a central lotus 
flower surrounded by concentric processions of hansas and other 
animals. In front of the stone lion there is another simple 
Lotus Moonstone from Hanguranketa, presented in 1878 by 
C. H. de Soysa, Esq. 

Attention may now be directed to the four wall cases in this 
room, three of which contain ethnographical models, and the 
fourth a valuable collection of ancient bronzes. 

CASE XXI. 
Models of a Kandyan Chief or Ratemahatmaya and of a Buddhist 
priest with begging bowl ; a temple tapestry hangs at the back of 
the case. 

CASE XXII. 

A Low-country Chief or Mudaliyar and a Sinhalese bride. 



( 22 ) 

CASE XXIII. 

A man and woman of the Veddas, the aboriginal hunting caste or 
hill tribe of Ceylon. The bark-cloth bag hanging against the side 
of the case is made from the bark of the upara tree, Antiaris 
toxicaria,cdX\ed. "riti" in Sinhalese, "metavil" in Tamil, belonging 
to the same natural order (Urticaceae) as the Bread-fruit and Jak- 
fruit trees. 

The Veddas used to be an interesting race of forest haunting 
nomads, but they are rapidly falling victims to civilization, 
exchanging their ancient skill as bowmen and woodmen for a more 
sordid if less precarious existence dwindling towards extinction. 

They are chiefly to be found in the Province of Uva, but it is 
possible to tramp through the Province from top to bottom 
without seeing a sign of a Vedda. Occasionally persons are 
paraded as Veddas, but when seen away from their natural 
environment the effect must be pitiful rather than picturesque. 

All the models were executed by a local modeller, Mr. R. G. 

Andriesz. 

CASE XXIV. 

Ancient Bronzes. — On the top shelf a three-branched candela- 
brnni from Munisseram, presented by Hon. Mr. F. R. Saunders ; 
below this a pair of gold-plated bronze curtain frames from Kotte 
near Colombo, lent by P. E. Pieris, Esq., CCS. ; numerous minia- 
ture bronze figures of gods and animals from Dondra Head ; bronze 
lamps from Munisseram. On the bottom shelf the central object is 
a large bronze Kothali or drinking goblet, with spout fashioned 
after the manner of an elephant's head and trunk, from Ratnapura, 
lent by P. E. Pieris, Esq. ; also an ancient bronze tripod from Kuru- 
negala ; bronze hiinsas or sacred birds from Munisseram : a heavy 
bronze Contemplation Box with thirty compartments, some of 
which contain a few coins and other offerings, presented by the 
Royal Asiatic Society. 

SOUTH VERANDAH. 

Passing through the doorway at the side of the Bronze Case on 
to the South Verandah, a Portugese cannon dredged up in the 
Colombo Harbour in 1888 is an important relic of the Portuguese 
occupation of the country. Here is also exhibited a polished pillar 
of Ceylon gneiss from the Mahara quarries employed in the con- 
struction of the Colombo Breakwater, presented by John Kyle, Esq. 

Returning through the Stone Gallery to the 

WEST VERANDAH 

a number of inscribed stones will be found, together with two 
or three Dutch and Portuguese tombstones. The work of collect- 
ing and collating the numerous ancient inscriptions scattered over 



mys 



c^f 




I'KTIGAMMANA I'lM.AK. 



7Vi /iici! /)i"lr "JIl.J 



( 23 ) 

the Island was properly organized during the Governorship of 
Sir William Gregory, when Dr. P. Goldschmidt was appointed 
Archaaological Commissioner to the Government of Ceylon in 
1874. His reports were published as Sessional Papers from 1875 
until his death in 1877. Dr. Goldschmidt was followed by Dr. 
Edward Mtlller, who compiled a valuable manual on " xlncient 
Inscriptions in Ceylon " (London, 1883), illustrated by a separate 
quarto book of plates. Dr. Mtiller left Ceylon in 1881, and was 
succeeded, after an interval, as Archseological Commissioner by 
Mr. H. C. P. Bell, C.C.S., under whose direction the work of 
excavation, discovery, and transcription has been continued from 
1890 to the present time. 

The great slabs placed against the back wall of the verandah are 
of interest on account of their antiquity and the characters 
employed. The first one, propped up lengthwise on the ground, 
is the oldest inscription that has been discovered at Anuradha- 
pura, from the Ruanweli Dagaba.* It relates to the restoration 
of certain temples during the reign of King Gaja Bahu (113-125 
A.D.). 

The upright slab next to the Ruanweli Slab is known as the 
Tissamaliarama Slab, from Tissamaharama near Hambantota in 
the Southern Province. It is almost completely preserved, and 
according to Dr. Milller " is the finest specimen we have of an 
inscription of the fourth century A.D."t 

Adjoining this slab is a narrow flattened stone with an inscrip- 
tion on both faces. The inscription is headed on the obverse 
side by a symbol of the sun and on the reverse by a crescent 
representing the moon, the sun and moon being the usual royal 
signs. It is a grant of land to a temple, and concludes (on the 
reverse side) with a life-size figure of a crow in sunk relief. This 
is the Petigammaiia Pillar found half buried in a garden within 
a few miles of Gampola.J 

Many of these inscribed pillars dating from the tenth century 
bear, at the top, engravings of the sun and moon as symbols of 
royalty [Rhys Davids] or eternity and, at the bottom, the dog and 
crow as symbols of instability [Mtiller] or meanness; anyone 
violating the property of the priesthood renders himself liable to 
the penalty of being re-born in the low condition of one of these 
animals [Goldschmidt]. The translation of the Petigammana 
inscription, according to Mr. Bell, ends with the usual curse: 
"Anyone who disputes this [grant will be born] a crow." 

* Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 5, p. 27, and Plate 5. 

t Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 67, p. 43. and Plate 67. 

X H. C. P. Bell. Report on the Kegalla District, 1892, p. 79. with plate. 



( 24 ) 

Tn the middle of the outer side of the verandah there is a large 
slab, the Doudra Slab,* recording the grant of land to the Temple 
of Vishnu at Dondra Head in the fourteenth century. This slab 
and the Dondra Pillart at the front outer corner of the verandah 
are of particular interest on account of their association with Dondra 
Head near Matara in the Southern Province, the most southerly 
point of Ceylon. " Like Cape Comorin on the Continent of India," 
says Professor Rhys Davids (Indian xintiquary, I., 1872, p. 329), 
" Dondra Head has always been a place of pilgrimage, and seems 
to have derived its sanctity from its being the extreme southerly 
point of land, where the known and firm earth ceases, and man 
looks out upon the ocean — the ever-moving, the impassable, the 
infinite." 

Opposite to the Dondra Slab is the Jtlaliakalattewa Pillar, from 
the bund of a tank of that name six miles from Anuradhapura on 
the road to Galkulam. It is remarkable for its perfect preser- 
vation, not a single letter missing ; the inscription is on all four 
sides.J 

Occasionally other symbols besides those mentioned above are 
engraved upon the pillars, such as a cobra and a priest's fan. The 
latter occurs, for example, on the Roiig'OUewa Pillai'§ (placed near 
to the Dondra Slab). 

The stone slab bearing the Royal Arms of Portugal was found 
at Menikkadawara in the Kegalla District by Mr. H. C. P. Bell 
(Kegalla Report, 1892, p. 31, and plate). 

Leaving now the West Verandah one crosses the Stone Gallery 
to the 

NORTH VERANDAH 

at the back of the Museum, where more tombstones, capitals, 
inscriptions, &c., will be met with. Here may be noted quaint 
Portuguese tombstones! ; a couple of Maldivian tombstones 
characteristically carved in coralline limestone ; a " dressed stone " 
with a Tamil inscription of the fifteenth century from the Kota- 
gama vihare, found by Mr. Bell, who remarks upon the singularity 
of discovering a Tamil inscription in the heart of a Sinhalese 
district; this is called the Kota^ailia Tamil Slab1[ ; another stone 

* Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 163, p. 71. First translated by Rhys Davids. Journ. 
Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc, vol. V., 1370-1871, p. 25. 

+ Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 159, p. 69. Rhys Davids, hw. cit., 1872, p. 57. 

I Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 110, p. 55, with plates 110 A -HOD. 

§ Miiller's Inscriptions, No. 112, p. 55. Kongollewa lies about two miles north 
of Madawachchi in the North-Central Province. 

II A fully illustrated and historical account of these tombstones will be found 
in a paper on "Portuguese Inscriptions in Ceylon," by Mr. J. P. Lewis, C.C.S., 
to be published shortly in the Journ. Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc. 

f H. C. P. Bell. Report, Kegalla District, 1892, pp. 68 and 86, with figure on 
plate facintf p. 72. 




EHUNUGALLA SLAB. 

( I'linlograph hv //. C. /'. Br! I, Esq.) 



[Tv fitce page 2-1. 





".am ' 



Md 






O't'.l 




WOUOEN UOUl! ANJ) JA.MU FltO.M I)I;VANA(;A l.A VlllAKK. 
I /'/iu/o(jrtij//is by //. C. /'. /ii'll, Esq.) 



To /Me page 26.] 



( 25 ) 

slab in a corner of the verandah bearing a short Sinhalese inscrip- 
tion with representations of sun (an orb) and the moon (a crescent) 
is called the Ehunug'alla Slab* ; it records a benefaction to a 
monastery. Close to this stone is an ancient carved wooden door 
from Dewanagala in the Kegaila District. The solid wings of this 
door and the left jamb of its frame were found among the lumber 
underneath the vihare. There are ten plain panels enclosed by 
framework in high relief carved in a foliage scroll. The carving 
of the jamb is described as follows : " Between an outer beading 
and inner splayed edige of lotus petals runs a long narrow panel 
with gracefully intertwined double scroll of creeper, separating 
four figures all different from each other. A space half moulded, 
half panelled, in flower design, intervenes between it and the base 
panel, in which is placed beside a tree an elephant with head and 
right forefoot raised and curled trunk."t 

The door, which was presented by F. H. Price, Esq., in 1890, was 
reconstructed at the Colombo Museum. The cross beam on the 
top with the drooping lotus capitals was brought from the Pinna- 
wala Vihare. J 

Next to the wooden door are two carved wooden pillars mounted 
as door posts. They belonged to a set of seven balcony pillars 
found under the eaves of the porch of the Kumbukgama Vihare. § 

Opposite to the wooden door are casts of two Peacock Pillars 
from Anuradhapura. At the other end of the verandah there is 
a large wooden rice trough or paddy pounder, in which the paddy 
which has previously been trodden out of the corn by bullocks is 
beaten and husked. Next to this is an old carved rice mortar from 
Ratnapura, like those in constant use at the present day, in which 
the rice is pounded into flour. 

BUDDHA SHED. 

In the palm-thatched shed in the grounds behind the Museum 
further important stone antiquities are exhibited. Chief among 
these is the large sedent Buddha found by Mr. Bell in the 
jungle near the Nuwarawewa tank at Anuradhapura.|| "This 
Buddha," wrote Mr. Bell in 1890, " is admittedly the finest yet 
brought to light at Anuradhapura. The wonderful sharpness 

* H. C. P. Bell. Report, Kegaila District, 1892, p. 76, with figure on plate 
facing p. 72. 

t Id., p. 49. 

X H. C. P. Bell, uj} cit., p. 38. 

§ Id., p. 22, with figure on plate. 

II H. C. P. Bell. First Report on Archaeological Survey of Anuradhapura. 
Sessional Papers, 1890, p. i [742]. It is known as the Toluwila Buddiiu, from 
the hamlet of Toluwila. which adjoina the Nuwarawewa buud at the spot where 
the otatue was found, 

E 10J-U4 



( 2(5 ) 

and depth of the features, the softness of expression, the symmetry 
and repose of the body give the image a tout ensemble which 
contrasts markedly with the stolid ' figure-head ' appearance so 
characteristic of these Buddhas in stone." 

In front of the Buddha there is a large moonstone of unique 
and admirable design, embossed with wreaths, festoons, and 
garlands, a pair of fabulous creatures (makaras) at the sides, and 
a pair of two-fold representations of the Sri-jmtula or sacred 
footprints near the base. This is called the Floral ItlooilStoiie of 
Hangnranketa, and was presented to the Museum in 1894 by 
Lady De Soysa. 

The representations of the footprint of Buddha, called Sri- 
patula, or Sri-pada, of which there are several in this shed carved 
in stone, are of considerable interest. The best of them is that 
which is known as the Koddaikeni Stone, a double Sri-pada (like 
the rest) covered with symbols. The signs on the toes are called 
swastika^ the radiant emblem in the centre is the dharma-chakra, 
in front of which are a couple of flags, at the side a fish-hook 
behind a flower vase, a conch shell, a fan, a pair of fishes repre- 
senting Pisces, one of the signs of the zodiac ; a complicated cryptic 
emblem occupies the centre of the heel, and on one side of this 
opposite to the fishes are the trisul emblems. The exact interpre- 
tation of the symbolism of this stone has not yet been attempted.* 

Another curious relic is the limestone image representing 
a man standing in the jaws of a monster, sent by Mr. C.A.Murray 
from Tissamaharama in 1892. The moonstone and carved steps, 
with janitors and terminals, which have been arranged at the 
entrance to the shed, arrived here from Anuradhapura in the 
years 1882 and 1884.t 

The stone discs placed round the convex side of the large 
Hangnranketa moonstone are described as mural Ol'liailieilts 
from Anuradhapura. 

SIGIRIYA FRESCOES. 

On the walls flanking the main staircase will be found copies 
of the celebrated frescoes discovered in a cave or pocket of the 
ancient rock fortress of Sigiriya near DambuUa. Sigiriya, the 
lion rock, rises abruptly from the plains of the North-Central 
Province to a height of about four hundred feet, with an area of 
little more than an acre at the summit. It is said to have been 
fortified by the Sinhalese parricide King Kasyapa, who ascended 
the throne 47;') a.D. and fled to the rock after having immured his 

* Cf. Memorandum by Messrs. J. P. Lewis and G. M. Fowler, with plate, in 
.Tourn. Ceylon R. Asiat. Soc, vol. XI., 1889-1890. Proceedings, pp. Ixii, Ixiii. 
t ty. Administration Reports of the Museum for 1882 (p. 110 D) and 1884(p.l8 D). 



( 27 ) 

father King Dhatu Sen, whose capital was Anuradhapura. Kasyapa 
made Sigiriya his capital, and took refuge there for eighteen years. 
On the western face of the rock chambers have been scooped 
out, and in one of these, 160 feet from the ground, protected from 
sun and rain, ancient frescoes were painted upon stucco plastered 
upon the smooth surface, and still remain in an excellent state 
of preservation. The ancient approaches to the summit and to 
the chambers having fallen into decay, the rock once more 
became nearly inaccessible and, according to local tradition, the 
haunt of "yakku" ordemons. It was however tackled by more than 
one adventurous climber during the latter half of last century, 
and in June, 1889, Mr. Alex. Murray of the Public Works Depart- 
ment succeeded in reaching the pocket containing the frescoes 




and in making the tracings of them, which he coloured as nearly as 
possible like the originals. He has left it upon record that the work 
of copying took him from sunrise to sunset every day for a week 
lying at full length on his back. A Buddhist priest who visited 
the chamber gave it as his opinion that the pictures must be the 
portraits of some of King Kasyapa's queens. The portraits are 
arranged singly and in couples, the latter representing a maid 
offering the sacred lotus on a tray to her mistress. 

During the last ten years excavations have been carried on at 
Sigiriya under the direction of the Archaeological Commissioner, 
and fresh copies of the frescoes have been made under his super- 
vision in oil colours, but these have not yet been exhibited in the 
Museum. 



( 28 ) 



PART II. 
ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS. 

In the grounds at the back of the Museum a few live animalh 
indigenous in Ceylon are placed on exhibition in temporary 
shelters. The mammals include a leopard, bears, a tiger cat (Felis 
ulmrrina), a jackal, palm or toddy cats, civet cats, porcupines, a 
bandicoot rat, mouse deer, hog deer, &c. The birds are represented 
by a pelican ibis presented by Her Excellency Lady Blake, a 
pelican, purple herons, Malay bitterns, India koels, Brahminy kites, 
scops owl, and an Alexandrine paroquet. A young rufous-bellied 
hawk-eagle has been loaned by His Excellency the Governor 
(Sir Henry Blake, G.C.M.G., F.Z.S.). A small tank contains some 
monitors or water lizards, called ""kabaragoya" in Sinhalese, and 
in a small cage there is a chameleon from Chilaw, 

On the other side of the block of buildings in which the Mineral 
Gallery is situated (see plan) there are two sheds containing 
respectively, the skeleton of a sperm whale or cachalot (Phi/sele/- 
tnacrocejjJialus) and of the whalebone whale (Balcenoj^tera mdica). 
The carcases of whales are stranded from time to time on the shores 
of Ceylon. Some of them seem to have met their death at the 
hands of whalers and to have drifted by gale and current to 
Ceylon. A whalebone whale was washed ashore in Weligam Bay 
in August, 1884, such bones as were recovered being placed on the 
front verandah of the Natural History Gallery upstairs ; another 
carcase drifted ashore at Ambalangoda in September, 1894 ; the 
almost complete skeleton was brought to the Museum, and is the 
one DOW lying in the large cadjan shed ; it measured 65 feet in 
length. This species of whales has the distinction of being the 
largest of all known animals, living or extinct. 

A spermaceti whale or cachalot stranded on the south coast of 
Mannar in September, 1889 ; its remains are now exhibited in the 
smaller shed, with the exception of the lower jaw, which dropped 
into the sea while the work of salvage was proceeding and was 
lost. Another carcase arrived at Athuruwila near Bentota in June, 
1904, in a high state of decomposition ; the lower jaw, which alone 
carries the functional teeth, was missing. In November, 1904, 
another decomposed sperm whale minus the lower jaw was 
stranded at Mount Lavinia. The teeth of the upper jaw of the 
sperm whale are vestigial structures imbedded in the gum. 

At the foot of the main staircase leading to the upper floor of 
the Museum there may be seen a small glass case containing 





UKOUI' OF SA.Mi5Ui; i^Ci-rrux iiuuvlor) ASU \vil,l) lioAR (^Sux cri-yfatKs'). 



[ 7o fact- jxiye m. 



( 29 ) 

living insects, leaf insects of the genus Phytlium, remarkubie for 
their general resemblance to the leaves of the guava, on which 
they are fed. The males are smaller than the females, less 
numerous, and carry two long feelers or antennae, held backwards, 
nearly as long as the body. The females lay their eggs, which 
resemble seeds, freely, and the young hatch out without difficulty- 

The Natural History Collection comprises representatives of the 
tishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals, insects, Crustacea, and 
moUusca occurring within the zoological province of Ceylon. 

The centre of the gallery is occupied by a Jimg'le scene 
containing sambur deer, commonly known as elk, a wild boar, 
a crocodile, peacock, and several smaller birds. Most of the 
specimens were obtained fi-om the Hambantota District in the 
Southern Province, where all of the species are to be found. 

Opposite to this group, over the head of the staircase, is a group 
of spotted deer, leopard, and monkeys, the material for which was 
also obtained from the same locality. The monkeys on the 
tree overhead belong to the common low-country species of the 
Maritime Provinces, Semnopithecus priamus. 

BIRDS. 

The birds of Ceylon comprise large numbers of migl'atory 
species, which visit the Island during the north-east monsoon, but 
do not breed here ; the chief bird of this kind is the Flamingo. 
Then there are numerous resident species, which are indigenous to 
Ceylon, but occur also in the Indian Peninsula and elsewhere ; the 
chief bird of this kind is the Peafowl. There are no fewer than 
forty -nine endemic species, which are peculiar to Ceylon, not being 
found beyond the confines of the Island; the chief bird of this kind 
is the Ceylon .Jungle-fowl. Lastly, there are a few occasional 
visitors, which do not come regularly, putting ashore here through 
stress of weather ; the chief bird of this kind is the Frigate-bird. 

BIRD CASE I. 
Turning to the left (east) from the staircase the first bird case, 
beginning from the top shelf in front, contains representatives of 
the Frogmouths (Podargidse) ; the Trogons (Trogonidae) ; the 
Cuckoos, Koels, Malkohas, and Coucals (Cuculidse) ; Paroquets and 
Loriquets (Psittacida?) ; Owls (Strigidae). The Ceylonese Frog- 
mouth {Batrachostomus moniliger), which also occurs in Travan- 
core, is a remarkable bird on account of the oddness of its gape, 
ciiriously resembling the mouth of a frog. Of the cuckoos, the 
genus Surniculus, represented by the species S. lugubris, the 
Dropgo Cuckoo, is remarkable for its extraordinary resemblance 
to a Drongo or King Crow (Dicrurus). It is said to lay its eggs 



( 30 ) 

in the nests of King Crows, and the latter have been actually 
observed in the act of feeding a young Surniculus* This there- 
fore appears to be an example of natural mimicry. 

The Red-faced Malkoha (Phcsnicopfiaes pyrfhoce2)halus) is pecu- 
liar to Ceylon,t as is also the Ceylonese Coucal (Cenfropus 
chlororhi/nchiis). Both of these species inhabit dense and damp 
forests. The Common Coucal or Crow-pheasant (Gentropiis 
sinens/s) is known locally as the Jungle Crow. It is a familiar 
bird in the low-country jungles and in the vicinity of villages, its 
chestnut-coloured wings offering a handsome contrast to the glossy 
black body. It is a ground-feeding bird, eating insects, lizards, 
and small snakes. 

The Indian Koel (Eudynamis honorata) is another familiar 
Indo-Ceylonese bird. In the breeding season, from March till 
July, its cry of ku-il ku-il, increasing in intensity and ascending 
in the scale, is to be heard in almost every grove [Blanford, Lc, 
p. 229]. In Ceylon it is known to Europeans as the Brain- fever 
bird, on account of the persistency of its cry. It feeds on fruit, 
and, like the cuckoos, is parasitic in its nesting habits, laying its 
eggs in May and June in the nests of crows, generally the Indian 
or Gray Crow {Oorvus splendens), less frequently in those of the 
Black Crow (Corvus macrorliynchus). The crows bring up the 
koels, which at times eject the young crows from the nest after 
they have been hatched [Blanford]. The male is black through- 
out ; the female is spotted with white. 

The principal parrot of Ceylon is sometimes called the Alexan- 
drine Paroquet {Palceornis eupatria), coloured green, with (in the 
male) a broad rose-pink collar round the nape. The little Ceylonese 
Loriquet {Loriculus indicus) is peculiar to Ceylon. The parrot 
Avhich is commonly used as a cage bird by the natives of Ceylon 
is the Rose-ringed Paroquet {Palceornis torquatus). 

Of the owls which are shown in the bottom shelf, the Ceylon 
Bay Owl (Photodilus assimilis), peculiar to Ceylon, is to be noted 
on account of its rarity, being found only in the hills round 
Kandy. The Demon bird, or "Ulama" of Ceylon, so-called on 
account of its dreadful moaning hoot, is commonly identified with 
Huhua nepalensis (= Bubo nipalensis) and also with Syrnium 
indrani. 

In the other half of this case, commencing at the top, are shown 
the Barbets (Capitonidre), of which the Yellow-fronted Barbet 
(Gyanops flavifrons) and the pretty little Ceylon Barbet {Xantho- 
lamia ruhricapilld) are peculiar to the Island ; Indian Rollers 

* Blanford, W.T. Bird^ of India, 1895, vol. III., p. 224. 

t The distribution of the different species of birde is indicated in red upon the 
small maps placed below the specimens. 



( '^1 ) 

(Coraciadee) :* Bee-eaters (Meropidae) ; Kingfishers (Alcedinidae) ; 
Hornbillst (Bucerotidse), two species, one of which (Lophoceros 
gingalensis) is peculiar ; Hoopoes (Upupidae) ; Swifts (Cypselidae), 
one of which, the Edible-nest Swiftlet {Collocalia fuciphdga), 
builds the well-known edible nests in caves, small cups made of 
grass, moss, and feathers cemented together by inspissated saliva 
[Blanford, I.e., p. 177] ; Nightjars (Caprimulgidae), which lay their 
eggs on the ground without any nest. 

BIRD CASE II. 

The second case alongside the first contains some of the Doves 
and Pigeons (Columbidse), including Turtur risorkis, the Ring- 
dove, and Colwnba intermedia, the Indian Rock Pigeon, from 
which all the breeds of domestic pigeons peculiar to India are 
derived. The Galline or true game birds of Ceylon belong to the 
Pheasant family (Phasianidai). First in order and importance 
comes the Peafowl, referred to and exhibited elsewhere ; then 
the endemic Ceylon Jungle-fowl {Gallus lafai/etti), characterized 
by its peculiar call and by the yellow patch in the centre of the 
comb of the male ; the endemic Ceylon Spur-fowl {Qalloperdix 
bicalcarata), which only occurs in the southern half of the Island ; 
finally the Quails and Partridges. The Gray Partridge (Francoli- 
nus pondicerianiis) is common in India, but is only found in the 
northern half of Ceylon and in the small islands (Delft, Iranativu, 
&c.) off the Jaffna Peninsula. The Painted Partridge (F. pictus), 
unrepresented in the Museum collection, is another Indo- 
Ceylonese bird localized in Ceylon to the highlands or patanas 
between Nuwara Eliya and Badulla. 

The Three-toed Quails, represented here by two female Bustard 
Quails {Turnix pugnax), belong to a separate order, Hemipodii, 
and family, Turnicidfe. The females are larger and more highly 
coloured than the males, and " the ordinary conduct of the sexes 
during the period of incubation is reversed, for the male alone 
sits on the eggs and tends the young brood, whilst the females 
wander about, uttering a purring call that serves as a challenge, 
and fight each other" [Blanford, Faun. Ind. Birds, vol. IV., p. LW]. 

Of the Rails, Crakes, Moorhens, and Watercocks (Rallidae), 
Baillon's Crake {Porzana pusilla) is to be noted for its rarity in 
Ceylon ; the Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) ranges from Great 

* The Indian Roller QC'oracias indica) is common at Jaffna, Anuraclhapura, &c,, 
and is known to Europeans as the Low-country Jay, but it is a Picarian bird 
related to the Bee-eaters and Kingfishers, not a Passerine bird of the Crow- 
family. It is fond of perching on telegraph wires. 

j The Hornbills of the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Papuan regions are the 
representatives of the Toucans (Rhamphastidaj) of South America, and are 
sometimes popularly confounded with the latter. 



( 32 ) 

Britain through Europe, Asia, and Africa, and occurs in the tanks 
of Ceylon, though rare ; finally, the Purple Moorhen (Porphyrio 
poliocephalns) is a handsome Indo-Ceylonese bird common in 
parts of the low-country. 

The bottom shelf in front commences the series of Limicoline 
birds, Plovers and Snipes and their allies. The Stone Curlew 
(CEdicnemus scolopax) is a north-east migrant to Ceylon, the Great 
Stone Plover (Esacus recurvirostris) is a resident shore bird ; both 
belong'to one family, the CEdicnemidae. The Crab Plover {Dromas 
ardeola), another shore bird, which also breeds in Ceylon, is the 
sole type of the family Dromadidae. 

In the reverse half of this case, commencing from the top, will 
be found Courier Plovers and Swallow Plovers, shore birds of the 
family Glareolidse ; Water Pheasants {Hydrnphasianuschiriirgus)^ 
Parridas, a common low-country bird : the Turnstone, Lapwings, 
Plovers, Oyster-catcher, Stilt,* Avocet,t Curlew, Whimbrel, 
Sandpipers, J and Stints, all shore birds and waders belonging to the 
family Charadriidae ; Woodcock {Scolopax rusticula), a rare migrant, 
and Snipes (Seolopacidae), of which the best known are the 
Pintail Snipe {Gallinago stenura), a north-east migrant common 
from September to April, and the Painted Snipe {Rostratula 
capensis), a resident of the low country, widely distributed in 
South Asia and Africa. 

Many of the shore birds, like the sea birds, gulls, and terns, have 
a very wide distribution. The circum-littoral range of the 
Turnstone {Strepsilas interpres) throughout both hemispheres is 
remarkable. The Oyster-catcher {H(emato2ms ostralegus) is con- 
fined to the Old World. The range of the Gray Plover {Squatarola 
lielvetica) is world-wide ; it breeds in the far north and is a winter 
visitor to India, Ceylon, and Burma [Blanford]. 

BIRD CASES III. AND IV. 
The next couple of bird cases contain the one a group of Acci- 
pitrine birds,§ Eagles, Hawks, Falcons, and Kestrels ; the other a 
group of Peafowl {Pavo cristatun). This latter is the principal 
game bird of Ceylon, and in fact the most stately bird in the 
Island. A frequent oi'nament in parks and gardens in Europe, it 
lives here in its native haunts. It feeds and nests upon the 
ground, but roosts in the topmost branches of trees, whence it 



* Shown in another case (see below). 

t Au occasional migrant, not in the Museum collection. 

+ The Sandpipers are well known locally by the colloquial Sinhalese name 
"siri-biri"; they are also sometimes called Snippets, because they somewhat re- 
nemble Snipes in their habits. 

§ Other Accipitrine birds, Harriers and Falcons, are shown in another case (hm 
below) . 



( 




PEAFOWL. 



['/'ii t'dce ptigr 'i'2. 



( 33 ) 

surveys the country round and is consequently difficult to 
approach. A male in perfect plumage is shown perched upon a 
tree ; a dun-coloured female and a partridge-like young are placed 
on the floor of the case. 

BIRD CASE V. 

Passing now towards the other side of the gallery the remaining 
bird cases may be inspected, commencing with the case next to 
the stairs facing the Sambur and Boar Group. Here are some 
of the Passerine birds. The order Passeres comprises about one- 
third of the entire avian fauna of Ceylon. The front half of this 
case contains Orioles (Oriolidae), represented by the brilliant 
yellow-bodied black-headed Oriolus melanocephalus ; Mynas and 
Starlings (Sturnidae), of which three are peculiar, namely, the 
Ceylon Myna, known to ornithologists as the Ceylon Grackle* 
(Eulahes ptilogenys), the common Ceylonese Myna (Acridotheres 
melanosterniis), which is used extensively as a cage bird by the 
boutique-keepers and other residents, and the White-headed Myna 
or Starling {Sturnornis senex), an inhabitant of the mountain 
forests of Ceylon; Thrushes and Black-birds (Turdidae), of which 
the Ceylon Black-bird (Merula kinnisi)^ a resident of the forests 
above 2,500 feet, the Buif-breasted Ceylon Thrush {Oreocincla 
imbricata), and the Spotted Thrush (Oreocincla spiloptera) are 
peculiar; Flycatchers (Muscicapidae), of which the Ceylonese Blue 
Flycatcher {Stoparola sordida) is endemic, while the Paradise 
Flycatcher {Terpsiphone paradisi), locally known as the Ceylon 
Bird of Paradise, is an exquisite and highly characteristic Indo- 
Ceylonese resident. The Paradise Flycatcher is not uncommon, 
though it is rarely seen about Colombo. The male bird undergoes 
remarkable changes of plumage, which are illustrated by the 
specimens exhibited. 

After the autumn moult of the second year the male has the whole head 
and crest glossy black [throat brown, breast ashy, belly white], and the whole 
upper plumage rich chestnut; the median tail feathers grow to a great length, 
and are retained till May or June, when they are cast. After the autumn 
moult of the third year the chestnut plumage is again assumed, and also the 
long median tail feathers, but the whole lower plumage from the throat down- 
wards is pure white, the breast being sharply demarcated from the black 
throat. After this moult a gradual transition to the white upper plumage 
takes place, the wings and tail being the first parts to be affected, but the 
change to a complete white plumage is not affected till the moult of the 
fourth autumn. After this moult the male bird is fully adult, and perma- 
nently retains the white plumage ; the head, neck, and crest are glossy bluish 
black ; the whole body plumage white.f 

* This species is placed by Mr. E. W. Gates (Fauna Brit. Ind,, Birds, vol. I., 
p. 513) in a separate family, the Eulabetidae. 
t Gates, E. W. Fauna Brit. Ind., Birds, vol. II., 1890, p. 46. 

P 10.5-04 



( :54 ) 

Just as tho Indo-Oeylonese Peafowl is replacod in Burma by a 
distinct species {Pavo muticus) which ranges southwards to Java, 
so the Paradise Flycatcher of India and Ceylon is represented in 
Burma by an allied species (TerpsipJione affinis). 

The robins are closely related to the flycatchers on the one hand 
and to the thrushes on the other. The Black Robin {Thamnohia 
fulicata) and the Magpie Robin (Copsi/cJtus saularis) are, next to 
the crows, the sparrows, and the babblers, tlie commonest birds 
in Colombo and throughout the Island ; the Long-tailed Robin, 
known to ornithologists by its Hindustani name " Shama," is a shy 
jungle-bird. 

In the reverse half of the case are shown Weaver birds and 
Munia Finches (Ploceidae), the Hill Munia ( Uroloncha kelaarti) 
being peculiar ; Sparrows (Fringillidse), the House Sparrow 
{Passer domesticus) ranging from Great Britain to South Asia ; 
Swallows (Hirundinidffi) ; Wagtails and Pipits (Motacillidae) : the 
Gray-headed Wagtail {Motacilla borealis) ranges all over Europe, 
Asia, and North Africa, and may be seen on the Galle Face Parade 
during the north-east season from September to May ; Larks 
( Alaudidae") ; Sun birds* (Nectariniidaj) and FJower-peckers 
(Dicseidas), the former with long bills, the latter with short bills, 
both families being distinguished from all other Passerine birds 
by the serration of both mandibles of the beak ; the Indian Pitta 
or Ground Thrush (Pittidae), a characteristic north-east migrant. 
Finally, the bottom shelf of the case contains the Woodpeckersf 
(Picidae), a very distinct family of birds well represented in 
Ceylon. The type skins of Legge's Woodpecker {Brachypternus 
intermedins) were presented by Sir W. H. Gregory. This variety 
is believed to be a hybrid between the Golden-backed Woodpecker 
{B. aurantius), and the common Red-backed Woodpecker (B, 
erythronotus)^ which is peculiar to Ceylon. Layard's Wood- 
pecker {Chrysocolaptes stricklandi) is also confined to Ceylon. 

BIRD CASE VI. 
The case adjoining the one just described, commencing from 
the top of the reverse side, contains more Passerine birds, namely, 
the Crows, Jays, and Titmice (Corvidae), the Ceylonese Jay (Gissa 
ornata), coloured chestnut and blue, being endemic. This bird is 
sometimes known as the Ceylon Magpie. It is a forest bird of 
shy habits, feeding a good deal on the ground [Gates]. 

* The Sun birds are the representatives in the Old World of the Humming birds 
of the New World, and like the latter can poise themselves on the wing while 
extracting nectar from flowers. They aro frequently seen in Colombo feeding 
upon the Hibiscus flowers. 

t The Woodpeckers are Picarian birds, not Passerine. 



( 35 ) 

The Babblers (Crateropodidaa) of Ceylon are remarkable for the 
large nuuiber of endemic species, namely, the Ceylonese Rufous 
Babbler (Grateropus rufescens), the Ashy-headed Babbler (0. 
cinereifrons), the Ceylonese Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhimis 
melanurus), the Ceylon Yellow-eyed, black-billed Babbler 
(JPyctorhis nasalis), the Brown-capped or Quaker Babbler 
{PeUorneumfuscicapillum) occurring between 5,000 and 6,000 feet 
elevation, the Ceylon Black-fronted Wren Babbler (Rhopocichta 
nigrifrons), the Ceylon Arrenga or Whistling Thrush (Arrenga 
hlighi), rare at 4,000 feet, the Ceylon Shortwing or Ant Thrush 
(Elaphrornis palliseri)^ and the Ceylon White-eye (Zosterops 
ceylonensis) occurring above 1,500 feet. 

The Bulbuls also belong to the Crateropodidae, of which they 
form a sub-family, Brachypodinae. They are shown at the bottom 
and continued on the top shelf of the front side of the case. The 
Yellow-eared Bulbul {Kelaartia penicillata) is endemic. 

Next follow the Drongos or King Crows (Dicrurid^), so called 
because of their remarkable habit of persecuting the crows, Avhich 
are double their size. They pursue and chivvy the crows on the 
wing with no other apparent object than pure love of mischief : 
they also frequently perch upon the backs of cattle. The species 
which is especially tyrannical with regard to the crows is the 
Black Drongo {Dicruru^ ater). Another exhibited species (D. 
leucopygialis) is confined to Ceylon,while the Racket-tailed Drongo 
(Dissemurus paradiseus) is distinguished by the great elongation 
of the lateral tail feathers with their spatulate tips. 

The Warblers (Sylviidse) represent another extensive family of 
small birds, the most remarkable of those which occur in Ceylon 
being the Indian Tailor bird (Orthotomus sutorius), a nest of 
which with the leaf -edges sewn together is exhibited. 

Lastly, the Shrikes and Minivets (Laniidse) complete the display 
in this case. The Orange Mini vet (Pericrocotus /lammeus) bears a 
strong resemblance to the oriole in the general colour-pattern of 
the plumage. 

BIRD CASES VII. AND VIII. 

These cases contain groups of birds arranged according to habits 
and distribution, but without reference to their position in classi- 
fication. One of them consists of a selection of birds from the 
Vanni District of the Northern Province, that portion of the 
Province which stretches between the settlements of Mullaittivu 
and Vavuniya. The other is a group of Waders and Divers, com- 
prising Flamingoes, Stilts, Herons, Darter, &c.* The Flamingo 

* The Cormorants (exhibited in the adjoining' case and also in Bird Case XII.. see 
below) of the genus Phnlacroooran- are allied to the Dartcrj^. and form with the 
latter the family Phalacrocoracidrp. divinjr and fishin? birds. 



( :^6 ) 

(Phoenicojitenisroseus) IS a north-east migrant to Ceylon frequent- 
ing the salt lakes of the Harabantota and MuUaittivu Districts. It. 
is essentially gregarious, living and breeding in large colonies. The 
movements of a tlock are remarkably concerted, and at the least 
alarm they rise with one consent like a pink cloud across the 
horizon. The three specimens exhibited are females in different 
stages of plumage. 

The Darter {Plotus niela nog aster) is sometimes called the Snake 
bird, on account of its long serpentine neck, which is persistently 
kinked. The method of feeding was described by Mr. W. A. 
Forbes as follows* : — "The darters feed entirely under water. 
Swimming with its wings half-expanded, though locomotion is 
effected entirely by the feet, the bird pursues its prey with a peculiar 
darting or jerky action of the head and neck, which may be com- 
pared to that of a man poising a spear or harpoon before throwing 
it. Arrived within striking distance the darter suddenly trans- 
fixes the fish on the tip of its beak with marvellous dexterity, 
and then immediately comes to the surface, where the fish is 
shaken off the beak, thrown upwards, and swallowed, usually head 
first." When swimming at the surface the body is submerged, only 
the head and neck projecting above the water. The darters are 
common about the tanks of Ceylon. When resting on a tree the 
wings are held expanded as shown. The stomach of this bird is 
provided with a dense hairy plug or sieve guarding the entrance to 
the small intestine. 

BIRD CASES IX. - XII. 

The remaining birds which are placed on exhibition are shown 
in the recess facing the Sambur and Boar Group. In Case IX. are 
the birds of largest bulk occurring in the Island, gigantesque Storks 
and Herons, Spoonbills, and Pelican Ibis or Painted Stork. Case X. 
contains Harriers (Falconidae) and Bitterns (Ardeidas, the Heron 
family). The Malay Bittern {Gorsacliius melanolophus) is a north- 
east migrant to Ceylon, arriving towards the end of October and 
beginning of November, and fugitive specimens are frequently 
captured about this time in Colombo, sometimes landing in the 
streets of the Fort and in the ball-room of Queen's House. 

Case XI. contains Gannets or Boobies (Sulidae), oceanic birds 
sometimes taken here, and Ibis (Ibididae), tank birds. Finally, 
Case XII. contains Ducks and Teals (Anatidte), Terns and Gulls 
(Laridse), Frigate birds (Fregatidfe), Cormorants and Darters 
(Phalacrocoracidie), Pelicans (Pelecanidte). 

* \V. A. Forbes. On aome points on the Anatomy of the Indian Darter {Plofns 
melanog aster) and on the Mechanism of the Nock in the Darters (P^o^?/.*). in con- 
nection with their habits. P. Zool. Soc, Loudon, 1882, pp. 2UN-212. 




FLAMINGOES AND OTH lU! WADEKS. 



I'/'u fdCf piirji' 3G, 



( 37 ) 
MAMMALS. 

Besides the mammals living in the grounds and those which 
have been mentioned above in connection with the groups in the 
centre of the gallery, further examples are shown in the western 
alcove. Several of the eighty species of mammals recorded from 
Ceylon possess insular characteristics ; even such a large creature 
as the sambur is said to dijffer in some respects from its Indian 
co-type, but there is nothing like the same degree of endemicity 
among the mammals as has been remarked for the birds. As 
distinctive Ceylonese mammals may be mentioned the Golden 
Paradoxure or Palm Civet (^Paradoxurus aureus) and the Ruddy 
Mungoose {Herpestes smithi)^ both of which are called by the same 
Sinhalese name " Hotambuwa." 

There are two principal kinds of monkeys in Ceylon, called res- 
pectively in the native language " Rilawa " and '* Wandura," referred 
to by Knox in the anglicized terms " Rillows" and " Wanderows." 
The former are the Macaques (Macacus pileatus)^ with cheek 
pouches ; the latter are the Langurs, comprising several species of 
the genus Semnopithecus, monkeys destitute of cheek pouches. 
Troops of "Rillows" and " Wanderows" may sometimes be seen on 
the same tree, but as a rule they keep to themselves. 

There are three distinct species of "Wanderows" in Ceylon. The 
commonest is the Madras Langur or Crested Monkey (Semnopithe- 
cus priamus), which frequents the low-lying forests of the dry 
maritime districts of the North, East, and South. In addition to the 
crest of hair on the head this monkey is further distinguished by 
the fringe of long black hairs of the eyebrows, known as the 
supra-orbital fringe. 

The Pnrple-faced Monkey (S. cephalopterus) is without the crest 
and fringe ; it inhabits the damp forests of the West at low and 
moderate elevations up to about 1,000 feet. 

Finally, the Bear Monkey (S. ursinus), described as endemic, 
is the monkey of the mountains, occurring in the country round 
Nuwara Eliya. It is closely related to S. cephalopterus,'^ of which 
it may be a hill variety, and from which it is distinguished by its 
longer and denser fur. 

The remarkable Prosimian family of the Lemurs, whose head- 
quarters are in Madagascar, is represented in Ceylon by a single 
species, Loris gracilis, a small tailless, large-eyed, nocturnal, 
arboreal creature of retiring habits, sometimes called the Ceylon 
Sloth. It is omnivorous, feeding upon young leaves, insects, 



* A young live Bear Monkey presented by J, Spearman Armstrong, Esq., from 
Kotagala, and a Purple-faced Monkey from Horana. are exhibited in the grounds 
at the back of the Museum. 



( 38 ) 

spiders, birds' eggs, birds, and lizards. It will also eat plantains 
and boiled rice, and will drink milk, but is not easy to keep alive 
in captivity unless taken young and reared with great care. 

The skeleton of an elephant shot by H. W. Varian, Esq., said to 
be the largest recorded from Ceylon, is remarkable for the small 
size of the tusks, which are reduced to mere tushes. The skull of 
a large tusker is, however, shown below. Tuskers are rare in 
Ceylon, and are believed to be the descendants of imported Indian 
elephants. Another elephant skull in section is lying on the floor 
next to the skeleton of the sambur. There are also skeletons of 
the wild buffalo, wild boar, and the bear. Of the other stuffed 
animals, a pair of large leopards, the ])ear, the otter, and the 
pangolin may be noted specially. The Indian Pangolin or Scaly 
Ant-eater ( Manis pentadactylci) is one of the most curious mammals 
found in Ceylon. It is a nocturnal burrowing animal not often 
seen ; its jaws are destitute of teeth (Edentata), and its tongue is 
exceedingly long and vermiform, adapted for penetrating into the 
burrows of termites or white ants, upon which it feeds. Its 
scales are sometimes employed for making imitation tortoise- 
shell combs. One such comb, presented by H. J. V. Ekanayake, 
Esq., of Balapitiya, is exhibited. The Indian Pangolin is repre- 
sented in Burma by an allied species M.Javanica, which ranges 
through .the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes. 
There is also a Chinese Pangolin (M. aurita) in Nepal, Assam, 
Southern China, and Formosa. Several species of the same genus 
occur in Africa. 

There are three sorts of flying mammals in Ceylon, namely, the 
Fruit Bats or Flying Foxes (Pteropodidas), the small Insectivorous 
Bats (Microchiroptera), and the Flying Squirrel, Pteromys oral 
(Rodentia Sciuridae). The Insectivorous Bats comprise the Leaf- 
nosed Bats(Rhinolophid8e); the Vampire Bats (Nycteridae), which 
feed upon frogs, rats, and smaller bats, as well as insects ; the 
Pipistrelles (Vespertilionidas) ; and the Sheath-tailed Bats (Embal- 
lonuridae). The Flying Squirrel has approximately the same 
general distribution throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon as the 
Flying Fox {Pteropus medius), inhabits the same districts, and is 
also frugivorous and nocturnal. It is not however gregarious, 
and does not suspend itself head downwards, as do the fruit bats 
and other bats, but rests in the ordinary attitudes of arboreal 
mammals. 

The aquatic mammalia (Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises, and 
Dugongs) are represented by an excellent set of dugongs, male, 
female, and young, and a skeleton. The female specimen exhibited 
is 10 ft. long ; it was captured at Kayts near Jaffna. The Dugong 





ELEl'HANT KltAAI,IN(! 



IT') faci' paif 3« 



( ;i9 ) 

{Halicore dagong') is a gentle creature feeding on seaweeds ; it 
allows itself to be handled and killed without resistance. It occurs 
off the north-west coast of Ceylon near Jaffna and Mannar, and 
ranges from East Africa to Australia. Kelaart, one of the pioneer 
naturalists of Ceylon, says that he saw shoals of them on the coast 
of Arippu during the Ceylon pearl fisheries of 1835 and 1836, but 
they are now scarce. The order Sirenia, to which the dugong 
belongs, is represented in tropical America by the manatee. The 
tusks of the dugong are the two upper incisors, which, with two 
or three molars on each side of both jaws, are the only teeth found 
in adults. 

On the top of the Dugong Case is the skeleton of a rare cetacean, 
Pseudorca crassidens, the Lincolnshire Killer, prepared from a 
specimen caught at Moratuwa in 1891, the first recorded from 
Indian seas. It is said to feed on cuttle fish, whereas the true 
grampus or killer attacks and kills the largest whales. The 
Lincolnshire Killer owes its common name to the circumstance 
that its skeleton was first discovered in a Lincolnshire fen. 

Besides this skeleton there is a stuffed specimen of a dolphin 
caught at Negombo in 1883. Its identification is somewhat 
uncertain, but it appears to be closely similar to Elliot's Dolphin 
{Steno 'perniger'). 

The smaller mammals of Ceylon (apart from the bats and lemur) 
comprise many species of the Rodent order (Squirrels, Rats, Mice, 
Hares, and Porcupines). The little squirrel which is a familiar 
figure on the trunks and branches of trees in Colombo is called 
Sciurus palmarum. The larger tree-sqviirrel of the low-country 
jungles in dry districts is Sciurus macrurios, locally known as the 
Rock Squirrel or " Dandulena." The largest rat is the Bandicoot oi' 
Pig Rat (Nesociabandicota), found in all parts of the Island from the 
sea-level to Nuwara Eli.va. It exceeds a foot in length, exclusive of 
the tail. Next to this in size and interest comes the Gerbille or 
Antelope Rat {Qerhillus ^n<i^cMs), afield rat. The common House Rat 
and the Mouse have been introduced here as to all other parts of 
the world. The Musk Rat is more properly called the Musk Shrew 
{Grocidura murina) ; it is not a Rodent, but belongs to the family 
of Shrews (Soricidae) in the order Insectivora. It is common in 
bungalows, outhouses, and compounds in Colombo, and often it 
appears in the roads at nightfall. It is pale gray in colour, utters 
a characteristic squeak, and has a long, tapering snout. Finally, the 
Black-naped Hare (Lepus tiigricoUis), the Chevrotain or Mouse 
Beer {Tragulus meminna), und the Muntjac or Rib-faced Barking 
Deer {Gervulus muntjac), commonly called the Red Deer, must be 
mentioned. 



( 40 ) 

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIA. 

The collection of reptiles and amphibia is contained under 
glass shades over the table cases. The largest reptiles are the Cro- 
codiles, Monitors, and the Python. There are two species of cro- 
codiles in Ceylon, the Tank Crocodile (Crocodilus 'pcilustris), with 
a comparatively short snout, and the River Crocodile (C.iJorosus), 
with a longer and narrower snout. The former is represented by 
the skull of a large specimen from the Minneri tank,* the latter 
by a young stuffed specimen in the Sambur and Boar Group. 
There are also two species of monitors, the large Water Lizard or 
" Kabaragoya " ( Varanus salvator), of which a skeleton is exhibi- 
ted in the gallery and some live specimens in the grounds ; and 
secondly, the Land Monitor (F. bengalensis\ a smaller species, 
which lays its eggs in the nests of termites. 

Some eighty-one species of snakes have been recorded from 
Ceylon, including twenty-six sea snakes (Hydrophidse). The 
latter are all poisonous, but of the land snakes only six or seven 
are poisonous, the most deadly being the Cobra {Naia tripudimis), 
the Tic Polonga or Russell's Viper ( Vipera russeUi), and the 
Bungarums or Kraits {Bungarus ceylonicus and B. cceruleus).'\ 
Examples of these are shown over the second table case to the 
left of the staircase. The Crotaline or Pit Vipers, so called on 
account of the existence of a deep pit of unknown significance on 
each side of the snout between the eyes and the nostrils, are not 
fatal to man. They are represented in Ceylon by the " Karawala " 
(^Ancistrodon hypnale) and the Green Polonga {Trimeresurus 
trigonocephalus). 

There is a very common non-poisonous snake which mimics 
the dreaded Bungarus ceylonicus in its scheme of coloration, 
namely, white transverse bands upon a dark ground colour, and 
is sometimes mistaken for it when seen at a distance or when 
examined casually. This is Lycodon aidicus, a snake which is 
frequently found trespassing in bungalows in Colombo. The 
Bungarus occurs chiefly up-country in the country round 
Peradeniya, Dimbula, Balangoda, and elsewhere. 

A large Python molurus is mounted in the east alcove ; some 
Hydrophidse are shown over the third case ; the snakes on the 
lifth case include a large Green Polonga and a large Tic Polonga, 
somewhat faded ; over the sixth case are the Whip snakes (Dry- 
ophis); the "Pol-mal Karawala" {Chrysopelea ornata), which when 
fresh shows bright red spots along the back, reputed poisonous, 
but in reality harmless and of gentle disposition ; the fresh-water 

* Placed on a bench in the east alcove. 

■J B. caeruleua has only been recorded from Jaffna. 



( 41 ) 





Colour variations of Eh'inophis blythii. 



Ubopeltid^. 



305-04 



( -^2 ) 



Head end. 





Head from 
above. 




Tail end. 



Abnoriiial 
head. 



II h I iiiiph u frrrpli/ii nns. 




Head-shields of rro/irlfis i/mndis. 



UUOPKLTID^E. 



( 43 ) 

or estuariue snake {Cerberus rhynchops,) which, like another 
fresh-water snake, Tropidonotus plumbicolor, has a viperine look 
but is quite harmless ; and a rare fresh-water snake, Gerardia 
prevostiana, from the Kelani river, caught twenty years ago. Over 
the seventh case will be found a large specimen of the common 
Rat-snake (Zamenis mucosus) ; another snake which attains a 
length of five feet and a wide girth is Dipsas forstenii^ of which 
only a half-sized example is shown. This snake is represented in 
Ceylon by two varieties, the typical variety, brown with angular 
oblique black bars, and the red variety, uniformly rich reddish- 
chocolate above without black bars, paler roseate flush below ; a 
tine example obtained from Nambapana in September, 1904, is 
shown. It is called locally the Le-polonga (Blood-polonga), and 
is reputed poisonous. 

On a bench in the fish-gallery or east alcove there are skeletons 
of the python, of a sea snake, Distira stokesii, from the Pearl 
Banks, presented by Captain Donnan, and of a monitor lizard. 

The remaining smaller snakes and lizards are placed over table 
cases near the western end of the gallery. These are chiefly 
interesting on account of the relatively large number of endemic 
forms, species of lizards of the genera Geratoiohora, Lyriocephalus, 
Otocry2)tis, Cophotis, and Acontias being peculiar to the Island ; 
examples of these are shown over Table Case XVII. Endemi-c 
species of snakes belonging to the genera Aspidura and Rhinophis^ 
as well as specimens of Lycodon aulicus, to which reference has 
been made above, are exhibited over Case XVIII. The snake 
Cylindrojjhis maculatus is also a peculiar species, and is the one 
to which the native name "Depat-naya" (two-headed snake) is 
specially applied, though the term is equally applicable to Rhino- 
jjhis and allied snakes. The hinder end of the body of these 
snakes is truncated, and bears superficial resemblance to a head. 
The colour, yellowish on dai-k brown, varies considerably, 
especially in the case of Rhinophis hlythii (see illustrations). 

The giant tortoise from Aldabra, Testudo elephantma, shown 
on the far side of the Peacock Case, does not belong to Ceylon, but 
lived here for many years in the grounds of the^^illa called 
"Uplands" in Mutwal, near Colombo. It was found here at the 
time of the British occupation in 1796, and had become thoroughly 
acclimatized.* It died in March, 1894. 

A striking display of large marine turtles caught ofl: the coast 
of Ceylon is to be seen under the large platform in the eastern or 

* The Hog-deer (^Cerrux povalmni), of which two living specimens are shown in 
the grounds, is another example of an acclimatized animal, introduced from 
India during the Dutch administration into the Kalutara District, where it now 
occurs. 



( 44 ) 

fish alcove. The edible turtle, Chelone mydas, attaining a length 
of four feet, is herbivorous.* The loggerhead turtle, Thalasso- 
chelys caretta, is obtained by harpooning and netting by the natives 
of Iranativu and elsewhere off the coast ; it is carnivorous, feeding 
on crustaceans and molluscs. The leathery turtle, Dermochelys 
coriacea, was presented by C. H. de Soysa, Esq.; it is not common. 
Finally, a specimen of the tortoise-shell turtle, Chelone imbricata, 
and a young edible turtle, are shown in small tanks on either side 
of the staircase. 

Some of the Amphibians of Ceylon are shown uver Table Case IV., 
next to the Eagle Group. The large bull-frog is Rana tigrina, 
the common toad Bufo inelanostictus. The common frog of the 
Colombo lake is Rana hexadactyla. The tree-frog, f Ixaiun 
adspersus^ peculiar to Ceylon, has been found at Pattipola, 6,200 
feet, and is one of the rarest frogs existing. The climbing frogs of 
the genus Rhacophorus attach their foam-like nests to the leaves of 
shrubs and trees overhanging water, into which the tadpoles drop 
when they hatch. The most singular batrachian occurring in the 
hills of Ceylon above 2,000 or 3,000 feet is the worm-like, legless 
* salamander,"! Ichthyophis ghttinosus. It burrows in soft mud ; 
the female lays eggs of large size, and coils round the clump of 
eggs until they are hatched. The larvas are aquatic, and are 
provided with a respiratory orifice or spiraculuni on each side 
of the neck. The development has been worked out by two 
>5wiss naturalists, Drs. Fritz and Paul Sarasin. 

FISHES. 

A large series of sharks and bony fishes is shown in the eastern 
alcove of the gallery. The largest and rarest is the huge shark 
which rests upon the platform along the centre of the room. 
This is a specimen of the Basking Shark {Rhinodon typAcus)^ 23 
feet long, caught at Moratuwa in 1883. This species has also 
been obtained off the Seychelles and the Cape of Good Hope ; 
it was first recorded from the west coast of Ceylon by Mr. 
Amyrald Haly, the former Director of the Colombo Museum. 
In spite of its bulk the specimen shown is not full-size, and 
it is a harmless shark. It is regarded as one of the gems of 
the entire collection. 



* Clielonia vlrgata is syaonymous with Chelone mydas [BouleugeiJ. 

t The true tree-frogs of the family Hylidse are not represented in Ceylon. 

X The tailed batrachians (newts and salamanders) form the order Urodela. 
which is unrepresented in Ceylon ; the tailless batrachiant; (frogs and toads) 
form the order Anura : the legless batrachians or the ciecilians belong to the 
order Apoda. 




NEiST Ol' CLIMBING FROG. (COLOMBO.) 

(HlKienphuiu.t iiiiiciihitiis. ) 



\_fo ttiKe i>agi' -1-1. 



( 45 ) 

Unfortunately the form of the mouth in lost in the mounted 
specimen ; when fresh the width of the mouth was 3 feet, but 
shrunk to 1 ft. 11 in. in drying. " When fresh the lower jaw was 

quite straight and flat and considerably in advance of 

the upper, so that the band of teeth in the lower jaw was quite 
uncovered." 

The teeth in both jaws consisted of eleven (in the upper) to 
fourteen (in the lower) rows of minute, sharp, recurved denticles, 
of equal size, 2 millimeters long.* Another specimen, 16 feet 
long, was taken at Negombo in March, 1889, and was presented to 
the British Museum by the Government of Ceylon. In the same 
year one was caught, 22 feet long, off Madras, and is now exhibited 
in the Madras Museum. 

At the end of the platform three other stuffed sharks are lying 
on their sides ; that to the right of the Rhinodon is a fine specimen 
of the Hammer-headed Shark {Zygcena malleus), characterized by 
the shape of the rostrum, which is drawn out sideways into two 
hammer-shaped lobes, at the ends of which are the eyes with the 
nostrils near to the eyes ; that to the left of the Rhinodon is the 
Tiger Shark or Tope (Galeocerdo rayneri), distinguished by its 
formidable notched teeth. This shark is said to be exceedingly 
fierce and very cunning, swelling itself out so as to appear like 
a floating mass of animal substance, in order to decoy its prey. 
Behind the Rhinodon there lies another shark, 9 feet long, named 
Qinglymostoma miilleri, Giinther. Below the front window, at 
the back of the Rhinodon, is another interesting shark, A loiJecias, 
or Alo2nas imlpes, the Fox or Thresher Shark, which was rescued 
by Mr. Haly from the Colombo market in February, 1884. J 

Against the adjoining north window are two sharks of the saw- 
fish family ; the larger specimen is an example of Pristis cuspi- 
dcUus, the smaller is Pristis perrotteti. These differ from one 
another in the position of the first dorsal fin and in the armature 
of the rostrum, a considerable portion of the base of which is 
destitute of teeth in P. ciispidaius. 

A few more sharks are preserved in spirits in the adjacent 
wall case. The skates and rays next invite attention. Over the 
wall cases beside the north window are two examples of a large 
Sting Ray (Trygon uarnak), and in the bottom shelf of the left 
wall case is a Thorny-backed Ray, said to be common in the Indian 
Ocean, called Urogymnus asperrimus. In a trough on the 



* Cf. A. Haly. Occurreuce of Rhinodon ti/picua, Smith, ou the West Coas^t Of 
Ceylon. Ann. Nat. Hist, (fifth series), vol. XIL, 1883, pp. 48-49. 
t (y. Day, F. Faun. Brit. Ind., Fishes, vol. 1., p. 83. 
X Cj. Note by A. Haly in the •' Taprobanian. ' 1886, vol. I., p. 167. 



( ^« ) 

south-east verandah is a young specimen of the " Two-horned "' 
.Skate {Dicei'oha/iis erer/oodoo), exhibited with the lower side up 
displaying the gill-clefts with the gills showing through. In 
another trough on the opposite north-east verandah is another 
well-preserved Sting Ray of the species Trygon, sephen, and near 
to this is a young Beaked Ray (AetoOatis narinari). The skates 
and rays feed largely upon ci-abs and molluscs. 

The fairly numerous specimens of Teleostean or bony fishes 
which are exhibited in the wall cases are somewhat remarkable 
on account of the well-preserved colour markings, which in many 
cases have retained their freshness after the lapse of several years, 
in a gum and glycerine mixture adopted by Mr. Haly. Against 
the window beside the Thresher Shark is a good example of the 
Swordfish (Histiophorus gladius). The large stuffed fish in the 
bottom shelf of the adjoining v/all case is a Wrasse (Labridae). 
The parrot wrasses, fishes of brilliant colours, feeding in the 
neighbourhood of coral reefs at Galle, for example, with parrot- 
like beak consisting of teeth soldered together, belong to the 
genus Pseuddscarus of the Wrasse family. I'he " Red Mullet" of 
the Colombo market is Serranus sonnerati, of the Perch family. 
The Seirfish, the staple fish food of Colombo, belongs to the 
Mackerel family (Scombridae), and is named Cyhiwn gnitatwm.^ 

The jumping fishes to be seen about the rocks at Mount Laviuia 
and Galle are blennies of the genus Salarias ; and the mud- 
skippers of Negombo are gobies of the genus P(>riophthal)nas. 

The principal fresh-water fishes of Ceylon are the Carps (Cypri- 
nidse), including the Indian game fish called the Mahseer (Barbus 
tor)y the Ophiocephali, tank-fishes, the Labyrinthici or " climbing 
perches" {Anabas scandens and Polyacanthas signatus), and 
the Catfishes (Silurida^). One genus of catfishes, Arias, called 
" anguluwa" in Sinhalese, occurring at Panadure, Kalutara, and 
elsewhere, has the remarkable peculiarity that the males carry the 
eggs, 15-20 in number, in their mouths until they are hatched. 

INSECTS. 

' The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are shown in eight 
table cases placed near the Eagle and Peacock Groups. 

The Moths or Nocturnal Lepidoptera commence in Table Case II. 
with the family Saturniidae, the caterpillars of which spin silken 
cocoons in which they pupate and from which they emerge in the 
adult or imago phase of their life-history. This family comprises 
the largest moths found in Ceylon, namely, the Lunar Moth 



* Not exhibited. There is an extensive tunny fishery (Tkynnm thunnitia) off 
Balapitiya during the north-east monsoon, and the fish are daily sent to Colombo. 




Sahirh(.s A //iJez-xd/ii 



\To fact /HI ye 4 (J. 



( 47 ) 

(Actias selene), green with a dark bordered whitisli circle in the 
centre of each wing and with long swallow-tailed hind wings ; 
the Atlas Moth (Attacus atlas), deep chocolate with oblique trans- 
lucent windows in each wing ; the Tussur Silk Moth {Anthercea ' 
pajjJiia), rich yellow with a transparent round window in each 
wing. The Bombycidse and Eupterotidae complete this side of the 
case. The other side contains the Sphingidse, which include 
among many species the Death's Head Moths of the genus AcJie- 
rontia, the caterpillars of which stridulate, uttering a clicking 
sound by rubbing their jaws together ; and the Clear- wing Moths 
{Geplionodes hi/las), which sometimes become a pest in cultivated 
districts. All the caterpillars of this family are provided with a 
horn-like appendage on the back near the end of the abdomen. 

Case III. opens with the N otodontidse and closes with the Arctiidae. 
The Syntomidse, which follow the Notodontidse, include some 
very common species, while the Zygaenidse bear the appearance of 
butterflies, which they further resemble by their habit of flying 
about during the day. 

Case IV. continues the Arctiidse and commences the extensive 
familyof the Noctuidae, the latter being continued in Case V., which 
contains several handsome moths, e.g., Phyllodes consobrina with 
leaf-shaped forewings, and Ophideres salaminia, which seems to 
mimic a Sphingid moth. 

Case VI. contains Uraniidse, Epiplemidae, Geometridae, and the 
commencement of the Pyralidae or shining moths. Case VII. con- 
tinues the Pyralidae and concludes with a few Microlepidoptera 
of the family Tineidae. On the other side of this case are shown 
some dragon-flies (Neuroptera). 

Finally, Cases IX. and X., placed alongside in the central space, 
are devoted to the butterflies, which include a fine series of the Leaf 
Butterfly, Kallima philarchus. 

In addition to the exhibited Lepidoptera the Museum possesses 
a large duplicate students' collection containing many rare species 
not shown in the cases. This may be inspected on application. 
There are, on the other hand, many moths recorded from Ceylon 
which have not yet found their way to the Museum collection. 

The other orders of the insects of Ceylon have not been worked 
out so thoroughly as the Lepidoptera. They are represented in the 
table cases near the west end of the gallery, and are subject to 
re-arrangement. Orthoptera (locusts, stick insects, cockroaches, 
and mantids) andCoccidae (mealy bugs) are shown in Cases XV. and 
XVI ; Coleoptera in Case XVII. ; Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and 
wasps), with a couple of black flies mimicking a wasp and a bee 
respectively, in Case XVII I. 



( 48 ) 

The Muaeiira is largely indebted for many specimens in the 
Insect Department to Mr. E. E. Green, the Government Ento- 
mologist, and to Messrs. F. M. Mackwood and 0. S. Wickwar, who 
have also devoted much time to the arrangement of the duplicate 
collections of Butterflies, Moths, and Hymenoptera. 

CRUSTACEANS AND MOLLUSCS. 

Some Crustaceans (crabs, hermit crabs, prawns, barnacles) will 
be found among the table cases, chiefly on the tops of the cases. 
Marine Shells and Land Shells are contained in the table cases 
surrounding the central group. The marine shells of Ceylon are 
not remarkable for their exceptional variety and abundance. 
Ceylon follows far behind many other localities of the Indo- 
Pacific Region in the richness of its Marine MoUuscan Fauna, but 
a sufficient compensation is afforded by the presence of the 
celebrated pearl banks. 

On the other hani, the land shells of Ceylon are highly pecu- 
liar, and comprise many endemic species. The largest snails of 
the Island belong to a genus, Acavtis, which is confined to Ceylon. 
Mr. Oliver CoUett, F.R.M.S., who lived for some years at Amba- 
gamuwa, was a great collector and connoisseur of the land-shells of 
Ceylon, and published three "Contributions to Ceylon Malacology" 
in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 
(vols. XV.-XVL, 1 897-1900). On his death, which occurred prema- 
turely in 1902, his collection was purchased by the Government 
of Ceylon for the Colombo Museum and forms a valuable students' 
collection, whicli can be viewed on application. It contains 
several species still unnamed. 

PEARL BANKS AND CORAL REEFS. 

A number of specimens in Table Cases I. and VIII., some of 
which were presented long ago by Captain Donnan, many more 
having been added recently by Mr. James Hornell, Marine Biologist 
and Inspector of Pearl Banks, illustrate the natural history of the 
banks or paars which afford anchorage to the pearl oyster. Prior 
to the year 1903 there had been no pearl fishery for twelve years, 
and in 1902 a special mission, consisting of Professor W. A. 
Herdman, F.R.S., assisted by Mr. James Hornell, was appointed to 
report on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Mannar. " The 
animal (Margaritifera vrdyaris, Sch\ini.= A vicu/ a /ucata,Go\ild) 
is not a true oyster, but belongs to the family Aviculidae, and is 
therefore more nearly related to the Mussels {Mytilus) than to 
the Oysters (Osf.rea) of our British seas. One very notable 
character of great practical importance, in which it differs from 



( 49 ) 

Ostreci, is that the pearl oyster, like our common mussels, has a 
'byssus' or bundle of tough threads by which it can attach itself 
to rocks or other foreign objects." * 

The collection shows pearl oysters from sevei-al paars in various 
stages of growth, and other organisms, corals, pennatulids, sponges, 
sea urchins, &c., which also grow on the pearl banks in association 
with the pearl oysters. Of special interest are the specimens 
prepared in spirits showing pearls in situ. 

Large specimens of stone corals (Madreporaria), sea shrubs 
(Gorgonacea), black corals (Antipatharia), and leathery corals 
(A-lcyonacea) from Galle and the Maldive Islands are exhibited 
in wall cases in the fish alcove and on the south verandah. Those 
from the Maldive Islands were presented by Mr. J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., who organized an expedition for the investigation 
of the coral atolls of the Maldives in the years 1899-1900.t 

The dried corals which are exhibited are the basal and axial 
skeletons secreted by the soft parts of the living coral polyps. 
These form large colonies by a peculiar process of budding and 
branching, and deposit the mineral substances which they have 
absorbed from the sea water so as to form the wonderful growths 
which remain after the living tissues have been removed. 

The Madreporaria are the reef-building corals forming extensive 
reefs at Galle and oflE Jaffna, and especially at the Maldive Islands, 
which are themselves partially elevated coral reefs. The pearl 
banks are not coral reefs, but sandbanks, formed of sandstone 
and concretions upon which isolated corals grow without forming 
reefs. 



* Cf. Report to the G-ovemment of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the 
Gulf of Mannar, by W, A. Herdman, D.Sc. F.R.S., with supplementary reports 
upon the Marine Biology of Ceylon by other naturalists. Published by the Royal 
Society, Part I., Lqudon, 1903. Professor Herdman and Mr. Hornell arrived in 
Ceylon in January, 1902, and the former left in the following April. Since then 
the work has been carried on locally by Mr. Hornell. 

§ The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes. 
Edited by J. Stanely Gardiner. Vols. I. and II., 1901-1905 (Cambridge University 
Press). 

H 105-04 



( 50 ) 



THE ROCKS AND MINERALS OF CEYLON. 

1>Y A. K. COOMARASVVAMY, B.SU.. 
Director^ Minerali)(ji<-al Sitrrei/ of Cei/loit. 



I.— ROCKS. 

The rocks of Ceylon are known as diniillllites, or, using the 
term in its widest sense, as Gneisses ; they belong to the same 
series as that which Mr. Holland has named in Southern India 
the Cliariiockite Series. The rocks are crystalline and show con- 
spicuous mineral banding (foliation), and are very varied in 
mineral composition. Rocks of igneous origin form by far the 
greater part of the Charnockite Series in Ceylon, although it is 
possible that amongst these rocks there are some of sedimentary 
origin now highly metamorphosed and incorporated with the 
others. Tlie bedded appsarance so suggestive of sedimentary 
rocks is in this respect deceptive, and is due to the banded 
structure produced by flowing movements in the hetero- 
geneous magma during its consolidation. No fossils occur in any 
of the crystalline rocks. 

The most characteristic types of rock exhibited include 
"Taimlar qiuirtz rock, consisting essentially of quartz, but often 
with minute quantities of felspar and garnet; leptyilites, composed 
of quartz and felspar, and very often containing an abundance of 
garnet ; typical eUariiockite, essentially composed of felspar quartz 
and hypersthene ; pyroxene granulites, characterized by the 
presence of pyroxene (hypersthene or augite or both) with 
felspar (usually triclinic) and with or without orthoclase, quartz, 
or garnet ; amongst these are rocks with the mineral composition 
of iiorites, diorites. and }i;abbroS ; there are also more basic types 
consisting almost entirely of pyroxene, ampbibole, and garnet ; 
these dark heavy rocks frequently occur as lenticular bands and 
inclusions in the more acid types. Coarse-grained pegmatites of 
an intrusive character arc found in dykes and veins crossing or 
parallel to the foliation of the other rocks ; in them the minerals 
quartz, orthoclase, mica, and hornblende are most characteristic ; 
the quartz and felspar are often intergrown as in nTa])hic»'i'ailite. 
The crystalliue limestones are found in wide or narrow bands 
interbedded with the other rocks, often separated from them 
by a zone of heavy dark green rocks composed essentially 
of pyroxene and mica, often with spinel. The limrstoiies 



( 51 ) 

themselves vary much in purity and in dolomitic character ; the 
minerals most frequently occurring and indeed nearly always 
present are forsterite and phlogopite ; graphite is frequently 
abundant in small flakes ; other accessory minerals include 
pyrite, blue apatite, spinel, amphibole, chondrodite, seapolite, &c. 
Of inclusions in the limestones there are (a) aggregates of the 
characteristic accessory minerals ; (b) inclusions of rocks indis- 
tinguishable from the pyroxene granulites except for the usual 
presence of seapolite and sphene. 

Certain rocks composed essentially of pyroxene with seapolite, 
amphibole, mica, calcite, and sphene occur sparingly in bands 
interbedded with the other rocks ; separating limestone from 
granulite ; or as inclusions in the limestones. 

The (lialle Ciroup. — A group of rocks allied to these but distin- 
guished by the presence of woUastonite is found at Galle. These 
rocks include types composed of pyroxene, seapolite, sphene, 
woUastonite, and graphite, and all transitions from these to rocks 
composed of quartz and felspars. There are also remarkably 
coarse dykes composed essentially of orthoclase, quartz, ami 
woUastonite, crossing the foliation ; the individuals of wolias- 
lonite, moulding the idiomorphic crystals of quartz and ortho- 
clase, are sometimes as much as 3 feet in length. 

The name Ba]ail<>'0(la jiTOup is given to a series of granitic rocks, 
intrusive in the Oharnockite Series or granulites ; tiie granites 
occur in dykes and lenticular masses, the best exposures so far 
known being in the Balangoda district. The principal types 
include zircon granite, allanite-granite or pegmatite, magnetite 
granite, and granite without accessory minerals. But although 
not yet discovered in situ (except thorianite, which occurred very 
sparingly in a pegmatite vein at Gampola, and ilmenite, which is 
common in several types), the following additional minerals are 
almost certainly derived from rocks of the Balangoda group : 
baddeleyite, beryl, cassiterite, chrysoberyl, fergusonite, geikielite, 
ilmenite, rutile, some spinels, thorianite, thorite, topaz, and some 
tourmaline. 

Rocks which are alteration products of those already mentioned 
include bands of chert (opaline chalcedonic rock), which usually 
occurs replacing the carbonates of the crystalline limestones, 
minerals such as spinel and graphite remaining in the chert 
unaltered. Laterite (cabook) is a typical decomposition product 
of the granulites, and is of interest on account of its use as a build- 
ing material, and on account of its chemical composition, consist" 
ing largely of aluminium hydrate. Various Clavs, including 
kaolin (china clay, " kirimeti,'" *' makul ") are derived from the 



( J^^ ) 

decomposition of the grauulites, especially from their felspathic 
elements. 

Volcanic rocks are very sparingly represented in Ceylon. A 
typical ilolerite (probably occurring as a dyke) from Kallodai, 
Eastern Province, is represented in the collection, A few other 
dykes are said to have been met with in Ceylon. No lavas or 
tuffs occur, and, with the exception of a few hot springs, no signs 
of volcanic activity are found. Denudation has been so long at 
work that only the most deep-seated rocks are now exposed at 
the surface. Of sedimentary rocks, we have (a) river g'nivels, 
sands, and alluvial clays (used for brick making) deposited 
by rivers. In the gravels are found the gems which have been 
derived from the crystalline rocks ; many have not yet been found 
in situ, (h) Marine deposits, including coralline raised beaches, 
blown sand, &c. Fossil shells and corals are abundant in the 
raised beaches which are found all round the coast and often some 
little way inland, but never very far above the present level of 
the sea. 

II.— MINERALS. 
Before proceeding to refer in systematic order to the nature and 
mode of occurrence of particular minerals it will be useful to 
consider briefly their nature and mode of formation. Regarded 
from this point of view the minerals of Ceylon fall into three 
main groups, which are not, however, separated from each other 
by any rigid line of demarcation : — 

A. — Minerals composing or associated with the crystalline 
rocks. 

B. — Vein minerals. 

C. — Minerals which are alteration products of other minerals 
and rocks. 
The lirst class includes those whose origin is for the most part 
directly igneous (i.e., the majority of Ceylonese minerals), and 
which occur as original minerals in the granulites and crystalline 
limestones. Many of these have crystallized from an actually 
molten or viscous magma, others perhaps from masses of rocks 
existing merely in a state akin to fusion, some being developed 
as the result of contact interaction between the limestones and 
granulites when both possessed a high temperature, whilst others 
forming pegmatite veins may even have crystallized from heated 
vapours or liquids saturated with mineral matter. When suitable 
conditions prevail, these minerals each assume definite and charac- 
teristic crystalline forms ; this has, however, rarely been the case 
in the granulites themselves, where an irregular "granulitic" 
structure usually prevails : in the crystalline limestones, however. 




PLUMBAfiO MINE. 



Tu/iiCf pnge 5S,] 



( ^^ ) 

the accessory minerals have more often been able to crystallize in 
their own forms ; for an example see Fig. 1, an octahedral crystal 
of spinel. Such " idiomorphic" crj-stals are commonly known 
in Ceylon as " devil-cut." 

It is interesting to note that of all the gem minerals so famous 
in Ceylon few have yet been found in situ. New records of the 
occurrence of these minerals in their parent rock is much desired. 
Nearly all the gems of Ceylon, moonstone excepted, are obtained 
from the river gravels of the Ratnapura, Rakwana, Galle, and 
Morawak Korale Districts ; but some are found in superficial 
deposits whose situation on hill slopes shows that the contained 
minerals must occur in situ at no very distant spot. 




Fig 1. — Octahedral crystal of spinel. 

Minerals of the second class include the greater part of the 
graphite of Ceylon and perhaps a considerable part of the mica. 
Associated with the graphite are often found some of the minerals 
characteristic of the granulites, such as quartz and felspar. True 
veins of pure quartz are rarely met with in Ceylon. Minerals of 
the third class include the deposits of iron ore (limonite) and 
manganese ore (psilomelane), which are everywhere common as 
decomposition products of the granulites ; and also the minerals 
hydrargillite and limonite composing laterite. 

A few minerals occur in Ceylon which have not been found 
elsewhere; these are thorianite, geikielite, and serendibite. The 
mineral baddeleyite was first found in Ceylon, but has since been 
met with in Brazil. 

Further notes on the more important minerals will be found 
below, where a list of all the minerals known to occur in Ceylon 
is given. 

Graphite, C. — Graphite or plumbago is the most important 
mineral product of Ceylon. Its composition is pure carbon. It is 
found in veins and nests in the crystalline rocks, occurring often 



( f>4 ) 

in ;i fibrous or flaky Coi-u), the flakes being arranged at right angles 
to the wall of tlie vein (see Fig. 2). The veins vary in width from 
less than an eighth of an inch to several feet. Some are found to 
follow the foliation planes of the various rocks, others cross them 
and ramify in all directions. Much smaller quantities of graphite 
occur as flakes in many of the granulites and in the crystalline 
limestones, when it usually forms small tabular six-sided crystals 
with well-developed basal cleavage. In these cases the graphite 
behaves like the other accessory minerals, and there is no reason 
to suppose that it has been subsequently introduced. 




Fiy. 2. — Vein graiihite surrounding a portiim of included niutrix 
(white leptynite). 

It is clear, however, that the graphite occnrving in veins has been 
deposited at a time posterioi-to the consolidation of the granubtes. 
The veins are often of the most typical character. Usually they 
consist of pure graphite (sometimes there is evidence of more than 
one period of deposition in a zoned structure of the vein) ; some- 
times the vein shows a central zone of quartz or pyrite with 
graphite on either hand, sometimes the graphite is more irregularly 
associated with minerals such as felspar quartz and mica and with 
fragments of the surrounding rock. 

Metamorphism of the surrounding rocks near the veins is found 
only on a very small scale ; the rock surfaces in immediate contact 
with the veins are not impregnated with scales and flakes of 
graphite to a greater depth than half an inch. Nor do w^e find that 
the quartz and other minerals associated wiili the gi-aphite veins 



( 55 ) 

are tilled with disseminated graphite ; the latter occurs only in 
strings or scales occupying obvious cavities or cracks in the quartz. 
It seems that the deposition of graphite has been subsequent to the 
formation of the pegmatite veins, though following the same or 
similar paths in some cases. 

As regards the source of the graphite, we see at once that its 
presence cannot be ascribed to the metamorphism of beds of coal 
or other carbonaceous deposits, and indeed that the graphite can 
have had no direct organic source and is most probably of entirely 
inorganic origin. Like other minerals found in veins, it must have 
been deposited from vapours or liquids saturated with mineral 
(in this case carboniferous) matter ; for we cannot suppose that 
the graphite was introduced in the form of dykes of molten 
carbon. 

Snlphur, S. — Occurs as a decomposition product of pyrite in 
small quantities. 

Gold, Au. — Small quantities of native gold are of rare occur- 
rence in streams, sands, and alluvial deposits, but there is little 
prospect of its ever becoming of commercial importance. 

Salt, NaCl. — Obtained by the evaporation of sea water in natural 
and artificial lakes, known as " lewaya." 

Cinnabar, HgS. 

Pyrite, FeS.^. — Common as an accessory mineral in granulites 
and crystalline limestones. 

Marcasite, FeSa- 

P///v/w^//(«, FenS,.,.— Occasionally as an accessory mineral in 
crystalline limestones and in charnockite. 

Ice, HoO. — Frost is sometimes experienced in the hills. 




Fisr 8. — Coi-undum. 



Gornndum, AUO j. — Corundum is the most important of the gem 
minerals of Ceylon. When red it is known as ruby ; when blue 
as sapphire ; when purple as oriental amethyst ; when yellow as 
oriental topaz ; i-olourless varieties ar(( also found. The peculiar 



( ^^ ) 

cliaracter of '• star sapphires " isMue to the presence of regularly 
distributed minute inclusions arranged along the lines oi" growth, 
producing the appearance known as " silk ;" a six-rayed star is 
seen when the crystal is viewed iji the direction of its vertical axis. 
Coarser varieties of coruiulum are used as emery, for which pur- 
pose a good deal is obtained in Southern India. Corundum is 
found in the river gravels of Ceylon in more or less rounded and 
waterworn six-sided crystals, which are either prismatic or doubly 
pyramidal in character. 

Only two localities are known in Ceylon where corundum 
occurs in the parent rock. In one case (Talatu-oya) blue hexa- 
gonal crystals occurred in a narrow band of rock composed essen- 
tially of orthoclase, microperthite, and oligoclase. In the other 
(Haklunimulla) violet or purplish hexagonal crystals are found 
in a corundum-sillimanite rock (of which a large specimen is 
exhibited), but not actually in situ. 

In Southern India corundum occurs {a) in felspathic rocks as a 
direct product of the magma ; {h) in certain aluminous rocks, 
probably as the result of contact metamorphism. Specimens of 
these rocks are shown in the collection. In Burma rubies are 
found in the crystalline limestones, which in other respects 
closely resemble those of Ceylon. 

Hematits, FegOg, — Less usual than limonite as an iron ore 
derived from the decomposition of the granulitic rocks. 

Limonite, 2Feo033H20. — The common ore of iron in Ceylon, 
and formerly extensively worked. Almost always found as a 
proilact of the decomposition of the granulites. 

HydrargilUte, AI2O33H0O. — Forms, with limonite, the greater 
part of ordinary laterite (cabook). 
Gassiterite, SnO.,. 
Rutile, TiO,,. 

Thorianite, ThO., +U0;,. — This newly-discovered mineral, 
peculiar to Ceylon, is of great commercial importance owing to 
the use of thoria in the manufacture of incandescent gas mantles. 
It occurs in very heavy black cubic crystals at Bambarabotnwa, 
where over a ton has been obtained. It is valued at £600 sterling 
per ton. It is of great scientific interest too, on account of its 
chemical composition, one or more new elements being possibly 
present ; it contains also a large amount of occluded helium. 
Though radio-active, there is no more than a trace of radium 
present. 
Baddeleyite, ZrOg. 

(^jmr^s, SiOo.— Very abundant throughout the Charnockite 
Series. The purple variety is amethyst. Drusy grou})B from 



( 57 ^ 

cavities in crystalline limestone at Welimada. Doubly terminated 
crystals not rare in gera washings. 

Fig. 4 shows the ordinary hexagonal prisms of quartz. 




Fig. i. — Quartz hexagonal prisms. 

Ghert, SiOg. — A.n opaline chalcedonic rock usually replacing 
crystalline limestone. 

Chalcedony, SiOg. 

Opal, SiOa + HgO. — In some cases a rock consisting entirely of 
common opal is found with the less pure cherty varieties. 

Psilomelane, MnO + MnOaHgO.— Commonly associated with 
limonite and hematite in veins and aggregates resulting from the 
decomposition of the grannlites. 

Spinel, (MgFe)0Al203. — Blue, green, and red spinels (especially 
the latter, known as Balas rnby) are used as gems. Small well- 
formed octahedra (see Fig. 1, page 5:3) of spinel, usually pink, are 
common in the crystalline limestones. Green spinel occasionally 
occurs in grannlites, and frequently in the heavy dark green 
rocks associated with junctions of limestone and granulite. The 
gem spinels are obtained from the gravels, but are probably 
derived from the crystalline limestones. 

Magnetite, FeOFeaOg. — Common as an accessory mineral in the 
granulites ; also in limestones. 

Chromite, FeOCrgOg. 

Chrysoheryl, BeOAlgOg. — Includes cat's-eye and alexandrite. 
This important gem stone sometimes occurs in large individuals, 
exhibiting characteristic twinnirg. The beautiful chatoyance of 
the cat's-eye is perhaps due to the presence of fine tubular cavities 
arranged symmetrically in the crystal. (The much less valuable 

I 105-04 



( .^8 ) 

" coast " or quartz cat's-eye is of a quite different character, consist- 
ing of quartz with included silky fibres of asbestos.) The green 
alexandrite appears red by transmitted light and generally also by 
candle light, but green by reflected light or daylight. 

Galcite, OaCOg. — 'In the crystalline limestones. 

Dolomite (CaMg)CO.}. — In the crystalline limestone ; sometimes 
forming with calcite parallel or ramifying intergrowths. 

Forsterite, MgoSi04. — This colourless mineral is characteristic 
of the crystalline limestones, where it is extremely abundant. 
The individuals are usually small. An unusually large crystal 
in limestone is exhibited ; also some very flattened crystals of a 
superficially dark colour. Incipient superficial decomposition 
often gives a dark colour to the crystals. 

Glinohumite,Mg^QAgF)^{^\0^)^. — Thisbeautiful yellow mineral 
is of rare occurrence in the crystalline limestones. 

Pyroxenes : 

(1) Hypersthene (FeMg)Si03. — One of the most characteristic 
minerals of the Charnockite Series. 

(2) D topside (CaMg)Si03. — A colourless to pale green pyroxene 
characteristic of the crystalline limestones. 

(3) Manganhedenbergiie, Ca(FeMn(Si03)2. — Characteristic of 
the Galle group, and probably common in similar rocks elsewhere. 

(4) Augite, CaMgFe(Si03)o + MgFe(AlFe)o(Si03).3. — Charac- 
teristic of many pyroxene grauulites. 

(5) Wollasto?iite, CaSiOg. — Characteristic of the rocks of Galle, 
in which it occurs disseminated, and also in very large individuals 
in coarse pegmatite veins. It has not yet been found elsewhere 
in Ceylon. 

Amphiboles : 

(1) Tremolite, CaMg3(Si03)4. — Includes colourless and pale 
amphiboles associated with the crystalline limestones. 

(2) Hor/ieft^mde, Ca(MgFe) 3(8103)4 &c.— Includes dark amphi- 
boles occurring in the crystalline limestones and the dark green 
amphiboles characteristic of many of the more basic varieties or 
granulites and of contact zones. 

Ilmenite, FeTiOa. — Of widespread occurrence ; the commonest 
ingredient of ndmbu and black sand. One exceptional and very 
large specimen is shown. 

Geikielite, MgTi03. — Not known except in Ceylon, where it was 
found in gem refuse. 

Titanite {Sphene), CaTiSiO.-.— Characteristic of the rocks of the 
Galle group; common in junction rocks, &c. 

Talc {Steatite), HoMg3(Si03)4.— To be distinguished from mica. 
Kare as an accessory mineral in crystalline limestones. 



( 59 ) 

. Serpentine, H4Mg3Si20,,. — Not infrequent as a deeomposition 
product of forsterite. 

ApuphylUte, (HK)oCa(SiO;02H,0. 

Topaz, (AlF)2SiO^.— Commonly found in gem gravels ; yellow, 
colourless, or pink, the latter variety known as king topaz. The 
colourless varieties are wrongly known as water sapphires. The pale 
greenish-blue varieties are cut as aquamarine. Not met with in situ. 

Andalusite, Al(A10)Si04. 

Kyanite, (^10)38103.— Has only been found in dredgings made 
by Professor Herdman oflE the coast of Ceylon. 

SilUmanite, AlgSiO.,. — Very rarely in good crystals in gem 
gravels. Sillimanite is in some districts a common constituent of 
the garnetiferous leptynites, the rocks then resembling the 
khondalites of Southern India, of which specimens are exhibited. 
Fine coarse sillimanite rocks occur near Haldummulla, the 
sillimanite being disposed in sheaf -like and radiating aggregates. 
The associated minerals are corundum, garnet, orthoclase-micro- 
perthite, ilmenite, and rutile. See also under Corundum. 

KaoUnite {China Clay), H^AUSioOi,.— Common as a decom- 
position product of orthoclase. 

Felspars : 

(1) Orthoclase, KAlSigOg affords the well-known moonstone ; it 
occurs in large but well-cleaved crystals in certain acid granulites 
associated with crystalline limestones in the Dumbara district, 
Central Province. Various pegmatites also, consisting of quartz 
and orthoclase, yield moonstone of a poor quality. Large indivi- 
duals of idiomorphic orthoclase occur in pegmatite veins at Galle. 
An intergrowth of orthoclase with albite is the most usual felspar 
of the less basic granulites. The silvery sheen so characteristic of 
moonstone is probably the result of the presence of excessively 
minute inclusions of kaolin, the products of incipient decom- 
position. The bluish- white opalescence of moonstone is best seen 
when the crystal is viewed in a direction at right angles to the basal 
plane, i.e., when regarding one of the planes of easy cleavage ; the 
stone should always be so cut that the flat base of the finished 
cabochon gem is parallel to this surface, in order that the opales- 
cence may be central and as conspicuous as possible. 

(2) Plagiodase {Lime-Soda Felspars). — These are commonly 
characteristic of many of the granulites, but are rarely of large size. 
A fine blue opalescence has occasionally been observed in the 
plagiodase felspars, but none of size suitable for yielding gems have 
been found. 

(3) Jlf icroc^m e, KAlSaOg.— Rarer than orthoclase in the granu- 
lites. 



( 60 ) 

Micas. — Geylonese micas are of some importance from a com- 
mercial poiat of view. They include muscovite, biotite, and 
phlDgopite : — 

(1) Muscjuite, HjKAl3(SiO^)3 occurs but sparingly in Ceylon, 
and not in crystals large or flawless enough to be of commercial 
value. 

(2) Biotite, (K:H),(\l5Fe),(AlFe), (810^3 is chiefly found in 
sm'tU crystals as a microscopic constituent of various rocks 
belonging to the Gaarnockice Series ; but a part of vein mica also 
belongs to biotite. 

(;i) Phlogo/jite, (K,H,Mg,F)3Mg3A.l(3iO J3 is by far the most 
important of Jeylonese mijas. Minute pale or golden crystals are 
almostalways common in the crystalline limestones. Larger mica 
crystals occur in veins and bauds associated usually'' with junction 
of granulite and crystalline Innestoue. These micas are rarely 
colourless, being more usually brown, reddish, bottle-green, or 
amber colourei. The largest crystals found have been two or 
three feet in diameter. The veins are usually one or two feet 
in width, and are composed of numerous "books " or crystals of 
mica which are generally more or less idiomorphic, having a clear- 
cut hexagonal outline. Mica is used for the peepholes of stoves, 
for lamp chimneys, and very largely for electrical appliances, 
&c. ; comminuted mica dust is of use as a non-conducting packing. 
Mica has long been used in the East for ornamental purposes, also 
for medicine. Fine crystals of mica from the Kandy District are 
exhibited. 





Fig-. 5.— Tourmaline, 
Tourmaline. — A borosilicate of alumina with magnesia iron and 
alkalis. Black varieties associated with qnartz are not uncommon. 



( 61 ) 



The greater part of the torarnalli of gemmers belongs properly to 
zircon. 

Serendihite. — A borosilicate of alumina and lime with magnesia 
and alkalis. Found only in Ceylon. In small crystals in diopside 
rock at the junction of limestone and granulite. Dumbara district, 
Central Province. 

Scapolitey Ca^AleSieOosNa^AlgSigOj^Cl.— Abundant in the 
vvollastonite-scapolite gneisses of Guile ; common in limestone- 
granulite junction rocks. Sometimes an accessory mineral in 
limestones. 

Stilbite, (Na2Ca)Al2Si60i66H20. — In minute crj^stals ; from 
Nilhene, near Baddegama, Southern Province. 

iJomfe, Ca2Alo(A10H)(SiO J3. 

AUanite, (CiFe)2(AlGeFe)o(A10H)(SiO J3.— In coarse granitic 
dykes near Balangoda. 

Beryl, Be3Alo(Si03)c. — The pale varieties of emerald known as 
aquamarine are abundant in gem gravels. Ceylon specimens with 
the true emerald colour have been very rarely met with. 

Gordiei-ite (lollte), (MgFe)4Al4Si50i §. — In rolled crystals known 
as water sapphire. Many stones, however, known as water 
sapphire belong to topaz, and are colourless. 

Garnets. — Several types of garnet occur in Ceylon. Amongst 
these are probably — 

Ginnamon stone, Ca3Al 0(8104)3. — Not known in situ. 

Pi/ro/je, MggAl 0(8104) 3. X These include the red and pink- 

Almandite, Fog Al2(8i04)3. I ish-red garnets so common in and 

Spessartite, Mn3Alo(Si04)3. ) characteristic of the granulites. 




/^ 




Fig. 6. — Zircon. 
Zircon, ZrSi04. — A very abundant mineral in Ceylon ; occurs 
in the granulites ap a microscopic constituent; near Ralanproda 



( 62 ) 

occurs abundantly in large idiomorphic crystals in a zircon 
granite. Common in gem washings, and usually well crystallized. 
Colour various : brown, yellowish, green. The colourless varieties 
are known as Matara diamonds ; the coloured as jargoon and 
hyacinth, used as gems. 

77^0/7^6', ThSi04. 

Apatite^ Ca4(CaF)(P04)3. — A microscopic constituent of many 
granulites. Blue apatite is very characteristic of the crystalline 
limestones. 

Fergusonite, (YErCe)(NbTa)04. 

Anhydrite, CaS04. 

Uraninite {PitcJMende). — Uranate of lead, the chief source of 
radium. Not certainly known to occur in Ceylon, as all supposed 
specimens may be thorianite. 



The above forms a complete list of the minerals at present 
known to occur in Ceylon ; the discovery of others may -be 
expected ; minerals of the samarskite and asschynite groups are 
probably present. 

For further information as to the rocks and minerals the 
following works may be consulted, amongst others : — 

Weinschenck, E. Zur Kenntniss der Graphitlage'rstatten ; Die 
Graphitlagerstatten der Insel Ceylons. Zeit. fur prakt. Geol.; 
1900, p. 174. 

Griinling, F. Ueber die Mineralvorkommen von Ceylon. Zeit 
fur Kryst, vol. XXXIIL, 1900, heft 3.5, pp. 209-239. 

Coomaraswamy, A. K. The Crystalline Limestones of Ceylon. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. LVIII., 1902, pp. 399-422. 

Coomaraswamy, A. K. The Point de Galle Group (Ceylon); 
Wollastonite-scapolite Gneisses. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 
LVIII., 1902, pp. 680-689. 



III.— ROCKS OF SECONDARY ORIGIN. 

Of these, Laterite (cabook) is perhaps the most important. It 
commonly occurs overlying quite unaltered granulites, forming 
a mantle varying from a few feet to many yards in thickness in 
different places, but is of rather local distribution. When dug it is 
soft, but as it hardens on exposure it forms a useful building 
stone. Typical laterite is a decomposition product of the rocks 
beneath, and is especially characteristic of tropical lands. Laterites 
are usually found to consist of a fine-grained scaly aggregate of 
hydrargillite or similar aluminium hydrate, with also ferrous 



( 63 ) 

hydrate varying in amount according to the nature of the parent 
rock. When the latter contained free quartz, it is found in the 
laterite in angular grains. 

Various Clays, including kaolin (China clay), are also found, and 
are also decomposition products of the granulitic rocks. They 
differ chiefly from laterite in consisting rather of aluminium 
silicates than of aluminium hydrate. 

Cherts and common-opal rock are sparingly found, often in 
association with crj^stallme limestones, and can sometimes be 
shown to have been formed by pseudo-morphous replacement of 
the latter ; specimens occur containing the phlogopite, graphite, 
and spinel of the original crystalline limestone, as well as others 
in which remains of the partially disintegrated carbonates can 
still be seen. 

Travertine (tufa) is a secondary deposit of carbonate of lime 
(apparently sometimes containing magnesium carbonate as well) 
removed in solution from the beds of crystalline limestone ; but 
these deposits are but rarely found in large quantity. 

IV.— FOSSILS AND RECENT SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 

Even less is known of these than of the crystalline rocks. A 
belt of raised beach deposits is almost everywhere to be traced 
around the coast, extending to no great height above sea level. 
The material composing the deposit varies from a sandstone 
cemented by calcareous material to a rubbly rock composed 
entirely of the debris of corals and other calcareous organisms. 

A series of recent marine fossils from Palanti-aar is exhibited, 
and includes shells in a calcareous breccia, and well-preserved 
remains of crabs in nodules of mud. There are also fossil chank 
shells from the Kadurawala coast ; the latter are regularly 
quarried in the recent deposits of the Jaffna District. 

An interesting specimen of a bone and shell breccia from the 
floor of a Vedda cave is exhibited ; but little is known, however, 
as to the occurrence of really ancient cave deposits ; masses of 
stalactite are rarely found in caves in the crystalline limestones. 

In addition to the recent marine sedimentary deposits, there are 
river gravels and alluviums. Thick beds of the former are of 
somewhat rare occurrence, but rivers, large or small, are not 
infrequently bordered by strips of alluvial deposits, and when 
they leave behind the mountain country, and with it their often 
torrential character, debouch upon extensive alluvial plains where 
fine silty muds are still deposited in times of flood. The fine 
muds thus laid down are of great value in the manufacture of 
bricks and the coarser kinds of earthenware. 



( 64 ) 

v.— GEMS AND GEMMING. 
The gems of Ceylon are of such general interest that it will be 
worth while to give a brief account of the manner in which they 
are obtained. With the exception of moonstone and some garnets, 
none are obtained in s/tn, though all of course are derived from 
the crystalline rocks where they originally crystallized, like the 
other minerals accompanying them. It is however popularly and 
erroueously supposed that they have grown where found, and that 
small and flawed gems are merely immature. 

The gems (of which a tabulated list is given below) are obtained 
from gravels which have been deposited by streams and rivers ; 
gemming is now only cai-ried on in the Ratnapura District of the 




r.iM''>*^'^^ '' ^ 







^■'■S,'-!k 






A GEM PIT. 



Province of Sabaragamuwa and tlie Galle District of the Southern 
Province ; but a little is done near Hatton in the Central Province, 
and a good many gems were formerly obtained near Nuwara 
Eliya and in the Horton Plains. Many districts are now more or 
less exhausted. The process of gemming is briefly as follows : — 
A pit is sunk where gem-bearing deposits of gravels are known 
to occur; a typical section would show five or six feet of muddy 
alluvium, resting on a deposit of gem-bearing gravel not more than 
one or two feet thick, and called the illani, helow which is the 
malaiva, the decomposed (usually kaolinized) country rock, but 
gravels are of course obtained at various depths, frc.m the actual 
surface to fifty or sixty feet below. Occasionally two beds of illant 



( 65 ) 

are found, separated by a band of clay. However this may be, 
the illam is removed from the pit and subsequently washed in a 
"gemming basket." This is made of cane, and is of conical form, 
about 2 feet wide and 1 foot deep, and has a rim about 2\ inches 
wide. The washer stands in about 2 feet of water, and holding the 
basket in the water gives it a turning movement, depressing the 
rim below the water once in every turn, so that the lighter stones 
are washed over its edge by the centrifugal movement. Fifteen or 
twenty basketfuls are thus washed, and the residue, consisting 
only of gems and other heavy minerals, examined. The re maining 
material, usually thrown away, is called ndmhu; it often contains 
minerals of scientific interest, and further, it is in this way that 
the heavy minerals such as thorianite, containing rare elements, 
are obtained. 

Tabular List of Gems found in Ceylon. 

Corundum. — Includes sapphire (blue), ruby (red), star sapphire, 
and star ruby. White sapphires have had their original pale 
blue or yellow colour discharged by burning. Rubies are almost 
always burnt in order to discharge in the same way any trace of 
blue colour. Yellow sapphires are "oriental topaz," and violet 
coloured ones oriental amethyst. Pinkish-yellow stones are 
called " king topaz." 

Quartz. — Includes rock crystal, amethyst, cairngorm, smoky 
quartz, &c. 

Spinel. — Green, blue, red. The pink and red varieties are 
called balas ruby ; the blue, spinel sapphire. 

Ghrysoheryl. — Green and yellow ; includes cat's-eye and alex- 
andrite. 

Topaz. — Colourless, erroneously called water sapphire ; rarely 
yellow ; pale sea-green, cut as aquamarine. 

Othoclase-Feldspar. — Includes moonstone, quarried from the 
matrix in the Central Province. 

Tourmaline. — Brown and brownish-green and yellow ; see 
zircon. 

Beryl. — Pale sea-green, cut as aquamarine (true aquamarine) ; 
the true emerald colour is extremely rare in Ceylon. 

Cordierite. — Blue, the true water sapphire ; rarely seen. 

Garnet. — Red, pinkish-red, and brownish-yellow (cinnamon 
stone). 

Zircon.— Green, yellow; the colourless " Matara diamonds" are 
got by burning pale zircons and so driving off the colour. Most of 
the material called toramalli by gemmers is actually zircon, and 
not tourmaline. 

K 105-04 



( 66 ) 

VI.— ARRANGEMENT OF THE MINERAL GALLERY. 
Of the four wall cases, those facing the entrance are devoted 
to rocks ; the two right and left of the door to plumbago, iron 
ores, mica, kaolin, &c. ( )f the seven table cases, the five window cases 
contain the systematic collection of Ceylon minerals, beginning 
with the elements in the first case on the left-hand, and ending with 
zircons, &c., in the fifth case on the right. The two central cases 
contain the recent fossils, and collections of a general character 
illustrating the geology and mineralogy of Ceylon. Some large and 
interesting specimens are also accommodated on the floor. Geo- 
logical photographs and others illustrating the processes of 
gemming and iron smelting are hung upon the walls. The collec- 
tion has been arranged and largely added to l3y the stafiE of the 
Mineralogical Survey in 1903 and 1904. 




GIANT TOliTOlSE OF ALDABKA. 
(^See page 43.") 



/^ 



SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 67 



OH THE PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA 
COLLECTED BY MR. E. ERNEST GREEN IN CEYLON. 



By P. Cameron. 

Plates A and B. 



INTE0DUCTI0IS\ 
nriHE Ichneumonidae and other Parasitic Hymenoptera are — 
-*~ as Dr. Sharp remarks in his volume on Insects (Cambridge 
Nat. Hist. ?°iries) — " One of the most neglected of the great groups 
of Insects, though perhaps of greater economic importance to 
mankind than any other." Besides the truly parasitic families, 
the group is usually made to include the gall-flies — insects which 
must be considered as inimical to mankind. It is, however, 
with the former families — those that prey upon the vegetarian 
insects — that we are chiefly concerned and that form the principal 
subject-matter of Mr. Cameron's paper. 

The importance of the Parasitic Hymenoptera will be recog- 
nized when it is understood that there is probably not a single 
vegetarian insect that does not constitute the host of one or more 
species of these parasites. Dr. Sharp states (loc. cit.) tliat the 
destructive " winter moth " (a serious pest of fruit trees) is 
known to be attacked by sixty-three distinct species of Hymen- 
opterous parasites. 

This neglect — by the generality of entomologists — must be 
attributed partly to the difficulties of determination and partly 
to their somewhat uninteresting exterior, for the family does 
not rank among its members many beautiful or remarkable forms. 
But the lack of conspicuous external beauty is amply compen- 
sated by the interest and complexity of their habits and 
development. 

In spite of this comparative neglect, nearly 6,000 species of 
Ichneumonidae have been described. By far the greater number 
of species undergo their early development inside the bodies 
of their hosts. The adult female is usually provided with a 
prominent slender ovipositor, by means of which the eggs are 
inserted into the tissues of the victim. The resulting larvae 
subsist upon the juices (the lymph or blood), taking up all the 

L 8(17)05 



68 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

nourishment that should go to the buildins; up of the tissues of 
the ho6t, until eventually the latter dies of inanition. This 
collapse seldom occurs until the contained parasite (or parasites) 
is ready to undergo transformation into the pupal state. In the 
Ichneumonidae proper the full-grown larva usually spins a 
compact cocoon either within the carcass of its victim or by the 
side of it. 

The early stages of these parasites are not invariably passed 
within the body of the host. Three distinct conditions have 
been noticed : — 

(1) Both egg and larva may be interior. 

(2) The egg may be exterior and the larva interior. 

(3) Egg and larva may both be completely exterior. 

This last condition may be observed in the case of the 
parasite of one of our principal tea pests, the " Tea Tortrix" 
{Capua coffearia, Niet.) The egg of this useful little parasite is 
attached to the back of the caterpillar, just behind the head. 
The young grub fixes itself in the same position and completes 
its growth, fully exposed, except for the leafy shelter constructed 
by the host. It is noticeable that even those species that attach 
their eggs to the surface of the caterpillars are still provided with 
a well-developed piercing ovipositor. With the parasite of the 
Tortrix this weapon is employed in piercing the leafy covering 
which conceals the victim. It is remarkable, also, that the 
periodical moulting of the caterpillar does not dislodge the 
parasite. 

Besides true insects, spiders are subject to the attacks of 
Ichneumon flies. 

E. E. G. 
PIEST PAPER. 

Our knowledge of the Hymenoptera of Ceylon, and more parti- 
cularly of the plant-feeding and parasitic species, is very limited. 
There is a paper by the Russian Entomologist V. Motsulsky 
in the Bull, de la Soc. Imp. des Xatur. de Moscow, XXXVI., 
1863, wherein sixty-one parasitic species are described, includ- 
ing many new genera. The descriptions, however, leave much 
to be desired, while it is doubtful if many of the species have 
been referred to their proper genera. Motsulsky, for example, 
describes two species of Microgaster, but all the species I have 
seen, or have been described by recent writers, belong, not to 
Microgaster, but to the allied genus Apanteles. Consequently one 
is in doubt if the species described by Motsulsky belong to 
Microgaster as now limited, or to Apanteles, or even to some new 
genus ; as is probably the case with the species I have in this 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTBRA. 69 

paper doubtfully referred to Microgaster. The same remark 
applies to the species of Microgaster described by "Walker. The 
systematic position of some of the genera described by the Russian 
Hymenopterist is also doubtful in some cases. Thus his genus 
OalUopterotna, referred by him to the Iclineumonidce, belongs to 
the Encyrtidw (fihalcididce) according to that eminent authority 
Dr. Wm. H. Ashmead, cf. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXIIL, 152. The 
late Mr. Francis Walker described (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1860, 
VI.), a number of species and some new genera, none of which I 
have been able to identify, nor has Dr. Ashmead, /.c.,been able to 
refer them to their proper tribes. I do not know where Walker's 
types are. Apparently they are not in the British Museum, 
otherwise Col. C. T. Bingham would have described the aculeates 
in his work on the Aculeate Hymenoptera of British India and 
Ceylon. In that work he has merely reproduced Walker's descrip- 
tions. I have myself (Manchester Memoirs) described a few species 
taken by Mr. G. A. J. Rothney and by Col. Yerbury, and in Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. XVIII., Dr. Ashmead has described some species, 
mostly reared from Lepidoptera and Coccidse, taken or bred by 
Mr. Green. And some species have been described by J. 0. 
Westwood in his Thesaurus Entomologicus Oxouiensis. From 
what I have said it is evident that our information regarding the 
Hymenoptera of Ceylon is of a very restricted nature — a remark 
that applies with even more force to Southern India. 

The following species are here described : — 

1. Xiphydria striatifrons, n. sp. 

Bethylin^. 

2. Epyris foveatus, n. sp. 

3. Rhacoteleia pilosa, n. g. et sp. 

Chalcidid^. 

4. Spilomegastigmus ruficeps, n. g. et sp. 

EVANIIDJE. 

5. Evania interstitialis, n. sp. 

6. Evania peradeniyae, n. sp. 

7. Gasteruption tricoloratum, n. sp. 
6. Gasteruption ceylonicum, n. sp. 

Agathidin^. 
9. Agathis kandyensis, n. sp. 

10. Agathis oya, n. sp. 

11. Agathis ceylonicus, n. sp. 

12. Microdus greeni, n. sp. 



70 spolia zbylanica. 

Chelontn^. 
13. Chelonus tricoloratus, n. sp. 
] 4. Phomerotoma hendecasisella, n. sp. 

Cardiochilin^. 
15. Ernestiella nigroinacnlata, ii. g. et sp. 

MiCROOASTERINvE. 
It). Microgaster carinicollis, n. sp. 

BrACONINuE. 

17. Iphiaulax xanthopsis, n. sp. 

18. Iphiaulax fulvopilosus, n. sp. 

19. Iphiaulax greeni, n. sp. 

20. Iphiaulax ernesti, n. sp. 

21. Iphiaulax kirbyi, n. sp. 

22. Iphiaulax erythroura, n. sp. 

23. Iphiaulax haragamensis, n. sp. 

24. Rhacospathius striolatus, n. g. et sp. 

25. Philomacroploea basimacula, n. g. et sp. 

RHOGADIN^. 

26. Paraspinaria pilosa, n. g. et sp. 

27. Holcobracon f ulvus, n. g. et sp. 

28. Tropobracon luteus, n. g. et sp. 
'29. Troporhogas spilonotus, n. g. et sp. 

30. Troporhogas albipes, n. sp. 

31. Troporhogas maculipennis, n. sp. 

32. Troporhogas tricolor, n. sp. 

33. Troporhogas ruficeps, n. sp. 

34. Troporhogas lateralis, n. sp. 

35. Troporhogas trimaculata, n. sp. 

Cryptin.^. 

36. Bathycrisis striaticollis, n. g. et sp. 

SIRICTD^. 

1. — Xiphydria striatifrons, sp. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 1. 
Black, a large irregular mark, broader than long, on the face, two 
small irregular oblique marks above the antennae, a line on the 
inner eye orbits, with a rounded projecting point in the middle 
and dilated above ; on the outer side the line is continued half 
way up the eyes, the upper part projecting obliquely outwards, a 
large mark on the top of the temples, irregularly narrowed on the 
inner side, the base and lower side of the propleurse, the apex, two 
small spots on the base of the scutellum, a small and a large mark 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PAPASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 71 

closely united on the sides of the post-scutellum, a longish mark 
on the sides of the first abdominal segment, a small one on the third 
and fifth, a slightly larger one on the fourth, a large, long, oblique 
one on the penultimate, and an oblique mark, transverse behind, 
more irregular at the base, and narrowed to a point below on the 
last abdominal segment, and a thin curved narrow line on the top 
of the mesopleurae. white. Legs dark red, the coxae marked with 
white ; the hind tibicB darker, their base and the metatarsus white, 
the other joints of the hind tarsi, blackish. The inner side of the 
mandibles dark rufous. Wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the 
nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 11*5 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, February. 

Front furrowed in the middle, the furrow widest above : closely, 
distinctly striated, the striae becoming strongest below and extend- 
ing on to the face. Vertex smooth, shining. Middle lobe of 
mesonotum closely rugose ; the apex reticulated ; the lateral lobes 
irregularly transversely striated. Scutellum coarsely rugose at 
the base, the rest smooth and shining. Apex of propleurae 
sparsely, the mesopleurae more closely and strongly punctured 
throughout. Transverse marginal nervure received very shortly 
beyond the second transverse cubital, which is roundly curved 
towards the base of the wings ; both the recurrent nervures are 
received near the apex of the basal third of the cellule. 

The antennae are 15-jointed, have the flagellum thickly covered 
with a short, black, stifi: pubescence and taper distinctly and gra- 
dually towards the apex. 

This species may be known from the two known Indian species 
(Jl. 4-mactilata, Ca,m. & orienialis, West.) by the antennas being 
15-jointed, in addition to the other specific differences. 

BETHYLIN^. 
2. — Epyris {?) foveatus, sp. nov. 

Black, shining, the mandibles,antennae,andlegsrufotestaceous ; 
wings hyaline, the basal nervures and costa testaceous, the stigma 
and stigmal branch darker coloured ; the head, thorax, and 
ventral surface covered with longish fuscous hair, 6. 

Length 4 mm. 

Peradeniya, May. 

Flagellum of antennae densely covered with long white pubes- 
cence, as long as the thorax ; scape about four times as long as its 
thickness at the apex ; pedicle longer than wide fully half the 
length of the first flagellar joint, which is of the length of the 
second ; the last two joints are darker coloured, about three times 



1'2 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

longer than thick. Parapsidal furrows and the transverse furrow 
at the base of scutellum wide and deep. Post-scutellum with a 
deep, semi-circular fovea in the centre at the base. A deep trans- 
verse furrow at the base of the metanotum, widened laterally and 
bounded at the apex by a stout keel. Metanotum with a stout keel 
down the middle, stoutly transversely striated ; the apical slope 
finely transversely striated in the middle. Pro- and meso-pleurae 
smooth ; a deep oval fovea near the centre of the mesopleurae, 
with a smaller one below ; shortly beyond the middle is a deep 
depression finely striated in the centre, rounded below, where it 
is wider than it is above. Metapleurse finely, closely striated. 
First abdominal stoutly keeled in the middle at the base and with 
a narrower keel on either side ; the apex testaceous. Fore legs 
and femora slender. Apical tooth of mandibles long, sharply 
pointed, the others indistinct. Clypeus projecting, roundly 
narrowed at the apex. Basal abscissa of radius straight, obli- 
quely sloped ; the apical roundly curved. 

This is not a true Epyris ; but having only a single <$, I do not 
care to found a new genus on it. It has practically only one 
long tooth on the mandibles, and in the clypeus projecting at the 
apex it differs from the typical species. 

Rhacoteleia, gen. no v. 

Sub-marginal nervure long, longer than the others united, 
marginal nervure very short, half the length of the stigmal, which 
has a knob at the end, the post marginal about three times the length 
of stigmal branch. Antennai 13-jointed, the last six forming a 
club. Mesonotum and scutellum flat, the parapsidal furrows 
distinct, crenulated. Abdomen longish, longer than the head and 
thorax united, convex above and below, the sides margined ; 
sessile, the basal segment strongly striated, the striae distinct and 
clearly separated ; the base of the second segment depressed, stout- 
ly striated ; the base of the first clearly margined. Mesopleurae 
largely and deeply excavated. Scutellum broader than long, 
transverse at the base and apex, where there is a crenulated furrow. 
The third abdominal segment is longer than the second and fourth, 
which are about the same size. Antennae inserted immediately 
over the mouth ; the scape long. Legs slender, all the tibiae one- 
spurred, the basal joint of hind tibiae as long as the others united, 
about three times longer than the second. Metanotum rugosely 
punctured, shorter than the scutellum, depressed and transverse 
at the apex. 

The head is large, rounded in front, transverse behind ; the 
occiput margined ; temples wide ; ocelli in a triangle, the hinder 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. TA 

almost touching the eyes. Prothorax small. Malar space large. 
Eyes gradually narrowed from above downwards. The wings, 
when folded, do not reach to the apex of the abdomen. 

Allied to Macroteleia and Chromoteleia ; from the former it 
may be known by the stigmal vein issuing from near the sub- 
marginal, the marginal being very short as it is in Chromoteleia, 
but that has two distinct basal cellules; from both it may be 
known by the strongly striated basal segments of the abdomen. 

3. — Rhacoteleia pilosa, sp. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 2. 

Black, covered with white pubescence, the antennae except the 
apical five or six joints and the legs, except the coxae rufo- 
testaceous, wings hyaline, the nervures testaceous, 6 and ?. 

Length 4 mm. 

Peradeniya, August. 

Vertex finely, closely aciculated ; the front irregularly rugosely 
punctured ; malar space closely, obliquely striated. Apex of 
mandibles broadly rufous. Hind edge of vertex closely, finely 
reticulated ; occiput shining, finely closely, transversely striated. 
Mesonotum and scutellum with shallow moderately close, round 
punctures, thickly covered with white pubescence ; lateral lobes 
of mesonotum clearly separated from the middle one ; on the 
outer side they are bordered by a crenulated furrow. Apex of 
scutellum bordered by a smooth, shining keel. The depression 
bordering its sides with stout clearly-separated keels. Pleurae 
finely rugose, the mesopleural depression shining, bare, its sides 
obscurely striated. The third and following abdominal segments 
distinctly closely punctured. Mesosternum strongly closely 
punctured. Ventral surface of abdomen closely punctured, 
thickly covered with white pubescence. 

The pedicle of the antennae is about three times longer than 
thick ; the first joint of flagellum is longer than the second and 
not quite double the length of the pedicle. The club is clearly 
defined ; its last joint conical. The apices of the abdominal 
segments are smooth and shining ; the ovipositor is longer than 
usual. The 6 appears to have the front more strongly rugosely 
reticulated than the ?. 

Chalcidid^. 

Spilomegastigmus, gen. nov. 

Mandibles bidentate, the teeth blnnt. Head and thorax smooth, 
the mesonotum only slightly transversely striated. Scutellum 
smooth, without a transverse furrow. Antennae long, the scape 



74 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

slender, its apex reaching to the hinder ocelli. Hypopygium 
long, plough-share shaped. Legs long and slender. Apex of 
clypeus roundly incised. 

This new genus cannot well be confounded with any of the 
described genera of Megastigminw. It comes nearest to Megas- 
tignms, which may be known from it by the punctured scutellum 
with a transverse furrow at the apex, by the distinctly 3-dentate 
mandibles and by the shorter antennal scape, the top of which 
does not reach to the ocelli. Characteristic is the spotted 
abdomen, the red head and the thorax, and the projecting 
cultriform hypopygium. 

4. — Spilomegastiginus ruficeps, sp. nov. 

Plate A, fig. 3. 

Black, the head, antennal scape, prothorax, mesonotum, the 
upper part of the mesopleurae at the base, and scutellum, red ; the 
legs yellow, the femora slightly tinged with rufous ; on the sides 
of the abdomen are four yellow marks, the second is larger and 
rounder than the others, the apical two longer and narrower 
than the basal, the wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black ; 
there is a slightly oblique cloud, narrowed below, at the stigma, ?. 

Length 6 ; ovipositor 11 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Front excavated in the middle with a keel down the centre, the 
sides roundly convex, projecting beyond the eyes ; infuscated. 
Head much wider than the thorax. Mandibles and sides of 
clypeus black. Mesonotum transversely striated, but not closely 
or strongly. Scutellum perfectly smooth. Mesopleurae obscurely 
striated. Sheath of ovipositor fringed with long black hair. 

EVANIID^. 

5. — Evania interstitialis, sp. nov. 

Red ; the head and abdomen,except the petiole, black, the four 
front legs and hind coxse rufous, the rest of hind legs black. 
except the trochanters which are red, mixed with black, the basal 
half of metatarsus and calcaria which are testaceous and a broad 
band on the base of the tibiae, which is white ; wings hyaline, 
the nervures black, the seven or eight basal joints of antennae 
testaceous beneath, 6. 

Length 5 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, October. 

Antennal scape as long as the following two joints united ; the 
pedicle and first joint of flagellum as long as the second united. 
Head thickly covered with white pile ; the front and vertex 
smooth and shining ; the face, oral region and malar space closely, 



PHYTOPHAaOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 75 

strongly striated. Apex ol clypeus and of cheeks riifo-tesraceous. 
Mandibles yellow, tinged with testaceous, the teeth black. Hind 
ocelli separated from each other by a distinctly greater distance 
than they are from the eyes, which very slightly converge above. 
Middle lobe of mesonotum with some large scattered punctures ; 
the lateral lobes more closely and finely punctured. Scutellum 
smooth in the centre, the rest bearing large, round, clearly sepa- 
rated punctures. Metanotum closely, reticulated, punctured. 
Propleiirie smooth, the apex closely striated, the base below with 
a few short keels. The dilated lower part of the mesopleurse with 
shallow, clearly separated round punctures ; the edges crenulated. 
Sternal process distinctly diverging : the branches stout and 
rounded at the apex. Abdominal petiole longer than the rest of 
the abdomen, its apical half with scattered punctures, which give 
it a rough appearance. On the base of the hind coxae behind is a 
smooth shining, raised, elongate Spdce, clearly defined from the 
punctured parts and having at the apex a projecting keel, when 
pressed together the coxse appear to be united. Tibiae minutely, 
snarsely spinose. The long spur of the hind tibiae reaches to 
shortly beyond the middle of the metatarsus, 

Pronotum transverse in the middle at the base; the sides 
broadly rounded, slightly projecting. Cheeks not quite so long 
as the antennal scape, parapsidal furrows deep, smooth clearly 
defined. Apical abscissa of radius broadly rounded ; recurrent 
nervure interstitial, as is also the transverse median; the cubitus 
is largely buUated at the transverse cubital nervure. There is a 
keel on the upper two-thirds of the face, down the centre. 

Allied to E. dolichopus, Schl. 

6. — Evania peradeniyce, sp. nov. 

Length 4 mm. 6. 
Peradeniya, August. 

This species is black with the thorax red as in the preceding 
species. The two may be separated thus : — 

Recurrent nervure interstitial, oral region rufous ut the apex, face 
strongly striated and weakly keeled in the middle, hind coxse 
rufous above, intcrstitialis. 
Recurrent nervure received beyond the transverse cubital, oral region 
entirely black, face weakly striated and strongly keeled in the 
centre, hind coxse black above, peradeniyce. 

Scape and pedicle of antennae rufous. Scape of antennae not 
much longer than the first joint of flagellum, which is, with the 
pedicle, as long as the second. Face closely, weakly striated : a 
stout keel on the upper two-thirds ; malar space rather strongly, 
obliquely striated ; thickly covered with white pubescence. 

M 8(^17)05 



76 .SPOLTA ZEYLAKICA. 

Front and vertex smooth and shining. Hind ocelli sepaiated 
from each other by a slightly greater distance than they are 
from the eyes, which converge very slightly above. Shoulders 
broadly rounded. Mesonotum with a regular row of punctures 
on the inner side of the furrows and a less regular one on the 
outer ; the lateral lobes minutely closely punctured in the centre. 
Scutellum with a broad smooth band in the middle, the sides 
strongly punctured. Hinder division of propleurse rugosely 
punctured. MesopleuraB with round closely pressed punctures, 
except for an oblique smooth band in the middle and a smaller 
triangular space on the uppec side at the apex. Anterior tibise 
and tarsi testaceous, middle trochanters pale testaceous ; the 
middle coxas and the underside of the hinder pair at the base 
rufous ; the base of the hind tibiae and of the hind tarsi white ; 
the spurs testaceous ; the long spur of the hinder about two- 
thirds of the length of the metatarsus ; tibiae and tarsi sparsely 
spinose. Recurrent nervure received shortly beyond the trans- 
verse cubital ; lower part of the apical abscissa of the radius 
broadly, roundly curved. Abdomittal petiole above finely closely 
striated ; the sides with two stout keels, which become stouter 
towards the apex. Hind coxae above at the base coarsely punctured, 
the middle closely obliquely striated. Apical branches of 
uietasternal process, straight, obliquely diverging. 

Comes close to E. erythrosoma, Sch., also from Ceylon. It may 
be known inter alia from our species by its perfectly smooth 
abdominal petiole. 

1 .— Gasteruption tricoloratum, sp. no\. 

Black, densely covered with silvery pubescence ; the four front 
coxae black, the femora rufo-testaceous, the tibiae fuscous, broadly 
white at the base, the fore tarsi white, the middle white, infus- 
cated at the apex, the hind legs black, except for a narrow white 
band near the base of the tibiae. Mandibles testaceous, tinged 
with yellow in the middle, the teeth darker coloured ; palpi pale 
testaceous, wings clear hyaline, the nervures black ; apex of 
ovipositor testaceous, ?. 

Length 12 mm. ; ovipositor 12 mm. 

Peradeniya, May. 

Head smooth and shining, covered with a silvery pile. Hind 
ocelli separated from each other by the length of the antenna] 
scape. Thorax thickly covered with silvery pubescence : the 
pro- and mesonotum with round, clearly separated shallow 
punctures ; opaque, granular. Scutellum with a row of round, 
deep fcveae along the sides. Metanotnm with a dee]} shining 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASlTTC HYMENOPTERA. 77 

furrow down the middle : the rest irregularly reticulated. The 
third joint of the antennas is about one half the length of the 
fourth, and twice the length of the pedicle. Apical half of 
mesopleurae obscurely reticulated ; on the apex is a deep, shining, 
smooth furrow. Second discoidal cellule divided. 

8. — Gasteruption ceylonicum, sp. no v. 

Black, the mesopleurae and mesosternum ferruginous ; the legs 
black, the fore coxae ferruginous, the fore femora fuscous ; the 
base of the fore tibiae and of the tarsi more broadly, white ; the 
bind tibife white on the vmder side at the base. Wings clear 
hyaline, the nervures black, the second discoidal cellule divided,?. 

Length 13 mm.; terebra 13 mm. 

Pundalu-oya. February. 

Third joint of antennfe as long as the scape, more than half the 
length of the fourth and not twice the length of the pedicle. 
Mandibles rufous. Centre of clypens covered with pale golden 
pubescence. Hind ocelli separated by the length of the third 
antennal joint. Thorax thickly covered with silvery pubescence. 
Pronotum stoutly keeled down the middle. Middle lobe of 
mesonotum closely finely transversely striated ; the apex coarsely, 
irregularly reticulated ; the furrows bordering the middle lobe 
crenulated ; the furrows bordering the scutellum indistinct. 
Metanotum closely transversely reticulated and with a smooth 
line down the middle. Shoulders with strong, stout teeth ; the 
part behind these closely, irregularly reticulated, the middle 
depression crenulated. Lower half of mesopleuras reticulated. 

Agathidin^. 

9. — Agathis kandi/ensis, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the antennae, the hind tibiae and the hind tarsi black : 
wings hyaline, the base tinged with yellow, a large cloud at the 
base of the stigma, broadest behind and the apex from near the 
second cubital cellule dark smoky, the hind wings with a faint 
cimoky cloud at the apex, 6. 

Length 7 mm. 

Kandy, May to August. 

Head covered with short fuscous hair, lower part of occiput 
and the malar space distinctly keeled. Pro- and mesothorax 
closely and rather strongly punctured ; the middle lobe raised 
in the centre, depressed on either side. Scutellum strongly 
and closely punctured ; its apex roundly projecting. Base of 
metanotum obliquely depressed, irregularly reticulated ; the 
middle strongly irregularly areolated ; the central area irregular; 



78 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

that next to the spiracular triangular, with a curved keel on the 
innerside ; the apical slope bordered by area- which are widest 
below ; the centre with some irregular keels. Pleurae strong] v 
and closely punctured ; the crenulated furrow on the mesopleurae 
wide, with strong striae ; there is an oblique keel on the centre of 
the metapleui'Hs. 

10. — Agatlii.s uya^ sp. nov. 

Length TvS mm., ? and 6. 

Kandy, July and August. Puudalu-oya, May. 

This species is very similar to the preceding : it may be known 
by the apex only of the hind tibiae being black ; by the middle 
lobe of mesonotum being smooth and not raised in the centre, by 
the central area on the metanotum being distinctly divided into 
a large basal and a smaller apical area ; it is joined to the base of 
the metanotum by a V-shaped area ; the lateral area is triangular; 
on the apical slope is a V-shaped area bordered by a more 
irregular V-shaped one. Wings yellowish hyaline, with the 
costa, stigma, and nervures yellow on the hyaline parts : the first 
clotid commences at the transverse basal and median nervures, and 
is narrowed in front, the apical at the end of the stigma ; the 
nervures in the hind wings are yellow, with a slight cloud at the 
apex. Parupsidal furrows faintly striated. 

11. — Agathis ceylonicus, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the greater part of the vertex, upper part of occiput, 
the third and following segments of abdomen and the hind tibiae 
and tarsi, black ; the wings yellowish hyaline, the apex with a 
fuscous cloud, commencing at the end of the radial cellule ; there 
is a small square black mark at the base of the stigma, ?. 

Length 7 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

The black antennae thickly covered with short, stiff pubescence : 
they are brownish towards the apex. Face and clypeus thickly 
covered with white, the upper part of vertex and occiput with 
fuscous pubescence. Thorax smooth and shining, above thickly 
covered with white pubescence. Apex of scutellum bifoveate, 
the fovese shallow. On the base of the metanotum are three small 
arese, the central the smaller, with the sides rounded narrowed 
towards the base, the lateral longer, obliquely narrowed towards 
the apex ; outside these is a triangular area with the apex on the 
inner side ; the central area on the apical slope is triangular ; the 
two areae outside this are open below ; the outer area large, with 
three angles on the outer side. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS ANG PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 79 

12. — Microdui< greeni^ sp. nov. 

Ferruginous, the vertex and more or less of mesonotum may 
be inf uscated or blackish, antennal scape rufous ; the basal half of 
the flagellum black, the apical testaceous, tinged with yellow : 
wings yellowish hyaline to the base of the stigma, beyond that 
dark fuscous, the first and second cubital cellules and a curved 
cloud below hyaline ; the stigma and apical nervures black ; the 
hind tarsi inf uscated; the basal three segments of abdomen and 
the base of the fourth strongly closely longitudinally, striated.? 

Length 10 mm. terebra 9 mm. 

Kandy, July and August. 

Head smooth, sparsely pilose ; the lower part of the front 
deeply bifoveate ; the space separating the two foveas triangular. 
Thorax smooth and shining ; the parapsidal furrows deep, smooth. 
On the base of the metanotum is a curved furrow forming a 
closed area and having a straight keel in the centre, dividing 
it into two. From its centre two stout keels run to the apex of the 
segment forming an elongated area, obliquely narrowed at the 
base. FleurcB smooth, the metapleurse tlensely pilose, the lower 
edge bordered by a stout waved furrow. Mesosternal furrow 
wide, deep, widened ac the apex and with some stout transverse 
keels. 

This species is probably variable as regards the amount of 
black on the vertex, thorax, and apex of abdomen. The antenna3 
are longer than the body. 

Chelonin^. 

13. — Gheluuus tricoloratus, sp. nov. 

Black, the antennal scape, and pedicle rufous : the anterior 
legs, middle coxae and trochanters, and posterior trochanters ruf o- 
testaceous, two spots near the base of the abdomen and a broad 
band at the base of the hind tibite pale testaceous. Wings hyaline 
to the base of the radius, fuscous beyond it ; the nervures and 
stigma black. Antennae 23-jointed, 9. 

Length 4 mm. 

Trincomalee Col. Yerbury. 

Head and thorax closely finely rugose, covered with a minute 
Avhite pubescence. Mesonotum closely reticulated. Scutellum 
with some, not very distinct longitudinal striae. Metanotum 
irregularly reticulated, more strongly on the apex than on the 
base of the basal division ; the apical slope shining, smooth, 
reticulated above. Base of abdomen longitudinally striated ; the 
strias are not numerous and become weaker towards the apex. 
Pleurae closely reticulated. 



80 SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 

14. — P}i(uier()to)na liendecaxi sella, sp. nov. 

Pallid ferrufi^inous to pale testaceous, the apical segment 
lerruginous : antennje infuscated at the apex : wings clear 
hyaline, the stisrma and uervures fuscous, the former paler at the 
base and apex, 6 antl 9. 

Length 3 to 4 mm. 

Peradeniya July to December. 

Bred from beans (Canavalia,sip.) bored by minute pyralid (•') 
and from buds otJasininuni pubeacens infested by larvEe of Hendr- 
casts duplifascialis, Hmpsn. 

Antennae 23-jointed, longer than the body. Head shagreened; 
temples roundly narrowed, occiput deeply roundly incised; cly- 
peus shining, almost smooth, thickly covered with long pale hair; 
its sides above with a large, deep fovea. Mesonotum coarsely 
shagreened, its apex obscurely striated ; parapsidal furrows only 
indicated. The suture at the base of scutellum crenulated. 
Scutellum triangular ; its lateral slope stoutly obliquely striated ; 
at its apex is a broad shining black transverse stripe. Meta- 
notum more coarsely shagreened — almost punctured — than the 
mesonotum : there is a not very strong transverse keel across 
the middle, above the apical slope ; the sides below this project 
into a blunt tooth or tubercle. Apex of propleurai obscurely 
striated ; the lower part, at the apex, depressed, with a few distinct 
short keels. Basal two segments of abdomen shagreened ; the 
apical at the base finely, closely reticulated — punctured, the 
middle and, to a less extent, the apex, finely, closely, longitudi- 
nally striated ; the dorsal sutures obscurely crenulated. Second 
cubital cellule much narrowed at the apex, the nervures almost 
touching there ; the basal abscissa of the radius bounding it is 
straight and sharply oblique, the abscissa of the cubitus broadly 
roundly curved, pale at the base ; the recurrent nervure intersti- 
tial; it and the first transverse cubital nervure are pale, but quite 
clearly defined. The apex of the hind femora and the hind tibiae 
ferruginous ; the extreme base of the latter and a broad baud 
above the middle are pallid, almost white. The basal depression 
of the abdomen is bordered by a keel, which is very faint, if not 
absent from the middle. 

The first and second abscissae of the radius are roundly curved 
downwards, the two forming an arc of a circle ; the first trans- 
verse cubital nervure is straight, oblique to the stigma, then 
bends to run along side it to the radius, which it joins close to 
its base, quite close to the stigma. The wings are unclouded and 
highly iridescent. The second transverse cubital nervure is 
very faint and not half the length of the recurrent nervure. 



phytophagous and parasi'i'ic hymenoptep.a. 81 

Oardtochilin^. 
Ernestiella, gen. nov. 

Eyes pilose. Malar space large. Front not much excavated, 
without keels. Second cubital cellule large, much longer than 
wide, wider at the base that at the apex ; radius roundly curved 
towards the costa. Transverse median nervure received in the first 
cubital cellule, clearly distant from the transverse basal ; the 
recurrent nervure received in the first cubital cellule. Radial 
cellule in hind wings divided. Metanotum areolated. Suturi- 
form articulation distinct. Abdomen short : ovipositor short. 
Trophi elongate. 

The first and second cubital cellules are separated. Parapsidal 
furrows deep, the mesonotum distinctly trilobate : the scutellum 
raised, not keeled. Areola large, 7-angled. The face is not so much 
lengthened as in Agathis, tlie malar space being about one-third 
of the length of the eyes. Apex of clypeus broadly rounded: it is 
separated from the face by a furrow and is broader than long. 
Anal nervure in fore wings interstitial. AntenuRs about 40- 
jointed. Prodiscoidal cellule open at apex ; there is a large cellule 
at the base of hind wings. Hind calcaria long. 

15. — Ernestiella nigromaculata, sp. nov. 

Luteous,a large broad mark enclosing the ocelli, three large marks 
on the mesonotum, the central the larger, the greater part of the 
mesosternum, the antennae and mandibular teeth, black ; wings 
hyaline, the apex broadly infuscated, stigma black, yellowish at 
the base; the nervures testaceous, the radius pale at the base. 
Smooth, shining covered with pale hair. Parapsidal furrows 
crenulated at the apex. Scutellar depression with six stout keels. 
Behind the large 7-angled area on the metanotum are two small ones 
obliquely narrowed behind; on the sides three large irregular ones ; 
on the sides of the apical slope a large one, obliquely narrowed 
on the outer side, the apex of the middle transverse. Metapleur^e 
obscurely reticulated. First discoidal cellule at apex half the 
width it is at the base. Propleurse deeply excavated, striated below. 

Length 6 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, March. 

MlCROGASTERIN^L 

16. — Microgasler (?) carinicollis^ sp. nov. 
Areolet large, rounded in front, transverse below ; cubitus dis- 
tinct, radius faint at the base; three cubital cells. Antennae stout, 
longer than the body, 19-jointed. Clypeus not separated from the 
face, foveate at the sides above. Scutellar depression, with a row 
of stout keels ; the apex is bordered by a similar row of keels. 



82 SPOLTA ZRYLAXICA. 

Metanocum keeled down the middle ; the apical slope stoutly reti- 
culated, almost areolated ; eyes villose ; malar space large. First 
abdominal segment with the central area bordered by keels and 
with a shorter keel in the centre. Suturiform articiilation distinct. 
Mesopleural furrow wanting. Tibial spurs short, about one-fourth 
of the length of the metatarsus. There is a narrow, but distinct 
keel round the centre of the prothorax. Radius and cubitus in 
hind wings indistinct. Shortly below the middle of the mesopleu- 
rse is a furrow which bifurcates at the apex. On the mesonotum, 
in the centre, are three furrows, central being the shorter and it 
is also less distinct. Apices of tarsal joints spinose. 

Black : palpi and foiir front legs testaceous ; the hind femora and 
the abdomen, except at the base, red ; the basal two-thirds of the 
hind tibiae and the calcaria white, wings hyaline, the nervures 
and stigma black, the latter white at the base. Head and thorax 
densely covered with white pubescence, almost opaque. Metano- 
tum depressed at the base. The depi-ession at base of post- 
scutellum with four stout keels. Post-scutellum depressed at the 
base. Frontal depression clearly separated, deep, stoutly keeled 
in the middle. Last joint of tarsi one-half longer than penultimate. 

Length nearly 5 mm. 

Thisspecies comes closest to Microgaster as now defined, but is 
not quite typical. 

Bred from larva of Dasychira securis. .June. 

Braconin^. 

17. — Iphiaulax xanthopsis, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the face, oral region, malar space and inner upper ey-^ 
orbits, yellow; the antennae very long, black ; hind tarsi fuscous ; 
wings yellowish hyaline to the iniddle of the transverse basal 
nervure ; beyond that blackish-fuscous : the upper part of the first 
cubital cellule and a spot below the first transverse cubital nervure 
hyaline ; basal half of stigma luteous, ?. 

Length 11; terebra 4 mm. 

Elephant Pass, March. 

Face smooth, densely covered with long pale hair. Frontal 
furrow narrow ; vertex thickly covered with long fuscous 
hair. Thorax smooth : impunctate, the median segment thickly 
covered with long pale haii-. Abdomen ovate, broader than the 
thorax, short ; the area on the first segment longitudinally rugosely 
striolated ; a keel in the centre; basal depression smooth. Basal area 
on the second segment closely striated, not much narrowed towards 
the apex : not limited at the apex : the rest of the segment and the 
third closely, strongly, rugosely, punctured ; the lateral depression 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMBNOPTERA. 83 

oblique, large, deep, striated ; suturiform articulation, wide, deep, 
striated ; the third segment is closely rugosely punctured ; the 
furrow on its apex is obscurely striated ; the fourth segment is 
punctured, but not closely or strongly; the furrow at its base wide, 
deep, striated ; that on its apex crenulated. The fifth and following 
segments smooth ; the apical two are yellowish ; on the centre of 
the fifth is a deep wide furrow on the apical half ; on the sides, at 
the base, is a wide carved striated furrow. 

18. — Iphiaulax fulvopilosus, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the antennae black ; wings yellowish-hyaline, to near 
the transverse basal nervure, beyond that dark fulvous ; a 
hyaline cloud occupying the greater part of the first cubital cellule 
and a smaller one along the outer side of the recurrent nervure ; 
the base of the stigma fulvous. Pubescence dense, fulvous, ?. 

Length 17 ; terebra 6 mm. 

Kandy, June. 

Front and vertex sparsely, the face thickly covered with long 
fulvous pubescence. Tips of mandibles black. Palpi fulvous, 
covered with fulvous hair. Middle of raised part of first abdomi- 
nal segment stoutly keeled from near the base ; its apex strongly 
punctured. Basal area on second segment large, triangular, 
obliquely striated, the oblique striae, united by curved short ones, 
forming irregular reticulations ; the sides of the segment at the 
base depressed, without oblique furrows ; its apical part and the 
other segments all over closely, longitudinally striated. Suturi- 
form articulation narrow, deep, striated, not cleft at the sides ; the 
furrows on the following three segments are wider and more dilated 
in the middle ; the basal four segments together are as long as the 
thorax. Legs stout ; the basal four joints of the fore tarsi as long as 
the tibiae. The abdomen thickly covered with fulvous pubescence. 

19. — Iphiaulax greeni, sp. nov. 

Black, the scape of antennae, head, thorax, and four front legs 
red ; wings dark fuscous, the nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 11 ; terebra 17 to 18 mm. 

Peradeniya, August and November. 

Face rugosely punctured, a smooth line, gradually widened 
towards the apex in the centre ; sparsely covered with long fuscous 
hair ; frontal furrow shallow. First abdominal segment in the 
centre with four stout irregular longitudinal keels ; the outer two 
unite into one which goes to the apex ; the sides of the raised 
central part margined ; on the sides of the central keels are irregu- 
lar, more or less transverse keels ; the lateral depressions irregularly 
transversely striated. The area on the second segment is long, 

N 8(17)05 



84 SPOLIA ZBTLANICA. 

reaching beyond the middle of the segment, becoming gradually 
narrowed to a fine point and continued to the apex by a keel ; its 
base is irregularly longitudinally striated ; the depression border- 
ing it closely strongly transversely striated ; on the outer side is 
a long pyriform fovea. Suturiform articulation wide, closely, 
strongly striated ; the furrow on the apex of the third segment 
and on the base of the fourth are striated ; on the apex of the 
fourth is a smooth furrow ; the third segment is strongly and 
closely striated, but not so strongly, as the second ; the fourth is 
more finely and closely striated. Hind tibiae and tarsi densely 
covered with black hair. Apex of sheaths of ovipositor white. 
Apical abscissa of radius curved, slightly longer than the basal two 
united ; received in the apex of the first cubital cellule, clearly 
distant from the first transverse cubital nervure. 

20. — Iphiaulax ernesti, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax red ; the four front legs yellow, their coxae 
tinged with rufous, hind legs fuscous black ; wings fuscous, 
hyaline, highly iridescent, the nervures and stigma black, 9. 

Length 8 ; terebra 12 mm. 

Peradeniya, October. 

Face rugose, thickly covered with long fuscous hair. Temples 
obliquely narrowed. Antennal scape rufous, about f ourtimes longer 
than thick, of equal width throughout. Front deeply furrowed. 
Middle area of first segment with two keels, which unite into one 
shortly beyond the middle ; its sides margined and there is a 
curved keel which runs from the central two before they unite ; 
the lateral furrows with some scattered transverse keels. The 
area on the second segment becomes gradually narrowed to a fine 
point shortly beyond the middle ; the base finely, distinctly 
striated ; the depression bordering it has some transverse, not 
very distinct, striae ; outside it are four curved longitudinal striae ; 
the fovea on the outer side is rounded at the apex and is of equal 
width. The third segment is closely, strongly longitudinally 
striated ; the suturiform articulation, the furrow at the apex of the 
third and at the base of the fourth are striated ; that on the apex 
of the fourth is smooth ; there is a J-shaped striated furrow on the 
sides of the second segment at the base ; the basal two-thirds of 
the fourth segment is finely, longitudinally striated. 

A much smaller and more slenderly-built species than /. greeni; 
the fore legs are yellow, not rufous ; the antennal scape is more 
slender and does not project at the apex, and the first and second 
abdominal segments are finely sparsely striated, not coarsely 
striated and reticulated. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMBNOPTBRA. 85 

21. — Iphiaulax Kirhyiy sp. nov. 

Luteous ; antennae black ; wings yellowish-hyaline, the apex 
with a fuscous border ; the base and apex of stigma black, the 
rest of it and the nervures yellow, a small black cloud at the base 
of the first cubital cellule, between the radius and the cubitus, 9. 

Length 9 mm. ; terebra 7 mm. 

Kandy. 

Sparsely covered with fulvous pubescence. Face irregularly 
rugose, covered with pale pubescence. Front and vertex smooth 
and shining, bare ; the former deeply depressed with a deep, 
clearly defined furrow in the centre. First and second abscissa 
of radius united equal in length to the third ; the cloud at the 
stigma may be continued along the basal abscissa of cubitus. 
Middle area of first abdominal segment irregularly, longitudinally 
striated, intermixed with some transverse striae ; the lateral de- 
pression with some transverse keels ; the second segment coarsely 
reticulated in the middle ; the basal area triangular, smooth ; the 
oblique furrow on the lateral depression crenulated ; the keel at 
the basal area short, indistinct. Suturiform articulation stoutly 
crenulated, as are also the furrows on the apex of the third and 
fourth segments ; they are closely punctured. 

22. — Iphiaulax erythroura, sp. nov. 
Plate A, %. 7. 

Head, thorax, antennal scape and four front legs ruf ©testaceous ; 
the abdomen black, the fifth and following segments bright 
ferruginous, the hypopygium paler, more yellowish at the base ; 
wings yellowish-hyaline, paler at the apex ; the middle tibiae 
covered thickly with pale pubescence ; the hinder still more 
thickly with longer black hair, ?. 

Length 12 mm. ; terebra 17 mm. 

Kandy. 

Antennal scape thickly covered with long fulvous hair. Face 
coarsely rugosely reticulated. Thorax smooth and shining ; the 
apex of median segment black. The central area of basal 
segment of abdomen stoutly keeled in the middle ; the keel 
bordered by stout oblique striae. The second segment is strongly 
longitudinally striated ; the basal area small, triangular, smooth, 
followed by a stout keel which runs to the smooth apex ; the third 
is similarly striated, but with a broader smooth apical area ; both 
segments are depressed laterally; the suturiform articulation wide, 
deep; on the fourth segment, shortly behind the middle, is a trans- 
verse furrow which is irregularly striated in the middle. The 
basal abscissa of the radius is broadly roundly curved towards 



86 SPOLIA ZETLANICA. 

the stigma ; transverse median nervnre received shortly beyond 
the transverse basal. Occiput transverse in the middle, the sides 
broadly rounded. 

Characteristic of this species is the broadly rounded basal 
abscissa — not straight and oblique as usual — of the radius and the 
fact of the transverse median nervure being received shortly 
beyond the transverse basal. The recurrent nervure is inter- 
stitial. The densely haired hind tibiae are also noteworthy. 

23. — Iphiaulax haragamensis, sp. nov. 

Black ; the base and basal half of the sides of the ventral 
surface lacteous ; wings fuscous-hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
black, 9. 

Length 7 ; terebra 1*5 mm. 

Haragam, July. 

Head covered with longish hair, fuscous, silvery on the lower 
part of the face. Front and vertex smooth ; the former deeply 
furrowed. A reddish spot above each antenna. Palpi black, 
covered with white pubescence. The pleurae and the scutellar 
region marked with rufous. The first and basal half of the second 
abdominal segment coarsely rugosely punctured ; the following 
three strongly, closely, longitudinally striated ; the furrows are 
more closely striated ; the last segment white-lead coloured, finely, 
closely, transversely striated. Abdomen broad, ovate, as long as 
the head and thorax united ; the area on the base of second 
segment indistinct, smooth at the base, the apex finely striated. 

Rhacospatfiius, gen. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 4. 
Transverse median nervure in fore wings received beyond the 
transverse basal. Metanotum with three large closed area^at the 
base ; the central keel bifurcates at the apex, forming a triangular 
area open at the apex ; the rest of the segment and the pleuraa 
striated. Otherwise as in Spathius. 

24. — Rliacospathius striolatus^ sp. nov. 

Black, the basal two-thirds of the second abdominal segment and 
the legs red, the fore legs paler, more yellowish in tint. Wings 
hyaline, the stigma and nervures fuscous, ?. 

Length 7 ; terebra 5 mm. 

Kandy, October. 

Mesonotum, except at the base of the central lobe, closely, 
strongly, irregularly reticulated. Scutellum minutely aciculated, 
the sides with a row of foveae. Metanotum irregularly striated and 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 87 

reticulated ; the basal areae smooth at the base, the sides furrowed ; 
the inner side finely, closely striated along the central keel ; the 
apical slope irregularly rugosely striated. Propleurse strongly 
obliquely, the upper part of the mesopleurse longitudinally striated ; 
the lower part, near the base, finely, closely, slightly, obliquely 
striated ; the apex rugosely punctured. Basal two-thirds of 
mesosternum bordered by a deep furrow. Abdominal petiole 
closely, strongly striated. Probrachial nervure in hind wings 
interstitial ; the third abscissa of radius longer than the basal two 
united. Face, except for a smooth shining line in the centre, 
closely transversely striated ; the front closely striated, except at 
the sides; the vertex and temples smooth and shining. Legs 
sparsely haired ; the hind coxae striated on the outer side. 

Philomacroplosa, gen. nov. 
Apex of sixth abdominal segment broadly, deeply, roundly 
incised in the middle. First abdominal segment sessile, excavat- 
ed at the base, keeled on the top ; it, and the second segment, keeled 
down the middle ; the sutures of the segments narrow ; the 
apical segments are curled downwards ; the abdomen short, broad 
not unlike the abdomen of Chelonus. Metanotum smooth and 
shining, stoutly keeled down the middle. Parapsidal furrows 
distinct, deep, crenulated. Last joint of hind tarsi not much 
dilated, as long as the second. Ovipositor short, broad. Antennae 
longer than the body, the second joint of flagellum about twice 
longer than thick. Malar space large, furrowed down the middle. 
Third abscissa of radius about three or four times longer than the 
basal two united. Temples obliquely narrowed. A broad furrow 
behind the ocelli. 

The abdomen is more like what it is in the Chelonince than in the 
Braconitice. It is allied to Tropidobracon, Baryproctus, and 
Plesiobracofi, all of which have a stout keel in the centre of the 
metanotum ; but, among other differences, the present genus 
should be readily separated from them by the keeled base of the 
first abdominal segment, by the first and second being keeled 
down the centre ; by the last segment being roundly broadly 
incised, and by the very long third abscissa of the radius. 

25. — Philomacrcyplcea basimacula, sp. nov. 

Head, thorax and the middle of the first and second abdominal 
segments broadly rufo-testaceous, the mesosternum and the base 
of metapleurae above blackish ; wings hyaline, the nervures and 
stigma fuscous ; the legs pale testaceous, almost white, 9 and 6. 

Length 3*5 mm. 

Bred from Macroplaea elisa. 



88 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

The long black antennae densely covered with a short white 
microscopic pile, as are also the thorax and abdomen. The upper 
half of pleurae closely, minutely punctured ; the scutellum is less 
distinctly punctured, its sides densely pilose. Metanotum very 
smooth and shining. Abdomen very closely, uniformly, and 
rather strongly punctured ; the apices of the third and following 
segments narrowly rufous at the apex. Scutellum triangular, 
broad at the base. The second cubital cellule is widened at the 
base, the first transverse cubital nervure being very obliquely 
sloped. The anal nervure in the fore wing issues from shortly 
below the middle of the transverse nervure. The lower half of 
the base of the mesopleurae is depressed compared with the upper. 

Rhogadin^. 

Paraspinaria, gen. nov. 

Abdomen with seven segments ; the first longer than broad, the 
central area large, wide ; the second segment without an area ; 
the sides depressed at the basal half ; ovipositor short, hardly 
projecting. Metanotum irregularly reticulated ; the sides at the 
apex, with a long stout tooth. Hind wings with an enclosed 
probrachial cellule, reaching shortly beyond the middle of the 
basal abscissa of the cubitus ; the nervure broadly rounded at 
the apex ; the cubitus and radius complete ; there are no other 
apical nervures. Lower part of mesopleurae depressed, clearly 
separated from the upper ; the hind edge of mesosternum has a 
stout conical tooth. Radial cellule long reaching to the apex of 
the wing ; apical abscissa of cubitus longer than the basal two 
united ; recurrent nervure received in the first cubital cellule. 
Antennae longer than the body ; temples obliquely narrowed ; 
occiput almost transverse, margined. Palpi long. 

The affinities of this genus are clearly with Spinaria. That 
genus may be known from it by the abdomen having only 
five segments, these being spined and longitudinally striated ; its 
anal nervure is interstitial and the prothorax has a spine as a 
rule. The antennae in my genus are placed opposite the middle 
of the eyes, which are incised. The pronotum is large ; its 
centre at the base is triangular, the rest is depressed at the sides 
and apex. Abdomen as long as the head and thorax united. 

26. — Paraspinaria pilosa, sp. uov. 

Plate A, figr. 9. 
Luteous ; antennal flagellum, apical third of hind tibiae and 
the hind tarsi black ; wings hyaline ; the nervures and stigma 
yellow ; the costa near the stigma and a small square cloud 
below it black, 9. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 89 

Length 9 mm. 
Kandy, June. 

Shining, thickly covered with white pnbescence, Parapsidal 
furrows deep, the middle lobe of mesonotum clearly raised. 
Base of propleurse with three stout keels, the middle one not 
reaching, like the others, to the lower edge. Scutellar depression 
large, deep, with a stout central keel and a narrower oblique one 
on either side. Metanotum with four arese on the centre of the 
basal region ; the basal large, longer than broad, the apical 
smaller, dilated on the outer side ; the other areas not clearly 
defined. The apical lateral teeth are large, longer than the width 
at the base ; they become gradually narrowed, with the apex 
rounded. First abdominal segment irregularly reticulated, the 
sides less strongly than the centre ; the second is also irregularly 
reticulated; there is a keel down the centre, reaching to the apex; 
the lateral keels are stouter and shorter. Suturiform articulation 
stoutly, closely striated. The apical depression of the middle 
lobe of mesonotum is reticulated ; there is a distinct furrow on 
the apex of the middle lobe. Metasternum bordered by a stout 
keel. 

Holcobracon, gen. nov. 
Lower part of mesopleurse with a distinct crenulated furrow. 
Median segment closely reticulated, keeled down the middle ; 
the sides at the apex below projecting into a blunt tubercle. 
Mandibles stout, edentate, the apex transverse in front, oblique, 
the basal half slightly roundly incised. Clypeus separated from 
the face by a depression, roundly convex, thickly covered with 
long hair. Malar space longer than the eyes. Temples broad. 
Occiput margined, more distinctly on the sides than above ; 
roundly incised. Scutellum flat, legs stout ; the fore coxae 
largely project below, the trochanters issuing from the upper 
part ; fore tibiae stoutly toothed. Anal nervure in fore wings 
interstitial ; in the hind wings there is a discoidal nervure which 
runs from the praediscoidal to the apex, there being thus three 
longitudinal nervures in the hind wings ; there is a large 
closed praebrachial cellule, which becomes gradually wider 
towards the apex. Abdomen broad, the basal segments closely 
striated ; suturiform articulation deep, roundly curved. 

The apical abscissa of radius reaches to the apex of the wings 
and is twice the length of the second ; the transverse median 
nervure is received distinctly beyond the transverse basal ; the 
recurrent in the first cubital cellule. 

There are three genera known to me which possess the anomalon s 
character of having a curved nervure issuing from the praebrachial 



90 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

transverse nervnre to the apex of the hind wings. These genera 
may be separated as follows : — 

(a) Hind coxae with two teeth... Acanthobr aeon, Cam, (Szep.). 

(b) Hind coxae toothless. Apex of mandibles stoutly 

toothed ; sides of median segment toothed at the sides 

above the apex, the scutellum conx ex... Trichiobincon, 
Apex of mandibles not toothed, transverse ; sides of 

metanotum not toothed above ; the scutellum quite 

&2it...Holcobracon. 
These three genera form a natural tribe, Holcobraconini, allied 
to Doryctini, which should be readily known by the hind 
wings haviug three longitudinal nervures running to the apex 
of the wings ; the abdomen sessile, the mesopleurae with a 
distinct crenulated furrow along the lower border, the metanotum 
toothed or tuberculated above or below, closely reticulated and 
the basal three segments of abdomen longitudinally striated, 
with a distinct curved crenulated suturiform articulation and 
oblique furrows as in Iphiaulax, and stoutly toothed fore tibiae. 

27. — Holcobracon fulvus, sp. nov. 

Plate A, fig. 6. 

Rufo-fulvous, the antennae black ; wings yellowish-hyaline to 
near the apex of the transverse basal nervure, with an oblique, 
irregular cloud in the first cubital cellule, extending below into 
the discoidal ; the stigma luteous ; hind wings yellowish-hyaline, 
the apical third smoky, 9. 

Length 18 mm. 

Kandy, November. 

Body and legs thickly covered with long pale pubescence. 
Face and oral region closely, finely rugose, thickly covered with 
fuscous pubescence, the clypeus with long fuscous hair. Front 
and vertex smooth, shining, almost bare. Pronotum punctured, 
the punctures large, clearly separated, and each with aJlongish hair. 
Mesonotum and scutellum smooth, sparsely haired. The scutellar 
depression with five stout keels ; the central the larger. Metano- 
tum with a keel down the centre, closely reticulated, the 
reticulations shallow, irregular in shape, some hexagonal. The 
centre of propleurae with some irregular keels. The lower furrow 
on the mesonotum closely crenulated ; the oblique furrow below 
the tubercles wide, deep, and with some stout keels. The upper 
part of the metapleurae irregularly, coarsely reticulated ; below the 
furrow strongly, irregularly punctured. Legs thickly covered 
with long pale pubescence. Basal three segments of abdomen 
strongly closely striated ; the suturiform articulation deep,roundly 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 91 

curved, crenulated ; there is an oblique furrow on the base of 
the second segment ; the base of the fourth and fifth segments are 
closely striated. 

The metapleurae and base of abdomen are yellowish ; the man- 
dibles and ocellar region are black. 

Tropohracon, gen. nov. 

First abscissa of radius slightly longer than the second, both 
together as long as the first transverse cubital nervure. Recurrent 
nervure widely distant from the apex of the cellule. Second 
cubital cellule much narrowed in front, being there less than 
half the length it is posteriorly ; apical abscissa four times the 
length of the basal two united, reaching to the apex of the wing. 
Parapsidal furrows deep, clearlj^ defined, not reaching to the 
apex. Basal two joints of flagellum equal in length. Last joint of 
hind tarsi longer than the third, as long as the first. First segment 
of abdomen short, broader than long, the sides and top of the 
apical slope margined. 

Abdomen coriaceous, short, broad ; the area on the second seg- 
ment large, reaching to the apex ; the ovipositor short, not much 
longer than half the length of the abdomen. 

This genus should be readily known by the recurrent nervure 
being received at a distinct distance from the apex of the cubital 
cellule, by the deep, clearly defined parapsidal furrows, keeled 
basal slope of first abdominal segment, by the short basal two 
abscissae of radius, and by the second cubital cellule being narrowed 
in front and short. Hahrohracon, Ashm., seems to be its nearest 
ally, but inter alia, that genus should be known by the "basal joint 
of hind tarsi being about the length of the third, shorter than the 
second," while in my genus it is double the length of the third 
and much longer than the second. The parapsidal furrows are 
much deeper and more clearly separated than usual. 

28. — Tropohracon luteus, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the antennae black, the hind tibiae and tarsi inf uscated ; 
wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the nervures and stigma black ; 
the recurrent nervure received shortly beyond the middle of the 
cellule, ?. 

Length 4 mm.; terebra 1 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, March. 

Face shining, aciculated, covered with a white pile ; a distinct 
curved furrow over the clypeus. Malar space long, two-thirds 
of the length of the eyes. Front and vertex smooth. Temples 

O 8(17)05 



92 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA, 

oblique, rounded. Occiput rounded, not transverse. Mesonotum 
and scutellum shining ; its middle lobe reaches to th^ base of the 
apical third, is then united to the apex by a stout keel, with a 
narrow striated border on either side. Metanotum closely rugose. 
First abdominal segment short ; its base rather abruptly sloped, its 
sides and apex margined. The segments are closely, finely punc- 
tured ; the area on the second segment large, becoming gradually 
narrowed towards the apex ; the furrows striated, not suiting at 
the apex ; there are no lateral furrows at the base. Suturiform 
articulation striated : there are no furrows on the other segments. 
There is a distinct curved furrow below the middle of the 
propleurfe. 

Troporhogas, gen. nov. 

Transverse median nervure received near the base of the cellule, 
close to the transverse median ; recurrent nervure received near 
the apex of the cellule ; second cubital cellule twice longer than 
wide, of equal width throughout ; anal nervure not interstitial. 
Eyes large, clearly incised on the inner side ; malar space small. 
Temples short, oblique. Occiput sharply margined, transverse. 
Palpi very long, slender, pilose, 4- and 5-jointed, Metanotum 
with two roundly diverging keels on the base. A depression on the 
lowersideof the mesopleuraB. Basal three segments of abdomen 
closely longitudinally striated ; the basal two with a keel down the 
centre ; suturiform articulation crenulated ; there are crenulated 
furrows on the fourth, fifth, and sixth segments ; the base of these 
segments is depressed, the apex of the segments being raised and 
clearly separated from the base of the following. Hypopygium 
large, cultriform; ovipositor shortly projecting, the sheaths stout ; 
antennae longer than the body, slender, pilose, over 50-jointed. 
The abdomen is fully twice the length of the thorax ; the legs long 
and slender ; the femora narrowed at the base. The first abscissa 
of the radius is not half the length of the second ; the third is the 
longest and is curved upwards. The tarsi longer than the 
tibise; the metatarsus longer than the two following joints 
united. 

In Dr. Ashmead's system (Lc.) this genus could only be con- 
founded with Rhogas ,- that genus may be known from it by the 
transverse median nervure being widely distant from the 
transverse basal, by the metanotum having a stout keel down the 
centre, not two at the base, by the shorter abdomen, with the 
segments not sharply separated ; the shorter and stouter legs 
with the tarsi not longer than the tibia; ; and the hypopygium 
is not large and cultriform. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTEHA. 93 

29. — Troporhogas spilonotus, sp. nov. 
Pallid testaceous, the legs paler in tint ; the ocellar region, 
marks, more or less distinct, on the mesonotum, the metanotum to 
the top of the apical slope, the base of the mesopleurae and large 
marks on the base of the abdominal segments, the penultimate 
segment entirely, black. Wings clear hyaline, the nervures pallid 
testaceous, the basal half of the stigma fuscous, ?. 
Length 7 to 8 mm. 
Peradeniya. 

The amount of black on the thorax varies ; the hind coxae and 
trochanters may be marked with black. The entire body and legs 
thickly covered with white pubescence. Firstand second abdomi- 
nal segmeats strongly and closely striated throughout ; the third 
is less strongly and closely striated, the striae becoming fainter 
towards the apex. The pleume may be largely marked with black : 
the mesopleural furrow is striated. Parapsidal furrows wide and 
deep ; the apex of the middle lobe of the mesonotum is depressed 
and with a distinct furrow in the centre. Scutellar depression 
large, deep ; a stout keel in the centre and a narrower oblique one 
on the sides. Scutellum narrowed towards the apex. Metanotum 
finely, irregularly rugose ; the apex with some irregular keels. 

HO. — Troporhogas alhipes, sp. nov. 
Rufo-testaceous, the oral region, lower outer orbits, and legs 
white ; the four hind coxae brownish-red : a broad band on the 
thickened apex of the hind femora (but not reaching to the apex) 
black ; scape of antennae rufous, the flagellum yellowish-white. 
Wings hyaline, slightly suflEused with fuscous ; the apex with a 
fuscous narrow cloud round the edges ; the stigma testaceous, the 
nervures fuscous, 6. 
Length 9 mm. 
Kandy. 

Sides of front stoutly, obliquely striated ; face irregularly 
wrinkled. Propleur^ stoutly striated ; the mesopleurae wrinkled 
and irregularly striated, closely and strongly below ; the meta- 
pleurae closely, finely, rugosely punctured. Presternum yellowish, 
depressed in the middle and with a longitudinal keel there, which 
is bordered by a row of fovete. Parapsidal furrows striated ; the 
apex of the middle lobe closely striated and reticulated. Scutellum 
convex, roundly narrowed towards the apex, which is rounded ; 
a keel runs from the sides of the apex to the wings ; the space 
inside this is depressed and striated in the middle. Median 
segment closely rugosely punctured, the punctures running into 
reticulations. Back of abdomen closely rugosely striated ; the 
furrows are more strongly and distinctly striated. 



94 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

;il. — TropurJiogas niaculipenniii^ sp. nov. 

Plate A; fig. 5, 

Testaceous, the part between the ocelli, the greater part of the 
mesopleurae, and the apical two segments of the abdomen blackish ; 
the upper part of the thorax inf uscated. Wings hyaline ; the 
apex smoky, before and behind from before the second trans- 
verse cubital nervure, the middle from beyond it ; there is a 
narrow cloud along the anal nervure, which is thick and black, 
the apex white and thinner, ?. 

Length 12 mm. 

Kandy, July and August. 

Vertex at the sides of the ocelli closely, the front more strongly 
obliquely striated. Face thickly covered with long fuscous hair. 
Mesonotum with a few scattered punctures, shining, covered with 
a short blackish pubescence. Scutellar depression not very deep ; 
the central keel not very stout. Metanotum at the sides of the 
base closely rugose, the centre and the rest to the middle of the 
apical slope irregularly reticulated. Propleurae with some stout 
oblique striae ; the mesopleur» obscurely punctured, the centre 
with an oblique depression ; metapleurffi closely rugosely 
punctured. Basal four segments of the abdomen closely longi- 
tudinally striated: the fifth closely and strongly, the others 
sparsely punctured. 

32. — Troporliogas tricolor, sp nov. 

Plate A, fig. 8. 

Antennae black. Head rufo-testaceous, the vertex behind and 
the occiput black ; the oral region, mandibles, and palpi pale 
yellow. Thorax black, the mesonotum, scutellum, and upper part 
of pleurae rufo-testaceous. The first abdominal segment, the base 
and the sides, more broadly, especially behind, of the second, the 
sides of the third and fourth, the fifth, except for a line on the 
sides at the apex, and the apical, entirely yellow, this being also 
the case with the ventral surface. Four front legs whitish yellow : 
the middle tarsi inf uscated ; the hind legs black. Wings hyalinr: 
the stigma and nervures black, ?. 

Length 7 to 8 mm. 

Kandy, June. 

Face closely punctured, the middle at the sides of the raised 
part striated. The vertex at the sides of the lower ocellus 
transversely, the front more coarsely, obliquely striated. Mesono- 
tum and scutellum smooth, neither punctured nor striated. The 
basal keels on the metanotum are stout and have two transverse 
ones between them ; the part on either side, almost smooth, on the 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 95 

outer side distinctly striated ; the apical slope strongly, irregu- 
larly reticulated. Base of propleurse and of mesopleurse strongly 
striated ; the metapleurae rugose, the apex striated. First abdomi- 
nal segment closely punctured, finely striated on either side of the 
keel ; the second strongly, irregularly striated ; the suturiform 
articulation strongly, regularly striated : the third and fourth, 
except at the apex, closely striated ; the other segments closely 
punctured. The radius and cubitus from the transverse cubital 
nervure are white. 

33. — Troporliogas ruficeps, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax rafo-testaceous, the antennse dark fuscous ; the 
abdomen pale yellow, the first segment except round the apex 
and more narrowly on the sides, a curved maik on the apex of the 
second segment, and the greater part of the third, fourth, and fifth 
on the back, black ; the four front legs yellow, tinged with rufous ; 
the hind coxae, femora, except at the base, and the apex of the tibiaj 
broadly, black, the rest of them whitish yellow ; the tarsi infus- 
cated ; wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures fuscous,?. 
Length 6"5 mm. 
Peradeniya, December. 

Face thickly covered with white pubescence ; the sides striated : 
clypeal foveas deep. Vertex behind the ocelli closely, finely 
striated. Pro- and mesonotum smooth, not striated, a furrow on 
the apex of the latter ; scutellum impunctate. The two keels 
on the base of metanotum form a /^-shaped area, with a thin 
transverse keel at the apex. Basal five segments of abdomen 
closely longitudinally striated. 

34. — Trnporlwgas lateralis, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, the upper part of the pleurae, the sides of 
metanotum broadly, the sides of the first abdominal segment 
broadly on the basal, more narrowly on the apical half, a line on 
the sides of the second, the line becoming gradually wider from 
the base to the apex, the third at the sides and its apex from 
shortly behind the middle, black. Legs pale yellow ; the apex of 
middle femora infuscated, the apical half of posterior black. 
Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 5 mm. 

Peradeniya, August. 

Face raised in the centre, striated on either side. Side of front 
obscurely striated. Pro- and mesonotum shagreened ; parapsidal 
furrows shallow ; an indistinct transverse furrow at the apex. 



96 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Scutellar depression wide, roundly curved, deep, obscurely 
striated. Metauotum closely rugose, the basal keels indistinct, the 
sides with some oblique striae. Pro- and mesopleurae for the greater 
part closely reticulated ; the metapleutcie finely rugose. The first 
and second abdominal segments are closely striated, the third 
obscurely so, the other segments smooth ; the suturiform articu- 
lation indistinct, only indicated through the apex of the second 
being raised. The first abscissa of the radius is half the length of 
the second ; the second cubital cellule is half the length of the 
third. 

35. — Troporhogcifi frimacvlata. sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, the pleurse paler, more yellowish in colour, 
the ocellar region and three large marks on the mesonotum black : 
wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the nervures and stigma black: 
the costa, base and apex of stigma, and the transverse basal 
nervure testaceous, 9. 

Length 8 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Smooth, shining, impunctate. Scutellar depression large, 
shallow, divided by a keel. Scutelluni smooth, rufous at the 
apex. Post-scutellum rounded, conspicuous, smooth, dark rufous. 
Metanotum weakly punctured, a keel down its centre, the keel 
indistinct at the base. The basal four segments of abdomen closely 
punctured ; the fifth indistinctly so ; there is no keel on the basal 
segments. 

A NEW Genus of Cryptin^ prom Ceylon. 
Bathy crisis, gen. nov. 
Abdominal petiole of equal width throughout, the post-petiole 
not being dilated ; it is long and slender. Median segment with 
two transverse keels ; its spiracles about three times longer than 
wide. Transverse median nervure in hind wings broken below the 
middle. Disco-cubital nervure broken by a stump of a nervure. 
Areolet of almost equal width throughout. Apex of clypeus 
depressed, broadly rounded, above clearly separated from the face, 
which is dilated in the centre above, there being thus a depres- 
sion between its apex and the clypeus. Flagellum of antennae 
densely pilose, the first joint longer than the second. Front 
deeply excavated ; a stout keel above each antenna. Eyes dis- 
tinctly, roundly incised on the inner side ; the malar space 
moderate. Parapsidal furrows deep, wide, reaching to the middle. 
There is a wide, deep, curved furrow on the base of the metanotum ; 
there is no area there. Thorax strongly rugosely punctured. 
The abdomen is more slender than usual. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 97 

I only know the 6 of this genus. It comes near to OspryncJio- 
tus^ which may be known from it by the rostriform head, with 
long malar space, and by the disco-cubital nervure not being 
broken by a stump of a nervure. In The Entomologist, 1903, 182, 1 
described an Osjnynchotus 2}eronatus from India. I was not then 
acquainted with the type of Osiwynchotus from the Cape, Now 
that I have seen it, I find that my Indian species is a Linnoceras, 
Ta.sch..= Osprynchotus Schmied. no7i Spin.(Ent. Nachr. XVI., 85). 
Linnoceras may be known from the genus here described by the 
transverse median nervure in hind wings being broken at, not 
below, the middle, by the more elongate clypeus, not separated 
from the face, large projecting labrum, longer, more slender, 
mandibles, of which the upper tooth is much the longer. In 
Bathijcrisis the mandibles are short, thick, with two short stout 
teeth of equal length. In Dr. Ashmead's tables, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. XXIII., 40, OsiJryiicliotus is placed in the division with the 
transverse median nervure in hind wings "broken distinctly below 
the middle, usually /^r below the middle," whereas it is broken 
shortly above the middle. 



36. — Bathycrisis striaticollis. sp. nov. 

Black, the inner orbits, broadly below, narrowly above, a nar- 
row line in the centre of the outer, a mark, longer than broad, 
transverse at the apex and interrupted in the middle above by a 
fovea, a mark in the centre of the clypeus, mandibles, except at 
the apex, a small mark on either side of the pronotum, a smaller 
one in front of the tegulae and tubercles, lemon-yellow ; legs, with 
the greater part of the femora, the tibiae and the tarsi, except at 
the apex, rufo-testaceous ; the coxae and femora marked below 
with yellow. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, 6. 

Length 9 mm. 

Trincomalee, Col. Yerbury. 

Head covered with long white hair. Face closely punctured, 
the clypeus smooth, the lower part smooth and shining ; the part 
immediately below the ocelli strongly transversely striated, and 
the striae curved. 

The vertex behind the ocelli closely punctured ; the occiput 
margined, the temples wide, obliquely narrowed. Pronotum 
strongly irregularly striated. Mesonotum closely punctured ; in 
the depressed centre the punctuation is closer and runs into 
reticulations. The scutellum is less closely punctured and more 
shining than the mesonotum. Metanotum closely rugosely 
reticulated. Pleurae closely strongly punctured. 



98 SPOLTA ZRYLANICA. 



OM THE PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA 
COLLECTED BY MR. E. ERNEST GREEN IN CEYLON. 



SECOND PAPER. 
By P. Cameron. 



rriHE following species are described in this paper 

ICHNEUMONIN^. 

1. Melanichneumon kandyensis, n. sp. 

2. Hoplismenus ceylonicus, n. sp. 
.3. Haliphera fulvipes, n. sp. 

4. Aluina erythropus, n. g. et sp. 

5. Deniya pleuralis, n. g. et sp. 

6. Tanyphatnus multimaculatus, n. g. et sp. 

7. Sticticlineumon macarise, n. g. et sp. 

CRYPTIN/E. 

8. Buodiasrufipes,n. sp. 

9. Melcha cinctipes, n. sp. 

10. Melcha annulipes, n. sp. 

11. Melcha varibalteata, n. sp. 

12. Melcha reticulata, n. sp. 

13. Melcha erythropus, n. sp. 

14. Melcha raaculiceps, n. sp. 

15. Friona rufipes, n. sp. 

16. Friona bituberculata, n. sp. 

17. Fenenias erythropus, n. sp. 

18. Skeatia acutilineata, a. sp. 

19. Skeatia cyclosiae, n. sp. 

20. Skeatia panthonse, n. sp. 

21. Bathythrix rubriornatus, n. sp. 

22. Bathythrix striatus,n.sp. 

23. Chtiga excavata, n. g. et sp. 

24. Chtiga forticornis, n. sp. 

25. Eari ana lutea, n. g. et sp. 



phytophagous and parasitic hymenoptera. 99 

Ophionid^. 

26. Ophion bicarinatus, n. sp. 

27. Pleuroneurophion erythrocerus, n. sp. 

28. Eniscospilus spilonotus, n. sp. 

29. Eniscospilus melanocarpus, n. sp. 

30. Eniscospilus xanthocephalus, n. sp. 

31. Eniscospilus unilineatus, n. sp. 

32. Eniscospilus dasychirse, n. sp. 

33. Eniscospilus liorsfieldi, n. sp. 

34. Spilophion maculipennis, n. g. et sp. 

35. Paniscus intermedius, n. sp. 

36. Paniscus orientalis, n. sp. 

37. Paniscus Isevis, n. sp. 

38. Campoplex greeni, n. sp. 

39. Limnerium taprobanicum , n. sp. 

40. Nototrachys reticulatus, n. sp. 

41. Clatha longipQS, n. g. et sp. 

42. Trichomma nigricans, n. sp. 

TRYPHONIN.E 

43. Bassus orientalis, n. sp. 

44. Rhorus spinipes, n. sp. 

PiMPLINiE. 

45. Epirhyssa ornatipes, n. sp. 

46. Theronia maskeliyse, n. sp. 

47. Erythrotheronia fiavolineata, n. g. et sp. 

48. Echthromorpha ornatipes, Cam. 

49. Xanthopimpla taprobanica, n. sp. 

50. Xanthopimpla kandyensis, n. sp. 
51'. Xanthopimpla parva, n. sp. 

52. Xanthopimpla minuta, n. sp. 

53. Philopsyche albobalteata, n. g. et sp. 

54. Lissotheronia flavipes, n. g. et sp. 

55. Charitopimpla annulipes, n. sp. 

56. Lissopimpla rufipes, n. sp. 

57. Tanera annuhpes, n. g. et sp. 

58. Lissonota greeni, n. sp. 

ICHNEUMONIN^. 

1. — Mdanichneumon kandyensis, sp. nov. 

Black, the upper inner orbits, narrowly below, more broadly above, 
the line extending round the top and narrowly down the upper part 
of the outer, a short line at the bottom ; a line on the pronotum, two 
p 8(17)05 



100 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

lines, narrowed in front, on the centre of the mesonotura, the apical 
half of the seutellum, the mark dilated laterally at the base, post, 
scutellum and the apices of the second to fifth abdominal segments 
narrowly, the penultimate more broadly, and the last entirely, yellow ; 
the second segments broadly at the base rufous ; antennae with a 
broad white band in the middle ; legs red ; the four front coxae and 
trochanters yellow ; the hind black , red , and yellow. Wings hyaline , 
slightly tinged with fulvous, the nervures and stigma black, ?. 
Length 15-16 mm. 
Kandy, July. 

Head smooth, mandibles red, black at apex. On the centre and 
on the sides of the clypeus is a reddish mark. Pro thorax and meso- 
thorax closely punctured ; the scutellum smooth. Median segment 
more closely and strongly punctured ; the apical slope thickly covered 
with white hair ; the areola open at the base, twice longer than 
broad ; the inner side furrowed ; it is of equal width throughout 
and has the apex roundly curved inwardly. Disco-cubital and 
recurrent nervures broken by a stump of a nervure. Apical half of 
post-petiole strongly punctured ; the gastrocoeli shallow, yellowish. 
Agrees fairly well with Melanichneumon. Scutellum not quite flat, 
depressed at base and apex round, longer than the width at the base. 

2. — Hoplismenus ceylonicus, sp. no v. 

Black; the face, clypeus, the orbits all round, mandibles, palpi, 
a line on the pronotum, tubercles, two hnes on the centre of the 
mesonotum, the apical half of scutellum, the base of the mark trans- 
verse, apex of post-scutellum, and the apices of aU the abdominal 
segments, pale yellow ; the apex of the first segment has the hne 
broader than it is on the third and following ; on the apex of the 
second the band is twice the width it is on the first and there is a 
broader band on its base. Legs red ; the four front coxae and trochan- 
ters yellow ; the hind coxae black, the apex red below, above they 
are yellow. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures black. Antennal 
scape and a broad band on the centre of the fiagellum white ; the 
flagellum brownish beneath, especially on the basal half, 6. 

Length 14 mm. 

Kandy. 

Face and cl5^eus thickly covered with short, white pubescence 
and sparsely punctured ; lab rum white, largely projecting. Pro- 
mesonotum and scutellum smooth, the latter obliquely sloped at the 
baseandapex. Propleurae and raesopleurae smooth. Base of metano- 
tum and areola smooth, the rest strongly punctured ; the posterior 
median area irregularly rugose ; the apical slope and inetapleurae 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 101 

thickty covered with white hair, the latter strongly punctured. 
Abdomen smooth, except the second segment, which is weakly 
punctured ; gastiocoeli smooth, shallow. 

This species agrees fairly well with Hoplismenus, having the scutel- 
lum as in that genus ; but the areola is not • ' wider than long " as in 
the diagnosis of Ashmead : it is fully longer than wide, open at the 
base, and the posterior median area projects roundly into it. The 
lateral teeth are small, but distinct. The clypeus is short, transverse 
at the apex ; the labrum proiects. 

3. — Haliphera fidvipes, sp. no v. 

Black; the face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, upper inner orbits 
narrowly, the lower half of the outer broadly — more broadly below 
than above — a narrow line on the pronotum, tubercles, a mark on 
the tegulse, scutellum, a line on the centre of the metanotum, 
rounded and narrowed at the top and bottom, one-third of it in the 
areola, two-thirds on the posterior median area, a broad line on the 
first and a narrower line on the second abdominal segment, lemon- 
yellow. Legs fulvous, the coxae black ; the fore trochanters 
yellow, the middle yellow, black behind, the hinder entirely black. 
Wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the nervures and stigma black. 
Antennal scape yellow, the flagellum fuscous beneath, 6. 

Length 12 mm. 

Maskeliya, August. 

Face and clypeus distinct, but not very closely punctured, sparsely 
covered with white pubescence ; front and vertex wrinkled irregularly. 
Mesonotum closely, finely, but distinctly punctured ; the scutel- 
lum with some scattered punctures. The basal three areae of 
metanotum finely, closely, irregularly, transversely striated; the 
lateral almost smooth at the base ; the posterior median obscuiely 
striated at the base, the rest strongly transversely striated ; the 
lateral areae with some stout oblique irregular striae. Propleurae indis- 
tinctly , the mesopleurae more strongly and closely and the metapleurae 
still more closely and strongly punctured, the latter two more or less 
closely striated. Petiole smooth ; the second and third segments 
closely, but not strongly punctured; the gastrocoeU longish, smooth, 
and shining; the apical segments densely covered with short blackish 
pubescence ; the apical half of the last yellow. 

Aluina,, gen. no v. 

Scutellum rounded, not flat, its basal three-fourths stoutly keeled. 
Areola longer than broad, wider at the base than at the apex ; the 
keels roundly curved, the apex slightly rounded inwardly ; its 



102 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

surface stoutly striated. Abdominal petiole smooth, shining, 
impunctate. Ovipositor long, as long as the apical three segments 
united. Base of ilageilum slender, the joints elongate ; occiput 
deeply, widely, roundly incised, sloping above obliquely from the 
ocelli. Disco-cubital nervure angled in the middle, broken there by 
a stump of a nervure ; the two abscissae straight, oblique, not 
rounded. 

The head is large ; the eyes large, projecting, distinctly narrowed 
below ; the malar space moderate. Apex of clypeus transverse ; 
labrum hidden. Scutellum longer than broad, rounded at the base 
and apex. Face flat, only slightly dilated in the middle, not 
separated from the clypeus. Abdomen with the second and third 
segments punctured ; longer than the head and tiiorax united, its 
apex acutely pointed. 

Allied, in some respects, to Cillimus and Exephanes. It has the 
long, projecting ovipositor of the latter, but not its filiform antennae ; 
but Exephanes has not the scutellum stoutly keeled ; CilUmits has 
the ovipositor short, has the face tumid, not narrowed behind the 
eyes ; the clypeus is armed at the apex with a small tooth and the 
scutellum short. 

4. — Aluina erythropus, sp. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 11. 

Black ; the face, clypeus, the orbits all round, the outer broadly 
below, a line on the raised centre of the pronotum, scutellar keels, 
the sides of (he scutellum narrowly, the apex more broadly, post- 
scutellum, the apex of the petiolar area, a broad line on the sides of 
the apical slope of metanotum, a triangular spot behind the spiracles, 
the lower edge of the propleurse, tubercles, a large mark, narrowed in 
the middle on the lower part of the mesopleurae, a large oblique 
mark on the centre of metapleurae, the base of the first abdominal 
segment, two spots on its apex, the apex of the second broadly, two 
broad lines of almost equal width on the third, two shorter, smaller 
ones, obliquely narrowed on the inner side, the greater part of the 
sixth and the whole of the apical two, pale yellow. Antennae black, 
the under side of the scape and a broad band on the flagellum white. 
Legs red, the four front coxae and trochanters yellow. Wings hyaline, 
the stigma and nervures black, the costa at the base of the stigma 
fuscous, ?. 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Pundalu-oya. 

Head smooth and shining, the face and centre of clypeus sparsely 
weakly punctured ; the front in the centre slightly raised, almost 
keeled. Mesonotum closely punctured, the furrows distinct on the 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 103 

basal half. Scutellum sparsely punctured. Base of metanotum 
almost smooth ; the areola with four si out, curved, transverse 
keels, the base and apex with a few broken ones, the lateral area? 
stoutly obliquely, the posterior median transversely striated ; the 
base of the spii'acular area punctured, the rest closely, obliquely 
striated. Apex of propleurse Ijelow stoutly striated, above and at 
the base punctured ; the base in the middle with some stout, clearly 
separated striae, the lower part smooth and shining. Abdomen very 
smooth and shining except the second and third segments, which are 
closely punctured ; the former stoutly striated at the base. 

In the example described, one mandible is black, the other yellow. 

Deniya, gen. nov. 

Temples almost obsolete ; occiput almost transverse. Eyes 
large, projecting. Apex of clypeus rounded, behind not separated 
from the face. Antennae dilated beyond the middle. Parapsidal 
furrows distinct, crenulated. Apex of mesonotum reticulated. 
Scutellum longer than its width at the base, convex, stoutly keeled 
to beyond the middle ; the apex with an oblique slope. At the base 
of the post-scutellum are two triangular depressions, bordered by 
stout keels. Base of metanotum, deeply obUquely depressed at the 
base. Areola longer than wide, transverse at the base, the apex 
angularly turned inwardly ; the sides near the apex angled. Post 
petiole and the following four segments closely punctured ; gastrocoeli 
large, deep. Areolet 4-angled ; disco-Cubital nervure not broken 
by a stump of a nervure ; transverse median nervure received 
behind tranverse basal. Sheaths of ovipositor broad, projecting. 

This genus comes close to Aluina. The two may be separated 
thus : — 

Temples wide, occiput widely, deeply incised, apex of clypeus 
transverse, transver.se basal nervure interstitial ; sides of 
areola rounded, not angled, parapsidal furrows indistinct, 
the apex of mesonotum smooth, post-petiole smooth, Aluina. 

Teinples very narrow, occiput transverse, apex of clypeus 
rounded ; sides of areola not rounded, angled ; parapsidal 
furrows distinct, apex of mesonotum reticulated, post- 
petiole punctured, Deniya. 

5. — Deniya pleurcdis, sp. nov. 

Plato A, tig. 10. 

Black ; face, clypeus, mandibles, except at apex, palpi, the inner 

and upper orbits, the lower half of outer broadly, a broad line on the 

pronotum, tegula;, scutellum, the sides of the apical slope of the 

metanotum, a line on the lower edge of the propieuraj, mesopieura? 



104 RPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

from shortly above the jiiicklle, mesosternum, tubercles, the apices 
of all the abdominal segments — the line on the fourth interrupted^ 
pale yellow. Legs pale f uhous . the anterior largely tinged with yellow , 
the apex of the hind femora, base of hind tibiae, their apex broadly 
and the tarsi, black. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures 
black,?. 

Length 10 mm. 

Peradeniya. 

Scape below and a broad ring on the tiagellum white. Head 
smooth and shining, the face and clypeus sparsely punctured 
and liaired. Thorax smooth and shining, except the metapleurae 
and tlie spiracular area which are closely strongly retjculated, 
punctured ; the areola with a stout keel in the centre of the apical 
two-thirds ; the metapleur* thickly covered with white pubescence. 
Post-petiole and the second to fourtli abdominal segments closely 
punctured. 

Tanyphatnus, gen. no v. 

6. Areola open behind, more than twice longer than wide, separ- 
ated from the lateral arese, the apex almost transverse, the top of the 
posterior median area being bluntly rounded. Apex of metano- 
tum with a gradually rounded slope. Scutellum not flat, roundly 
depressed at the base and apex. Post-petiole in the centre finely, 
closely, longitudinally striated; gastrocoeli deep; there are no thy- 
ridia. There are eight abdominal segments ; cerci long, stout ; 
the genital armature much larger than usual ; the ventral fold 
extends to the apex of the fourth segment. Areolet 5-angled ; the 
disco-cubital nervure almost broken by a stump of a nervure. Apex 
of clypeus transverse, not separated from the face : labrum largely 
projecting. Upper tooth of mandibles much longer than lower, 
projecting twice the length of the latter beyond it ; it is sharply 
pointed. Spiracles about four times longer than wide. 

The temples are moderately broad, rounded ; malar space short ; 
the antennae are not much longer than the abdomen, serrate. 
Abdominal petiole slender, longish, the post-petiole not clearly 
separated. Legs moderately stout. Abdomen slender, more than 
twice the length of the head and thorax united ; the sides of the 
segments spotted with yellow ; the last segments not spotted. 

This genus, or sub-geni^s, has the striated post-petiole of Ichneu- 
mon sensu sti'. Comparing it with /. lucUitorius , the type given for 
Ichneumons, sir., its areola is longer, narrower, andnotof equal width, 
it being wider at the base and narrowed roundly in the middle ; 
the metanotum has a more gradually rounded slope ; the first 
segment of the abdomen is more slender, especially at the apex; the 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 105 

scutellum is much more distinctly raised — more convex, and clearly- 
longer than wide ; the temples are shorter and not so obliquely 
narrowed, the malar space smaller, the eyes being longer, and the 
upper tooth of the mandibles is longer and more sharply pointed. 

6. — Tanyphatnus multimaculatus , sp. nov. 

Black, the face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the inner orbits, the 
outer, narrowly above, broadly below, the upper and lower edge of 
prothorax, prosternum, the sides of scutellum, narrowly at the base, 
more broadly towards the apex, scutellum, a broad band of equal 
width on the base of metanotum, extending from tlie base to the 
posterior median area ; the apical slope, except the latter area, the 
yellow extending on to the pleurae, a mark behind the spiracles, the 
lower third of the mesopleurae, the apex of the first abdominal seg- 
ment and broad marks , closely continuous, on the apices of the other 
segments, yellow. Four front legs rufo-yellow, their coxae and tro- 
chanters yellow ; the hind legs rufous, the coxae black, broadly yellow 
at the base above, the base of the tibiae broadly yellow. Wings 
hyahne, the stigma and nervures black, 6. 

Length 13 mm. 

Pundalu-oya. 

Face and clypeus punctured, but not strongly or closely. Front 
with some minute punctures. Mesonotum sparsely, irregularly 
punctured. Base and areola of metanotum smooth ; the rest 
closely and strongly punctured, thickly covered with long fuscous 
hair. Pleurae closely and strongly punctured, the meta irregularly 
striated. Basal segment with the post-petiole closely finely striated 
in the middle ; the second to fourth more strongly on the basal 
haK. 

The gastrocoeh are large, deep, smooth. Transverse median 
nervure interstitial. The areola is not separated behind, where 
there is no obhque depression ; it is clearly separated from the 
lateral areae, is slightly narrowed in the middle, more than twice 
longer than wide, and transverse at the apex ; the apex of the seg- 
ment has a gradually rounded slope , without teeth. The ventral fold 
is on segments two to four. 

Stictichneumon, gen. nov. 
Clypeus separated from the face by a deep, wide furrow which 
unites .with the lateral foveae ; its apex not quite transverse. Are- 
ola horseshoe-shaped, longer than wide, clearly separated behind; 
the petiolar area confluent with lateral. Scutellum roundly convex ; 
roundly sloped at the base and apex ; its basal half keeled. Petiole 



lOfi SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

strongly, closely punctured, as are also the following three segments; 
gastrocoeh deep, widely separated. Areolet 5-angled ; trans vei-se 
median ner\nire interstitial ; disco-cubital nervure slightly broken. 
There is a distinct malar space. The upper tooth of the mandible is 
distinctly longer than the lower. Antennae shorter than the body. 
Temples obliquely, roundly narrowed. Post-petiole not clearly 
separated, becoming gradually wider towards the apex ; it is 
strongly punctured. There is a distinct depression at the base of 
the metanotum. Legs short and stout. 

The bodj'^ is black, spotted with yellow ; it is more closely and 
strongly punctured than usual. Temples obliquely narrowed. 

This genus should be readily known by the roundly convex scutel- 
lum, keeled to the middle, and by the clypeus being separated 
from the face by a deep transverse furrow. The middle area of the 
petiole is raised, separated from the sides. The apex of the clypeus 
is not quite transverse, the middle being slightly dilated 

7. — Stictichneumon macarice , sp. no v. 

Black, the face, except for a large mark on its lower half, its sides 
produced above, the sides of clypeus, inner eye orbits, lower two- 
thirds of outer, base of mandibles, palpi, a line round the base of the 
prothorax, one on the pronotum. tegulae, two lines on the mesono- 
tum, scutellar keels, two small spots on the base of scutellum, a 
line on its apex, post-scutellura. two oblique spots on the apical 
slope of metanotum, tubercles, a mark on the lower part of the 
mesopleuiae, contracted in the middle, the apical part shorter and 
more oval than the basal, which is narrowed at the apex , an irregular 
spot on the apex of the metapleura?, transverse marks on the sides 
of the basal four abdominal segments, the centre of the penultimate 
and the whole of the last, yellow. Legs black, the four front coxae 
and trochanters yellow ; their femora and tibiae obscure testaceous 
in front. Wings clear hyahne, the stigma and nervures black, 6 . 

Length 10 mm. 

Maskeliya, July. 

Bred from pupa of Macaria, sp. 

CRYPTIN.15. 

8. — Buodias rufipes, sp. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 13. 
Black, the legs red ; a broad band on the antennae, the upper eye 
inner orbits, an interrupted line on the base of the pronotum. scutel- 
lar keels, scutellum, metanotal spines and the apices of the basal 



PHYTOPHACOns AXT) PARASITIC HYMENOPTRKA. 107 

three abdominal segments and of the sixth more broadly, whitish 
yellow. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 14 mm.; terebra 4 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Face and, to a less extent, the base of clypeus irregularly rugose ; 
the apex of clypeus smooth and shining. Sides of front coarsely, 
obliquely striated. Mesonotum smooth, shortly, densely pilose. 
Base of metanotum finely irregularly striated ; the rest stoutly 
reticulated — striated ; the spines long, stout. Propleurse stoutly, 
closely striated ; the mesopleurae irregularly striated at the base, 
the rest finely striated — reticulated, but not closely ; the meta- 
pleurse obliquely striated. 

9. — Mdchn cinctipes, sp. no v. 

Black, face, clypeus, mandibles except at the apex, palpi, the 
upper inner orbits, malar space, the upper and lowei- sides of protho- 
rax broadly, metapleurte and apical half of metanotum, the apices 
of the basal three segments of the abdomen and the apical pale 
yellow ; the scutellum and the keels lemon-yellow. Four front 
legs pale yellow ; the hind coxee pale yellow, black above, the 
trochanters black ; the femora red, the extreme apex black ; the 
tibiae black, with a white band near the base, tarsi white, the basal 
joint to near the apex, and the apical joint, black. Wings hyaline, 
the stigma and nervures black, 6. 

Length 7"5 mm. 

Peradeniya, August. 

Base of metanotum smooth, irregularly punctured to the keel ; 
the rest closely reticulated. Propleurse with some stout striae in 
the middle behind. Mesopleurae obscurely punctured, with a striated 
band in the centre above. Lower part of metapleurae irregularly 
punctured — reticulated. The second and following segments of the 
abdomen are closely punctured. Tarsi spinose. 

Antennal scape fulvous ; flagellum densely covered with short, 
thick, black pubescence. There is a ypHowline on the centre of the 
outer orbits. 

10. — Melcha anrmli'pes , s]). no v. 

Black, an ovoid mark on the centre of the face, the broad end 
above and rounded, clypeus, palpi, mandibles except the teeth, the 
uppei' inner orbits from the antennae, pronotum broadly, tegulae, 
tubercles, scutellum, metanotum from shortly behind the basal 
keel, the top forming two rounded lobes, the yellow extending on to 
the metapleurae below the bottom of the lobes and being dilated at 
the base below, the apex of the first and second abdominal segments 

Q 8(17)05 



10S SPOLTA ZEYLANTOA. 

broadly and the apical four segments entirely, yellow : the petiole 
rufous. Legs rufous, the four front coxae and trochanters white ; 
the hind tibiae fuscous, with a broad ring near the base, the hind 
tarsi, except the apical joint, white. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
fuscous, the nervures darker, ?. 
Length 6-7 mm. ; terebra 2 mm. 
Peradeniya, September. 

Antennae broadly ringed with white ; the scape and base of fiagel- 
lum rufo-testaceous. The part below the ocelli closely, irregularly, 
longitudinally striated, keeled in the middle ; the depressed front 
with two stout smooth keels. Face finely, irregularly rugose. 
Mesonotum finely, closely, rugosely punctured. Scutellum smooth. 
Base of metanotum irregularly rugose ; the apex distinctly trans- 
versely striated, the striae clearly separated. The centre of propleura; 
stoutly striated, the mesopleurae closely, irregularly, obliquely 
striated and aciculated ; the metapleurae closely, strongly, obliquely 
striated. The second and third segments of the abdomen closely, 
uniformly punctured. 

U. — Melcha varibalteata , sp. nov. 

Black, the median segment, apex of mesopleurae below, and petiole 
rufous ; face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, lower third of outer orbits, 
base of propleurae, pronotum, mesosternum, tegulae, tubercles, the 
usual plate under the hind wings, the apices of the five abdominal 
segments and marks in the centre of the apical two, yellow, the 
yellow on the abdominal segments backed with testaceous behind. 
Four front legs pale fulvous, the coxae and trochanters white : the 
hind coxae fulvous, their trochanters black : femora rufous, tibiae and 
tarsi fuscous, the tibiae broadly lufous at the base. Wings hyahne, 
the apex slightly smoky, the stigma fuscous, tlie nervures darker, 6. 

Length 5 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Head smooth and shining. Thorax smooth, except the apical 
slope and sides of metanotum behind the keel, which are irregularly 
rugose. Middle lobe of mesonotum depressed in the centre, and 
having a distinct fovea, longer than wide ; the apex at the end of the 
parapsidal furrows with a row of foveae. The petiole is black at 
the apex, the centre yellowish, as compared with the sides. 

12. — Mrlcha reticulnta, sp. nov. 

Black, the face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the lowei' fourth of tlu^ 
outer orbits, malar space, the inner orbits to near the antennae, 
a broad line on the apical two-thirds of the pronotum. tegulae. 



I'HYTOPHAGOITS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTBHA. 109 

tubercles, antennal keels, scutellum, the usual mark behind the 
wings, the apical slope of the metanotum except for a black mark in 
the centre, the apices of the basal four abdominal segments and the 
apical entirely, yellow. The four front legs yellow, tinged with 
fulvous, the hinder rufo-testaceous, the apex of the coxse, trochanters, 
apical haK of tibiee, and the tarsi blackish. Under side of antenna! 
scape testaceous. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, 6. 

Length 7 mm. 

Matale, July. — Reared from Psyche subteralbata. 

Head shining, impunctate. Mesonotum minutely }ninctured. 
Parapsidal furrows closely, transversely striated ; the part where 
they end irregularly punctate — reticulated. The base of metanotum 
smooth, the rest strongly, closely reticulated. Propleurae and meso- 
pleurse smooth ; the metapleurse irregularly reticulated. The 
second and third segments of the abdomen are closely punctured : 
the others smooth, densely pilose. 

13. — Melcha erythropus, sp. no v. 
Plate B, fig. 2. 

Black, the upper inner orbits broadly, more broadly below than 
above, a line on the lower pait of the inner, the greater part of the 
clypeus, labrum. mandibles except the teeth, palpi, a line on the 
apical three-fourths of the pronotum, tegulae, tubercles, scutellum, a 
large crescent-shaped mark behind the wings, the apices of the basal 
three abdominal segments and a narrower line on the apex of the 
sixth, yellowish-white. Legs rufous, the anterior coxae and trochan- 
ters white ; the greater part of the hind tarsi blackish. Wings clear 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. Median segment, apex of 
mesosternum and base of metapleurse. rufous, ?. 

Length 7 mm.; terebra 2 mm. 

Peradeniya, August. 

The sixth to twelfth joints of the antennae are ringed with white 
except above. Face closely, irregularly, rugosely striated. Clypeus 
obscurely punctured. Front with a distinct keel down the centre, 
striated on either side, the striae stronger and more irregular above. 
' Pronotum and mesonotum smooth and shining ; the propleurse in 
the middle stoutly striated ; the mesopleurse except behind, closely, 
finely reticulated. Metanotum behind the keel smooth and shining : 
the rest closely, rugosely reticulated. Metapleurse closely, obliquely 
striated, more strongly above than below the furrow. The second 
and third segments of the abdomen are finely, closely punctured ; 
the others smooth and shining. Tarsi closely spinose. Areolet 
square, the apical nervure faint. Base of mesosternum yellow, the 



no SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

rest black : the second transverse cubital nervure faint. The base 
of the first abdominal segment is rufous. 

A specimen from Kandy is 12 mm. long, has a stripe on the sides 
of the fourth abdominal segment, and the penultimate is entirely 
white. 

14. — Melchnmaculic('p'<, sp. riov. 

Black ; the upper inner orbits, a somewhat pyriform mark on the 
centre of the face, the thickened end at the top and rounded, the 
clypeus except on the sides and apex , mandibles broadly at the base . 
tegulae, tubercles, scutellum, the apical slope of the metanotum, the 
top of the yellow part narrowed, transverse above, with the sides 
slightly oblique, and the apices of the abdominal segments, yellow. 
Legs rufous, the fore coxa? and trochanters yellow, the apical joint 
of the tarsi black. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, V. 

Length 8 mm. ; terebra 2 mm. 

Peradeniya, October. Bred from cocoons of Chrysotnelid beetle 
feeding on orchid. 

The sixth to tenth joints of antenna; white below. Face closely 
and distinctly punctured. The upper part of the front closely, longi- 
tudinally, irregularly striated — I'eticulated. Mesonotum minutely, 
closely punctured ; the apex of the middle lobe closely, strongly, 
longitudinally striated, the striated part broad and transverse at 
the apex ; separated from the scutellar depression by a smooth 
raised part. The scutellar depression is deep and bears stout keels. 
Base of metanotum irregularly, closely, rugosely punctured ; the 
area with a stout irregular keel in the centre ; the rest is closely 
reticulated. Pleurae closely punctured, the propleurae on the lower 
lialf stoutly striated ; the sternum boidering the furrow is on the 
basal half, (ilosely, finely, transvei'sely striated. Sides of post- 
petiole closely, longitudinally striated. 

15. — Friona rufipes, sp. nov. 

I 'late B, li^. 1. 

Black, the face, except for a triangular large black mark in the 
centre, clypeus, except for a black line, dilated in the middle, at the 
apex, labrum, base of mandibles, palpi, the upper orbits to the end 
of the top, the lower half of the outer more broadly, malar space, a 
hne on the pronotum, tegulse, scutellum, a reversed T-shaped hne 
on tlie apical, striated part of the metanotum, the cross pieces being 
on the apical slope, a semi-circular mark on the lower, apical part of 
the mesopleurae, a smaller mark, longish, rounded above, transverse 
below, under and in front of it : a large mark, rounded in front, 
gradually widened towards the outer side behind the wings, an 



PHYTOPHAGOTTS AND PARASTTTC HYMBNOPTETRA . Ill 

elongated mark, narrowest behind, on the metapleurse and the 
apices of the abdominal segments, pale yellow. Legs rufous ; the 
four front coxa? and trochanters yellfnv ; the hind tarsi white, 
fuscous at the base, the apical joints l)lack, Wings hyaline, the 
nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Kandy, July 

Length 13 mm.; terebra 4 mm. 

Antennae black, broadly ringed with wliite. Front with a distinct 
central keel ; on the top and bottom it has, on either side, three or 
four irregular, cuived keels. Face punctured, the centre irregularly, 
weakly striated. Thorax smooth and shining. The metanotum 
behind the keel and the pleurae closely, distinctly striated as usual. 
Median segment and hind coxae and trochanters covered with long 
black hair. Ai'eolet one half longer than the width at the base. 

The hind coxae are marked above at the base with yellow : in thr 
6 they are black, except at the base above, the middle coxae have 
a large black mark on the outer side at the apex above. The apex 
of the metanotum at the white transverse line is roundly dilated. 

16. — FrioMi bituberculata. sp. nov. 

Length 13 mm. 6. 

Kandy, July. 

In colouration this species resembles closely F. ruflpes, but the 
pleurae are not marked with yellow, the hind coxae are red, without 
black or yellow, and the face wants the black central mark. Other- 
wise the two may be separated thus : 

Apex of metanotuui not raised, near the apex armed with two 
stout teetli or tubercles, which are enclosed bj- the yellow 
apical band ; the apical transverse band as long as the basal 
cejitral line, this being narrowed towards the base ; pleune, 
immaculate, not strongly or closely striated ; the base of the 
first and the wliole of the apical two segments, white, bituber- 
culata. Cam. 

Apex of metanotum raised transversely, not tuberculated : the 
apical transvei-se Hne narrow, tlie longitudinal one widest at 
the top, plem'ae marked with yellow, distinctly striated face : 
the base of the first abdominal segment not yellow ; the 
apical two segments only yellow at the apices, rufipes. Cam. 

There is a triangular mark on the centre of the metanotum, the 
narrow end at the apex ; the striae on it are irregular and run into 
reticulations. The striation on the front is not very strong. Face 
yellow. Clypeus black, with a yellow mark, transverse, rounded at 
the sides in the centre. Legs red ; the hind trochanters black. Areo- 
let not very large, almost square (smallei' than in rufipes, which 
receives the recurrent nervure shortly behind the middle). 



112 SPOLTA ZEYX<ANTCA. 

17. — Fenenias erythropus, sp. nov. 
Plate A. fig. 14. 

Black, very shining, the centre of the face and clypeus, the latter 
more widely than the former ; tlie inner orbits narrowly from near 
the bottom and round the top. the lower two-thirds of the outer, 
base of mandibles and palpi, a narrow line on the apical half of the 
pronotura, the base below, a transverse small mark on the apex of 
the middle lobe of the mesonotuni, scutellar keels, apex of scutellum. 
the mark longer than broad ; a line on the centre of the apical slope 
of the metanotum, followed downwards, on either side, by a similar 
line of the same length and united to a mark on the middle , which is 
longer than broad and of equal width ; tubercles, a pyriform mark 
on the lower part of the mesopleurse near the base, a smaller, some- 
what similar mark on the lower side at the apex, a stripe along the 
lower side of the furrow, the usual mark under the hind wings, an 
oblique mark near the apex of the metapleura? and narrow lines on 
the apices of the abdominal segments (the apical interrupted), pale 
yellow. Legs red ; the anterior at the base and the hind tarsi yellow- 
i.><li. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black , ? . 

Length 8 mm.; terebra 4 mm. 

Paradeniya, September. 

Face and upper part of clypeus distinctly punctured, the former 
more closely and rugosely above. Vertex punctured in the centre ; 
the front clearly separated from it and with a steep slope. Mesono- 
tum distinctly, but not very closely or coarsely, punctured; the 
furrows deep, wider and striated towards the apex ; they do not 
extend near to the scutellum, which is finely, very sparsely punctured , 
its lateral slope is stoutly, obliquely striated at the base, the rest 
with some elongated punctures. Base of metanolum with a smooth, 
deep, oblique depression : in the middle is an indistinct U-shaped 
keel ; the centre is irregularly reticulated : the sides nmch more 
finely and regulaily reticulated. The apical slope is depressed in 
the centre and closely, transversely , irregularly striated — reticulated ; 
there is no transverse basal keel ; the apical is not very distinctly 
defined, especially in the centre : the teeth are broad and blunt. 
Propleurse strongly striated except for a punctured space above and 
the base below, which is smooth. Mesopleurae closely punctured, 
coarsely, irregularly, longitudinally striated at the base above, irregu- 
larly, closely reticulated in the middle ; the apex with a large smooth 
and shining space. First abdominal segment smooth, shining, the 
apex with some minute scattered punctures ; the second segment 
closely and distinctly punctured, except at the apex ; the basal half 
of the third is more closely and finely punctured. 



PHYTOPHAGOFS AND PARASTTTO HYMENOPTERA. 113 

The areolet is minute, closed at the apex ; the transverse median 
nervure is received behind the transverse basal ; the transverse 
median nervure in hind wings broken below the middle. Antennae 
long, ringed with white, slender. Metapleural keel reaching close to 
the hind coxae. Temples very short, obliquely narrowed. Head not 
much wider than the thorax. The basal transverse keel on the meta- 
notum is only indicated in the middle. 

This species may be separated from the type of the genus thus : — 

Metanotal teeth stout ; metanotum with three yellow marks in a 
triangle ; the mark on the mesonotum oval, longer than 
broad, hind tarsi iuscoufi, olbomaculattis, Cam. 
Metanotal teeth small ; metanotum with the upper part of the 
apical slope margined with yellow ; the mark on the meso- 
notum transverse, small, broader than long, erythropus. Cam. 
In albomaculatus the clypeus is more convex and not so ; ransverse 
at the apex. In Fenenias the front is more deeply and widely depress- 
ed, the depression reaching closer to the ocelli, than in Skeatia. 

18. — Skeatia acutilineata, sp. nov. 
Plate A, fig. 12. 

Black, face, clypeus, base of mandibles, palpi, the inner eye orbits 
to the end of their top, the outer from near the top, the yellow line 
becoming gradually wider, malar space, the base of the prothorax 
narrowly, the middle of pronotum broadly, tegulse, a mark, longer 
than broad and of equal width in the centre of the mesonotum, 
scutellar keels, scutellum, a triangular mark — the narrow end 
above — its base shorter than the sides and laterally united by a 
short line to a large mark on the sides of the apical slope, enclosing 
the spines and going on to the pleurae, the apices of all the abdominal 
segments, tubercles, a large oblique mark on the centre of the meso- 
pleurse, roundly contracted above and below and narrowed at the 
apex, mesosternum, and a mark on the metapleurae below the keel, 
widest and oblique at the apex, yellow. Antennae broadly ringed 
with white in the middle. Legs rufous, tlie coxae and trochanters 
yellow, the hind coxae broadly black at the apex above, this part 
joined to the base on the lower side by a broad curved line ; the apex 
of the hind femora narrowly, the base of the tibiae still more narrowly, 
their apex more broadly and the apical joints of their tarsi, black : 
the hind tibiae are infuscated. Wings hyaline, the nervures and 
stigma black ; areolet minute, longei- than wide, 9. 

Length 12 mm.: terebra 8-4 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Fiont irregularly rugosely punctured except below tlie ocelli; the 
centre keeled. Face distinctly, but not very closely, punctured; 
the clypeus more sparsely punctured above, smooth below. Thorax 



114 SPOIJA ZEYLANTPA. 

closely and strongly punctured ; the metapleuise more strongly than 
the rest, the metanotum closely reticulated, most strongly and more 
irre.'^ularly on the apex. The first abdominal segments sparsely, the 
others closely and uniformly punctured. 

Characteristic of this species is the acutely narrowed top of the mark 
on the metanotum ; in the other species it is rounded. 

19. — Skeatia cyclosice, sp. nov. 
Black, the face, clypeus, mandibles at base, palpi, the upper eye 
orbits to the end of the top, the outer from shortly above the middle, 
malar space, a broad line on the pronotum, a line on the lower edge 
of the propleurse, a small mark, longer than broad, transverse at the 
base, rounded at the apex on the centre of the mesonotum, scutellar 
keels, scutellum, the sides of the metanotum at the apex broadly, 
united above by a rounded line, which has the rounded top broader 
than the sides ; tubercles, a large mark on the mesopleura*, sharply 
contracted in the middle, the basal portit)n being the larger, 
mesosternum and a large mark in the centre of the metapleurae, and 
the apices of the abdominal segments, yellow. Legs fulvous ; the 
eoxse and trochanters yellow ; the base and a mark on the outer side 
of the hind coxae, under side of trochanters, apex ofi hind femora, 
the base of their tibise more narrowly and their apex more broadly, 
black ; the hind tarsi white. Antenna? broadly ringed with white. 
Wings clear hyaline, the stigma and nervures black, ?. 
Length 12 mm.; terebra 2-3 mm. 

Kandy. Bred from cocoon of Gyclona panthona, a zygaenid moth. 
Front with a distinct keel ; tlie part next to tlie keel finely rugose, 
outside obscurely striated. Face and top of clypeus punctured, 
strongly, but not closely. Mesonotum closely, finely, lugosely 
punctured. Scutellum smooth ; a small triangular black mark at 
the base. Metanotum closely, rugosely reticulated ; the basal area 
smooth, wider than long. Propleurse stoutly striated, obliquely 
above, below morestr(mgly longitudinally; tlie mesopleura? and meta- 
pleurae closely punctuied. Base and centre of first abdominal 
segment aciculated, the sides of post-petiole closely punctured and 
striated ; the other segments closely punctured. 

The Malay «S'. varipes closely resembles this species. They may 
be sepaiated as follows : — 

The rnetanotal area small, greatly narrowed at the apex, the top 
of the yellow line not dilated, the lai'ge lino on niesoplaura^ 
not contracted hi the middle, at apex united to the yellow 
<jn the inesosteniuin, varipes. Cam. 
The rnetanotal area large, not greatly narrowed at apex, tlie top 
of yellow line greatly dilated ; the large line on mesopleui'a? 
contracted in the middle, not united to the yellow on the 
st«mum, cyclopia: 



PHYTOPHAGOITS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 115 

20. — Skeatia pantho7ice, sp. nov. 

Black ; face, clypeus, mandibles at the base, palpi, inner orbits, 
their top, the lower two-thirds of the outer more broadly, malar 
space, the edge of the pronotum, the lower edge of the propleurse 
more broadly, an irregular small mark on the middle of the meso- 
notum, scutellum, post-scutellum, scutellar keels, the sides of the 
apical slope of the metanotum. united above by a narrow line to a 
spot which is longer than broad, rounded above, transverse 
below, tubercles, a moderately sized roundish mark on the lower part 
of the mesopleurae at the base, a smaller — half the size — somewhat 
conical one on the lower side of the apex, a large mark behind the 
wings, partly on the top, partly on the pleurae, a quadrangular mark 
twice longer than broad on the centre of the metapleurse, the meso- 
pleurae and the apices of the abdominal segments , pale yellow. Legs : 
the four anterior yellow, tinged with fulvous, the hinder fulvous, 
the coxae yellowish, black at the base and with a black large mark 
on the apex above, the lower half the larger, and projecting beyond 
it at the apex ; the trochanters, apex of femora, the base of tibia? 
more narrowly, their apex more broadly, black ; tlie tarsi yellowish. 
Wmgs hyaline, the stigma and nervures black, 6. 

Length 11 mm. 

Kandy. Bred from Gyclosia panthona. 

Face and upper half of clypeus strongly punctured. Front stoutly 
irregularly striated. Mesonotum strongly, closely, the scutellum 
sparsely punctured. Metanotum behind the keel closely rugosely 
punctured, the rest closely strongly reticulated, the reticulations 
converging into striae at the apex. Propleurse, except at the base, 
strongly, closely striated. Mesopleurae closely striated (more closely 
and less strongly than the propleurae) obliquely above at the base, 
running from the tubercles to the base of the pleurae ; the striae on 
the lower half are not so oblique and run from the base to the apex. 
Base of the metapleurse with some irregular widely separated keels, 
the rest closely , strongly , obliquely striated. Petiole obscurely acicu- 
lated ; post-petiole smooth and shining ; the second segment thickly 
covered with round, clearly separated punctures ; the third similarly 
but much less strongly punctured. The area on the base of the 
metanotum is wide at the base, not separated from the basal furrow ; 
it becomes obliquely narrowed towards the apex. 

Although this species has the same host as S. cyclosioe it is not, 
I beheve, its male. The two may be separated thus : 

Post-petiole strongly aciculated and punctured ; the mark on tlio 
centre of metanotum broader than long ; one long mark en 
the mesopleurae, cyclosice. 
R 8(17)05 



] 1 6 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Post-petiole smooth, shining, impunctate, the mark on the centre 
of the metanotum longer than broad ; two widely separated 
marks on the mesopleurse, panthonce. 

21. — Bathythrix ? rvbrioniatus , sp, nov. 
Plate B, fig. 4. 

Black, the upper part of the propleurse and mesopleurae, the meso- 
notum, and the scutellum dark red ; the lower part of the propleursp 
yellowish; the apex of the first abdominal segment at the sides broadly- 
testaceous ; the apex of the third and fourth yellow, the latter only 
narrowly. Four front legs dark fuscous, the hinder blackish, tlie 
coxae behind, trochanters, and the base of tibiae white. Wings 
hyaline, a broad cloud, rounded and narrowed in front behind the 
transverse median and the transverse basal, and a much broader one 
extending from near the base of the stigma to the end of the radial 
cellule, the centre of the apex of the wings, being hyaline ; the apex 
of the hind wings smoky. Antennae fuscous, darker at the apex, V. 

Length 6 mm.; terebra 1 mm. 

Peradeniya, April. 

In Ashmead's tables this species would run into the genus Bathy- 
thrix, but not having a specimen of that genus for comparison I can- 
not say if it be really identical with it or not. In my species the 
parapsidal furrows are deep, striated, and broadly rounded behind, 
not reaching to the scutellar depression. The areolar is 6-angled, 
narrowed behind and much longer than wide ; there is a distinct 
petiolar area ; the base of the segment is deeply depressed. The 
head (including the clypeus) and thorax are thickly covered with 
white long pubescence. Mesonotum aciculated. Scutellum laterally 
keeled to near the middle. Median segment closely, finely punctured. 
Petiole closely, distinctly, ongitudinally striated ; the second and 
third segments are closely punctured. First joint of flagellum as 
long as the second. 

22. — Bathythrix ? striatus, sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. .'). 

Black, the antennal scape, the base of prothorax, tegulae, tubercles, 
the base of the basal four segments of the abdomen broadly and of 
the last narrowly, yellow. Legs rufo-testaceous, the apical four coxae 
and trochanters and the base of the hind tibiae yellow. Wings 
hyaline, a black cloud behind the transverse median nervuie and a 
large one beginning at the base of the radial cellule, extending to near 
its apex and more dilated on the outer side below than on the upper ; 
there is a fuscous cloud near the apex of the hind wings, ?, 

Length 7 mm.; terebra 1 mm. 

Kandv. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 117 

Head closely rugose; the vertex closely striated in the centre, 
closely covered with white pubescence ; the centre of the face 
roundly tuberculate. Mesonotum very finely and closely transverse- 
ly striated; the furrows crenulated. Metanotum closely rugosely 
reticulated, the basal central area is wide at the base, becomes 
gradually narrowed to the apex , where the keels almost unite ; the 
areola is open at the apex, being continuous with the posterior 
median area ; the lateral basal areas are large and of equal width. 
Except at the apex the basal three abdominal and the basal half of 
the fourth segments are closely, regularly, finely, longitudinally 
striated. 

This is a larger and stouter species than B. nibriornatus ; the 
abdominal segments are closely longitudinally striated, the metano- 
tum less regularly areolated, there being no regularly defined areola, 
and the face is more distinctly tuberculated in the centre. 

Clitiga, gen. no v. 

6. Antennae as long as the body, 26- jointed, the first joint 
of the flagellum longer than the second. Parapsidal furrows indicated 
at base only. Scutellum lateralh^ stoutly keeled to near the apex. 
Median segment short, smooth, and shining, the apex with a straight, 
steep slope ; completely areolated, the areola wider than long, 
rounded behind, transverse at the apex ; there are five arese on the 
apex ; spiracles small, oval ; the sides at the apex toothed. Meso- 
pleurse largely, deeply excavated in the centre. Areolet 5-angled, 
the apical nervure faint, but distinct ; disco-cubital nervure rounded, 
not angled or broken ; the transverse median nervure received 
beyond the transverse basal ; transverse median nervure in hind 
wings broken below the middle. First abdominal segment greatly 
dilated at the apex, the base stoutly, angularly projecting ; the base 
of second segment depressed, the apex of the depression transverse, 
clearly separated. Legs moderately stout. Face flat, not separated 
from the clypeus, which is transverse at the apex. Mandibles with 
a long apical and a short sub-apical tooth. 

? Antennae stout, dilated towards the apex, longer than the body, 
the basal joints of flagellum elongated. The post-petiole is not so 
markedly tuberculated on the sides ; the apex of the abdomen is 
bluntly pointed ; the ovipositor projects and has stout sheaths. 
The areola is not wider than long, as it is in the 6 I have described, 
it being nearly as long as wide ; the base of the second abdominal 
segment is not tuberculate laterally, but it is depressed at the base, 
as in the ■* . The abdomon i-? ^hort. bluntly pointed at tlio apex. 



118 SPOl.lA ZEYLANICA. 

The diffeience between the Hemilelmi and the Phyyadeuonini 
appears to be soinewiiat shadowy, and practically consists in the 
absence in the former of the second transverse cubital nervure and 
in its presence in the lattei'. It is clear enough in the present 
genus, although bullated in the middle. In Ashmead's arrangement 
of the Phygadeuonini it would come in near Leptodermas, having five 
are» on the apex of the metanotum, but it has no keels on the first 
abdominal segment. The deeply excavated mesopleura is note- 
worthy. The pleural furrow is wide, deep, curved. 

23. — Clitiga excavata, sp. nov. 

Plate B, fig. G. 

Black, shining ; the face, except for a line in the centre above, 
clypeus, and mandibles except at the apex, palpi, the base of the 
prothorax, tegulse, tubercles, the lower part of the mesopleural 
depression, the mark roundly narrowed above and the apex of the 
scutellum, pale yellow. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
black. Front legs fuscous — testaceous ; the coxae and trochanters 
white ; the middle fuscous, the coxae at the apex and above white ; 
the hind legs with the coxae black, the rest fuscous, tinged with 
black, 6. 

Length 5 mm. 

Haputale, ex pupae of Michroeseus oblatarius. 

January. 

Mesonotum clearly, but not closely punctured. The central 
excavated part of the mesopleurae is smooth, its edges punctured ; 
the lower part and the sternum rather strongly punctured. The 
upper part of the metapleurae strongly, but not closely punctured ; 
the lower part smooth and bounded by stout, curved keels. The 
posterior median area of the metanotum is surrounded on the inner 
side by a row of fovete ; the outer area is stoutly closely striated, 
the inner with two or three irregular keels, the central quite smooth; 
the outer is whitish above and there is a white spot on the apex of tlie 
spiracular. 

24. — Clitiga forticornis, sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. 7. 
Black, the face, except for a black line broad and narrowed below, 
a line on the centre of the clypeus broadly dilated at the apex, the 
orbits (broadly above) except on the centre of the malar sjiace, basal 
half of mandibles, palpi, a broad line on the apical half of the prono- 
tum, the lower part of propleurae, tegula", tubercles, scutellums, the 
sides of the median segnicnt from shortly above the spines, about 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOI'TRIIA. IIU 

the lower third of the mesopleurse , the mark rounded at the base and 
apex, a large obHque mark on the apical half of the metapleurse, 
united to the lateral mark on the metanotum , the apices of the basal 
two abdominal segments broadly, a large mark on the sides of the 
third segment, its apical half dilated inwardly, a line, narrowed at 
the apex on the sides of the fourth and the apical segments, pale 
yellow. Legs rufo-fulvous, the four front coxa* and trochanters 
yellow, the hind coxae black, tinged with brown at the apex, yellow 
for the greater part above, trochanters black below, yellow above, 
their tibiae and tarsi infuscated at the apex. Wings hyaline, the 
nervures and stigma black. Antennae longer than the body, the 
middle broadly clear white. ?. 

Length 5-6 mm. 

Ex pupse of Michroeseus ohlatarkis. 

Haputale, January. 

Face punctured, but not closely or strongly ; the clypeus smooth, 
with some scattered punctures above. Front and vertex smooth. 
Mesonotum, lower half of mesopleurse and mesosternum closety 
punctured. Base and centre of metanotum smooth, the edges of 
the areola and the posterior median areae with a narrow striated 
border, the other areae aciculated. Metapleurae more strongly 
punctured than the mesopleurse. Post-petiole closely rugose and 
finely striated ; the second and third segments closely punctured. 
Gastrocoeli moderately' deep , smooth, yellowish testaceous. 

Earrana, gen. no v. 

Median segment smooth, with one transverse keel behind the 
middle ; long, gradually rounded towards the apex ; the spiracles 
large, about three times longer than wide. Abdominal petiole long, 
slender, not much dilated at the apex, the spiracles placed imme- 
diately behind the middle ; the segments smooth ; the ovipositor pro- 
jecting. Areolet punctiform as in Mesostenus, open in front ; 
transverse median nervure received behind the transverse basal ; 
the transverse median nervure in hind wings broken in the middle. 
Parapsidal furrows deep. Thorax more than three times longer than 
wide. Legs long and slender ; the hind coxae three times longer than 
wide ; the fore tarsi twice the length of tibiae ; claws moderately 
long, slender. Head slightly wider than the thorax. Metapleuial 
keels stout, reaching to the hind coxae. Eyes large, reaching to 
the base of the clypeus, there being a clear malar space. Mandi- 
bles edentate, gradually narrowed towards the apex. 

The type of this genus is a peculiar insect. It has the deep parap- 
sidal furrows and the furrow on the lower part of the mesopleuise of 



I H) SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

liie Cryptince, and its minute areolet would place it in the Mesostenini, 
but its uniform rufo-testaceous colour is very different from anything 
found in that group. It might in fact be readily mistaken for a 
Paniscus or an Ophionid. It differs from the Cryptince in the spiracles 
on the first abdominal segment being placed quite close to, almost at 
the middle — furtiier back than in Ophion, but not so far back as in 
Paniscus. In the position in which the spiracles are placed it agrees 
with the Malay genus Ccesula. From the resemblance of the 
species to Paniscus and Ophion I have no doubt that observation 
will show that it is, like the genera mentioned, nocturnal in habits. 
The ocelli, too, are large as in these genera. 

25.— Earranalutea,sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. 3. 

Luteous, smooth, and shining, the face, inner orbits to the ocelli 
and mandibles, except at the apex, lemon-yellow ; the four front 
legs at the base yellowish, the hind tibise and tarsi fuscous ; wings 
clear hyaline, the nervures black; antennae longer than the body, 
black, the scape luteous ; it is short, thick, not much longer than 
broad. Pleural sutures crenulated ; on the median segment, 
between the hind coxae, are three stout transverse keels, bordered 
on the outer side by a keel which nms down to the base of the hind 
coxae. Mesopleural furrow deep, obscurely crenulated, ?. 

Length 10 mm.; terebra 2 mm. 

Kandy, October. 

Ophionid^. 
26. — Ophion hicarinatus, sp. nov. 

Dark rufous, the eye orbits broadly, face, scutellum, and pleura' 
pallid yellow ; antennae pale rufous, wings hyaline, the costa 
and stigma rufous, the nervures darker ; the recurrent nervure 
received twice the length of the transverse cubital nervure behind 
the base of the apical abcissa of the radius ; the stump of a nervure 
as long as the transverse cubital. On tl\e apical slope of the meta- 
notum, commencing at the transverse keel, are two stout longitudinal 
keels ; tlie sides of the apical slope are bordered by a stout, waved 
keel, which extends to the base of the hind coxae. Face minutely 
punctured ; clypeal foveae large, deep. Thorax impunctate, meso- 
notum covered with a fuscous pubescence ; the parapsidal furrows 
distinct on basal half, ?. 

Length 21 mm. 

Maskeliya, November, 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 12] 

The depression at the base of the metanotum is deep, roundly 
narrowed towards the apex ; its width at tlie base longer than the 
total length. This species is much larger than any of the recorded 
British Indian species. It has keels on the metanotum as in 0. areo- 
latus, Cam., but, apart from the smaller size of the latter (15 mm.), 
areolatus has the basal depression on the metanotum semicircular, 
not dilated distinctly at the apex as in the Ceylonese species. 0. 
fitscomaculatus , Cam., is also smaller and may readily be known 
by the recurrent nervure being received opposite the end of the 
basal abcissa of the radius. In one specimen there are indications 
of three fuscous lines on the mesonotum. 

27. — Phuroneurophion erythrocerus , sp. nov. 

Head pale lemon-yellow, the thorax pale testaceous, the mesono- 
tum more rufous in tint; the abdomen, except at the base, rufo- 
testaceous, darker towards the apex ; legs testaceous, the anterior 
paler. Wings hyaline, the stigma testaceous, the nervures blackish ; 
the basal abcissa of the disco-cubital nervure slightly roundly curved 
downwards at the apex ; there is hardly an indication of a stump 
of a nervure on the disco-cubital nervure ; its apical abcissa is 
slightly but distinctly longer than the basal abcissa of the cubitus, 
which is shghtly shorter than the recurrent nervure ; the disco- 
cubital is thickened in the middle, with a long bulla beyond. Pro- 
thorax and mesothorax closely punctured, the propleurae obscurely 
striated. Basal depression of metanotum with two stout and some 
indistinct keels; the base smooth, the rest with broadly rounded striae 
Metapleural keel broad, rounded at base and apex, the middle 
slightly turned upwards, ?. 

Except that there can hardly be said to be a stump of a nervure 
on the disco-cubital nervure this species fits into Pleuroneurophion. 
It has the thickened base of the radius of that genus and of Eniscos- 
pllus, but it wants the horny points found always in the latter genus. 

The transverse median nervure is placed behind the transverse 
basal ; the median nervure in hind wings is broken far below the 
middle. The oceUi are not in a black patch. The antennae are 
much more reddish in tint than the body. 

Length 14-15 mm. 

Peradeniya. 

28. — Eniscospilus spilonotus, sp. nov. 

Rufo- testaceous, the head, except the ocellar region which is 
black, yellow ; the mesonotum with three large black lines, the fifth 
and following segments of the abdomen black. Antennae black, 
fuscous towards the apex. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures 



122 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

black ; there is one dark horny point, broadly transverse below, 
roundly narrowed in front, the base rounded, the apex slightly 
I'ounded inwardly. Transverse cubital nervure two-thirds of the 
length of the recurrent, which is more than twice its length from it. 
Scutellum yellow, its apical half irregularly striated. Base of 
metanotum smooth; the base of the apical part smooth, except for a 
few irregular stride ; the centre with roundly curved irregular striae ; 
the apex smooth. Propleurse almost smooth, the centre of the 
mesopleurao finely, closely striated except above ; metapleurse below 
the keel finely, irregularly striated ; the spiracular area coarsely, 
irregularly, obliquely striated, much more strongly towards the 
apex than at the base. Metastemal keel stout, curved at base and 
apex, the base dilated. 

Brulle (Hymen. IV., 145) describes an 0. plicatus from Java 
which has three black marks on the mesonotum ; but it is an Ophion, 
not an Eniscospilus , it having no horny points in the wings. 

29. — Eniscospilus melanocarpus. sp. no v. 

Rufous ; tlie fifth and following segments of the abdomen black : 
the antennae black, broadly rufous at the base ; wings hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures black ; the horny point triangular, the sides 
rounded, large, and with a long curved tail ; there is a small point 
beyond the middle of the latter, about twice longer than wide, 
rounded behind, transverse at the apex. Transverse cubital nervure 
one-third of the length of the apical branch of the disco-cubital and 
about one-fourth shorter than the recurrent. Scutellar keels stoutei' 
than usual. Basal depression of metanotum stoutly closely striated, 
more closely in the centre than on the sides ; the base smooth ; the 
rest closely reticulated, less closely at the base, where there are some 
irregular longitudinal keels. Pleurae closely, but not strongly 
punctured ; the metapleurae more strongly than the rest ; the 
propleurae striated closely in the centre. 

Length 12 mm. 

Kandy, August. 

30. — Eniscospilus xantfiocepiialus , sp. no v. 

Testaceous, the head and scutellum pallid lemon-yellow; the 
ocellar region and the' fifth and following abdominal segments 
black ; the occiput and a line in the centre of the face rufous. 
Antenna; rufo-testaceous ; the basal two-thirds of the first abdominal 
segment yellow. Wings clear hyaline, the stigma clear testaceous, 
the costa and nervures black ; transverse cubital nervure straight. 
obUque, slightly more than one-half the length of the recurrent 



PHYTOPHAOOFS ANT) PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 123 

nervure, which is about one-fourth shorter than the apical abcissa of 
the disco-cubital nervure ; third discoidal cellule short and wide, in 
length not much more than twice its width at the apex. Transverse 
basal nervure interstitial. The horny spot is broadly rounded 
above, shghtly, gradually narrowed to the apex which is transverse ; 
the apical spot is much smaller, about three times longer than wide, 
obhque at the base, narrowed at the apex, ?. 

Length 1 1 - 1 2 mm . 

Peradeniya, June. 

Smooth and shining ; the upper half of the mesopleurse finely 
punctured, the lower finely, closely, longitudinally striated. Basal 
slope of metanotum with a keel in the centre and one on the sides ; 
the basal region smooth, the apical almost smooth in the centre, the 
sides transversely striated. Apex .of clypeus broadly rounded. 

This species is readily known from the other species here described 
by the wide, as compared with its length, third discoidal cellule 

31. — Eniscospilus unilineatus, sp. nov 

Pallid testaceous, the head pale lemon-yellow ; the third and 
following segments of the abdomen fuscous ; a deep, black, broad 
line in the centre of the middle lobe of the mesonotum, the meso- 
sternum black ; the apex of the first and the second abdominal 
segments are more rufous in colour. Legs coloured like the thorax, 
the femora deeper in tint. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
black : the basal horny point is pyriform and is followed by a less 
distinct curved line ; beyond it is a small square spot, ?. 

Length 17 mm. 

Peradeniya, July 

Antennae rufous, the scape and the basal 10-11 joints of flagellum 
blackish. Head shining, impunctate ; the apex of clypeus broadly 
rounded. Mesonotum shining, covered with a pale pubescence. 
Basal half of scutellum keeled laterally. Base of metanotum 
smooth, irregularly transversely striated laterally, the centre irregu- 
larly stoutly reticulated ; the apical slope with some stout, irregular, 
roundly curved keels. Proj)leur3e smooth, indistinctly obUquely 
striated below. Mesopleurae closely, finely punctured. Metapleurae 
finely rugose, the upper part with some stout, oblique striae. 

32. — Eniscospilus dasychirce , sp. nov 

Pallid luteous, the abdomen darker coloured, especially towards 
the apex ; the head pallid yellow ; antennae rufous. Wings hyaline, 
the stigma, costa, and basal abcissa of radius testaceous ; there is 
one small pyriform horny point ; the transverse cubital nervure 

s 8(17)05 



124 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

slightly roundly curved, as long as the recurrent nervure. 8cutel- 
lum keeled laterally to the apex. Base of metanotum smooth ; the 
basal depression with a stout central and two or three keels on 
either side of it ; the base, behind the keel, is irregularly striated ; 
the striae in the centre longitudinal, the others irregularly trans- 
versely, the rest of the segment with close, rather strong, regularly 
roundly curved striae. Propleurae closely, obliquely striated. Meso- 
pleurae closely punctured. Metapleurae closely, coarsely, obUquely 
striated. 

The disco-cubital nervure is roundly curved and thickened in the 
centre and with a large bulla beyond the thickened part. Legs 
densely pilose ; the pile on the femora longer, paler, softer, and 
sparser than on the tibiae or tarsi, V. 

Length 21 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, January. 

Bred from Dasychira horsfiddi. 

33. — Eniscospilus horsfieldi, sp. nov. 

Length 18 mm., ?. 

This species is very similar to the above described, but is smaller, 
more slenderly built, and paler in colour. The two may be separated 
thus : — 

Length 18 mm.; transverse cubital nervure straight, oblique, 
not distinctly roxinded ; distinctly shorter tlian the recurrent 
nervure, horsfieldi. 

Length 21 mm.; transverse cubital nervure with a distinct, 
rounded evu-ve, as long as the recurrent nervure, dasychirce. 

Base of metanotum shagreened ; the base of the apical part has 
one or two longitudinal keels ; the rest with irregular, curved keels 
pointing towards the apex ; the rest is closely covered with roundly 
curved backwards, striae, which, at the apex, extend on to the 
pleurae. Propleurae rather strongly obliquely striated in the middle; 
the mesopleurae in the centre above broadly, and below entirely 
striated ; the upper part of the metapleurae coarsely, irregularly 
reticulated ; the rest closely, somewhat strongly, obUquely striated. 
Stigma, costa, and basal abcissa of radius, rufo- testaceous ; there is 
only one small, somewhat pyriform horny point. Legs densely 
pilose. The middle lobe of the mesonotum is darker than the latter. 

Spilophion, gen. nov. 

Transverse median nervure broken shortly, but distinctly, below 
the middle. Base of radius thickened. Disco-cubital nervure 
roundly, broadly curved, without a stump ; originating before the 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTBRA. 125 

discoidal nervure. Transverse median nerviire interstitial. Ab- 
domen strongly compressed, more than twice as long as the head 
and thorax united. Apex of clypeus transverse ; labrum projecting, 
roundly narrowed towards the apex, more than half the length of 
the clypeus. 

This genus has the thickened base of radius of Pleuroneurophion 
and Enicospilus ; the former may be known from it by the not 
interstitial transverse basal nervure and by the angled, almost broken 
disco-cubital nervure ; the latter by the presence of blister spots 
and by the transverse median nervure in hind wings being broken 
far below the middle. Characteristic are the projecting labrum and 
the spotted wings. 

34. — Spilopkion maculipeniiis , sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. 13. 

Testaceous, largely marked with yellow ; three large marks, 
narrowly separated, on the mesonotum, apex of metanotum, a large 
mark, obliquely narrowed at the base, on the lower half of the 
mesopleurse, a large ovoid mark on the metapleurae ; the third 
abdominal segment above and the greater part fifth and sixth black ; 
wings hyaline, the base of radial cellule smoky ; the stigma and the 
nervures black ; the former pale at the base; face, oral region, and 
orbits lemon-yellow ; antennae rufo-testaceous, ?. 

Length 15-17 mm. 

Peradeniya, September. 

Basal abcissa of radius thickened at the base. Disco-cubital 
nervure roundly curved downwards, the apex broadly, roundly 
curved upwards ; the cellule bare above, but without horny points. 
Head smooth and shining, almost entirely yellow. Pro thorax and 
mesothorax impunctate. Scutellum laterally keeled to near the apex. 
Metanotum behind the keel smooth ; the base depressed, with two 
stout keels in the middle ; down the centre of the smooth part is a 
fine longitudinal keel. The basal part is smooth laterally ; the 
centre with three or four irregular keels ; the central stoutly irregularly 
reticulated, its sides obliquely stoutly striated, the striae clearly 
separated ; the apical slope has some widely separated irregular 
longitudinal striae. Pleurae smooth and shining. 

35. — Paniscus intermedius, sp. nov. 

Fulvous, the thorax shghtly tinged with yellow, the face, oral 
region, and orbits pale yellow; antennae rufous, darker towards the 
apex, wings hyahne, the stigma fuscous, the nervures blackish. 
Scutellum stoutly keeled, the keels uniting at the apex in a sharply 



126 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

pointed angle. Areolet oblique, almost appendiculated above ; 
the second nervure largely buUated ; the recurrent nervure above 
and shortly below the middle widely buUated. Disco-cubital 
nervure roundly, broadly curved, not broken by a stump of a nervure. 
Transverse median nervure in hind wings broken near the bottom of 
the upper fourth. Median segment smooth at the base, the rest 
closely transversely striated, the striae running into reticulations at 
the apex. Pronotum and mesonotum closely, minutely punctured ; 
parapsidal furrows distinctly defined, especially in the middle. Legs 
coloured like the body, the anterior paler than the posterior ; tarsal 
joints spinose at the apex and more sparsely on the rest, ? and 6 . 
Length 10-11 mm. i 

Maskeliya ; Pundalu-oya. 

Owing to their uniform colouration the species of Paniscus are 
difficult to define. The present species appears to be sufficiently 
distinguished from the known Oriental forms by (1) its smaller size; (2) 
by the transverse median nervure in hind wings being broken higher 
up, nearer the upper fourth than the upper third as with the others ; 
(3) by the keels on the scutellum uniting in a sharp angle, while in the 
others they do not unite, but are widely separated. As with the 
other species the ocellar region is black. The apex of the clypeus is 
more transverse, less rounded than it is in the other species. The 
second joint of the hind tarsi is distinctly shorter than the third and 
fourth united. The temples are little developed and obliquely, 
sharply, roundly narrowed. 

36. — Paniscus orientalis, sp. nov 

Rufous, the orbits narrowly pale yellow ; stigma testaceous, the 
nervures black. Scutellum more strongly punctured than the meso- 
notum, whose furrows are distinct on its basal two-thirds only ; the 
scutellar keels are stout and do not unite at the apex. Metanotum 
smooth at the base only, the rest closely, strongly, transversely 
striated. Pleurae closely, distinctly punctured ; the lower part of 
the propleurae and metapleurse closely, distinctly, obliquely striated. 
Transverse median nervure in hind wings broken shortly above the 
middle ; disco-cubital nervure not broken by a stump of a nervure. 
Ocellar region black. Face strongly and closely, the clypeus sparse- 
ly punctured, the apex of the latter bluntly rounded. Wings hya- 
line, the stigma testaceous, the nervures black. Tarsal spines long,?. 

Length 13 mm. 

The pleural are much more strongly punctured than the mesono- 
tum, which is almost smooth. 

This is a larger species than intermedius, but still smaller than the 
other Indian species ; from intermedius it may be known by its 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMBNOPTERA. 127 

deeper rufous colour ; by the transverse median nervure in hind 
wings being broken lower down, by the scutellar keels not converging 
at the apex, by the temples being more largely developed and not so 
obliquely narrowed, and by the metapleural keel being much more 
broadly developed, especially at the base. Antennse dark rufous, 
darker towards the apex. 

Pundalu-oya, October. 

Paniscus ceylonicus, Cam., is a much larger (nearly 25 mm.) and 
stouter species than the two I have described here ; the stigma is 
dark fuscous ; the disco-cubital nervure is broken distinctly by a 
stump of a nervure ; the recurrent nervure forms two rounded curves, 
the upper being more broadly rounded, while in those here described 
it forms one curve only. 



37. — Paniscus loevis, sp. nov. 

Pallid yellow, entirely smooth and shining ; the antennae with a 
rufous tinge, not darkened towards the apex, wings hyaline, the 
stigma paUid yellow, the ner vures blackish, ?. 

Length 8 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

This species differs from the other Oriental species in being perfect- 
ly smooth, the head and thorax being impunctate and the metano- 
tum not striated. It differs also in the transverse median nervure 
being received at a greater distance from the transverse basal, and 
the eyes below are separated by the same distance as they are at the 
top, while in the others, e.g., orientalis a,nd intermedius , the distance 
is clearly greater below than it is above. The parapsidal furrows, 
too, are much less strongly indicated. 

The scutellar keels do not unite at the apex. Apex of clypeus 
rounded ; above it is not separated from the face. There is no 
malar space, the eyes touching the base of the mandibles. Temples 
distinct, obliquely narrowed. Transverse median nervure in hind 
wings broken close to the bottom of the upper fourth, the lower part 
with a more sharply oblique slope than usual. The antennae are 
much more densely pilose than usual, the pile being close, long, and 
white. The metasternal keel is wider at the base than at the apex. 
It is a more slenderly built species than the others. 

38. — Campoplexgreeni, sp. nov. 

Black, the third, fourth, and fifth abdominal segments red ; the 
apex of the fore femora, tibiae, and tarsi testaceous ; the middle 
femora near the apex and the tibiae more broadly at the base. 



128 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

obscure testaceous ; calcaria dark testaceous. Wings hyaline, the 
nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 10 mm. 

Hatton; Pundalu-oya, February. 

Head and thorax thickly covered with silvery pubescence. Head 
closely punctured. Mandibles uniformly dark rufous including the 
teeth, their base thickly covered with white pubescence. Palpi dark 
testaceous. Thorax closely, distinctly punctured, the pleurae less 
closely than the mesonotum ; the middle and lower part of the pro- 
pleurae with curved, oblique, clearly separated striae ; the apical 
central depression on the mesopleurae closely, regularly striated. 
On the base of the metanotum are two roundly curved keels, forming 
two arese, which are as long as wide ; the centre is depressed and 
transversely striated closely above, more widely and broadly below. 
Areolet small, oblique, shortly appendiculated. 

39. — Limnerium taprobanicum, sp. nov. 

Black ; the mandibles and palpi pale testaceous ; the four front 
legs dark rufous, the coxae black at the base, trochanters pale yellow ; 
the hinder darker red, their coxae and basal joint of trochanters, apex 
of tibiae, and the tarsi black ; wings hyaline, the nervures fuscous 
black ; the stigma paler below, ?. 

Length 6 mm. 

Maskehya. 

Head and thorax opaque, covered with white pubescence finely 
closely punctured. In the centre of the base of the metanotum is a 
clearly defined area about three times longer than wide and of equal 
width throughout ; from the apex of this two keels run ; they are 
at the base roundly curved outwardly, then run obliquely to the 
outer side of the apical slope, uniting with the pleural keel above the 
middle of the coxae. Propleurae closely, and rather strongly oblique- 
ly striated. Areolet shortly appendiculated, 4-angled, its width 
at the angles as long as its length ; the recurrent nervure is received 
in the middle. 

40. — Nototrachys reticulatus, sp. nov. 

Black, the four anterior legs and the antennal scape testaceous 
tinged with fuscous, wings hyaline, the apex slightly fuscous, the 
nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 7-9 mm. 

Peradeniya, January. 

Antennae 20-jointed, the last joint as long as the preceding 
two united, densely covered with a microscopic pile ; testaceous 
towards the apex ; the first joint of fiagellum distinctly longer 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 129 

than the second. Front and vertex shining, the former transversely 
finely striated, keeled down the middle. Face and clypeus closely 
punctured. Mandibles rufous. Mesonotum closely, irregularly reti- 
culated , the sides closely strongly punctured. Scutellum more widely 
and irregularly reticulated, its sides stoutly keeled. Metanotum 
reticulated, more widely and distinctly on the basal than on the 
apical slope ; the base bordered by a keel and with a small area, 
longer than broad and of equal width in the centre. Propleurse 
smooth, the apex with a stoutly striated border. Mesopleur® finely 
rugose and irregularly obliquely striated. Metapleurse rugose and 
irregularly reticulated. Abdomen smooth and shining ; the basal 
two segments as long as the head and thorax united ; the first 
shorter than the second and dilated at the apex. 

Transverse basal nervure interstitial ; disco-cubital roundly curved ; 
third discoidal cellule at base more than half the width at the apex ; 
transverse median nervure in hind wings unbroken. Hind tarsi 
longer than tibiae, claws minute, the calcaria of moderate length ; 
tarsi minutely spinose, slender. Antennae, slender, as long 
as the head, thorax, and first segment of the abdomen. Scutellar 
depression large, wide, deep. 

I have, unfortunately, not an example of Nototrachys for com- 
parison, but the species I have described agrees fairly well with the 
descriptions of that genus. 

Glatha, gen. nov. 

Hind wings with only two cellules, a large anterior, reaching to 
shortly beyond the middle, and with the apex broadly rounded, and 
a posterior, not reaching to the middle of the anterior and with its 
apex straight and slightly oblique. Disco-cubital nervure intersti- 
tial with the discoidal, rounded at the base, tlie third discoidal cellule 
narrowed and pointed at the base ; second discoidal cellule one-third 
wider at apex than at base. Hind tibiae as long as the trochanters 
and femora united, curved and narrowed at the base ; the basal 
joint of the trochanters about four times longer than the apical. 
Mandibular teeth large, unequal. Hind metatarsus as long as the 
other joints united. 

The transverse median nervure interstitial. Claws small, simple ; 
apex of clypeus rounded. Eyes bare, converging below. Occiput 
transverse, margined. 

This genus comes close to Agrypon, Foer., as defined by Ashmead 
(Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIII., 89), which apparently is identical 
with Atrometus, Schmied. (Zeits. fiir Hymen, u. Dipt. 1902, 361) non. 
Ashm. The total absence of apical nervures in the hind wings should 



130 SPOLTA ZEYLANTCA. 

readily separate the present genus. In them the anterior nervure 
forms one piece, it being in one continuous rounded curve ; the 
second nervure is joined to it by.a transverse nervure. The hind legs 
are very long. 

41. — Clatha longipes, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, a line of equal width, enclosing the ocelli, across 
the vertex, a line on the centre of the mesonotum extending from the 
base to near the apex, a shorter, broader line on the sides, more 
irregular in form, not commencing at the base, but reaching to the 
apex, the scutellar depression, the base and apex of the scutellum, 
the base of the metanotum, a line down its centre and one of similar 
size on the sides, a band on the centre of the propleurae, a smaller one 
on the mesopleurse, and one on the base of the metapleurse, black. 
Four front legs yellowish testaceous, the hinder black, their coxae 
testaceous, with a black line on the outer side. Antennae filiform, 
longer than the body, black, the base testaceous below. Wings 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, cS (?) 

Length to apex of second abdominal segment 9 mm. (the other seg- 
ments missing). 

Kandy, July. 

Head smooth and shining ; the lower part of the face, clypeus, 
mandibles, the parts behind and before the ocelli, yellow. Meso- 
notum and scutellum rugosely punctured ; the metanotum closely 
reticulated. Pleurae coarsely, rugosely reticulated, the centre of the 
propleurae and mesopleurae striated. Legs densely shortly pilose ; 
the hind femora streaked with testaceous below. The basal two 
set^ments of the abdomen are as long as the thorax ; are thin, of 
equal length, and the first is dilated at the apex. 

42. — Trichomma nigricans, sp. nov. 

Black ; face, clypeus, mandibles, orbits all round, a broad band 
narrowed at the base on the pronotum, tegulae, scutellum, four front 
coxae and trochanters, the fore femora and the four front femora 
and tibiae anteriorly, the calcaria and the hind coxae broadly at the 
base above, yellow. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
black, ?. 

Length 16 mm. 

Kandy, August. 

Head covered with white pubescence, smooth ; the front with a 
striated band which gets narrower below. Mesonotum opaque, 
the furrows and the part at their apex irregularly reticulated ; 
the apex in the middle finely, closely, transversely striated. Scutel- 
lum smooth. Metanotum coarsely reticulated, as are also the pleurae. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 131 

The apex of the propleurse from above the middle stoutly striated ; 
the mesopleurse more finely, closely striated. Thorax except the 
mesonotum thickly covered with silvery pubescence. 

Eyes large, pilose, converging below, incised on inner side, reaching 
close to the base of the mandibles. Transverse median nervure in 
hind wings unbroken. Second recurrent nervure received beyond 
the transverse cubitus ; the transverse median about the same 
distance beyond the transverse basal. Mesonotal furrows distinct. 
Second discoidal cellule not much wider at apex than at base ; 
the third liaK the width at the base it is at the apex. Scutellum 
laterally keeled. Mesopleurse strongly, closely, longitudinally 
striated. The second discoidal cellule not much wider at the base 
than at the apex ; the third half the width at the base it is at the 
apex. Ovipositor half the length of the abdomen. Occiput margin- 
ed, not quite transverse. Temples not narrowed. Mandibular 
teeth of equal length. Basal joint of hind trochanters more than 
twice the length of the apical ; the hind femora narrowed at the 
base. 

Tryphonin^. 

43. — Bassus orientalis, sp. nov. 

Black; the face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the eye orbits to near 
the oceUi, a large mark on the sides of the mesonotum reaching to the 
tegulse, broad in front, becoming gradually narrowed towards the 
apex, the upper hinder edge of the propleurse touching the tegulse, 
tubercles, tegulse, scutellum, post-scutellum, and a small triangular 
mark below the hind wings, lemon-yellow. The apices of the basal 
three segments of the abdomen narrowly lined with pale yellow ; 
the apical two lines widely interrupted in the middle. Four front 
legs yellow, their femora tinged with fulvous ; the hind coxse yellow, 
tinged with fulvous ; the femora fulvous ; the hind tibiae yellow to 
shortly beyond the middle, the rest of them and the tarsi black. 
Scape of antemise yellow, the flagellum brownish beneath. Wings 
hyaline, the stigma and nervures black, 6 

Length 6 mm. 

Peradeniya. — Bred from Syrphid larvae feeding on the tea aphis. 
April. 

The lateral sutures bounding the clypeus straight, oblique, the top 
rounded, the apical half narrowed, the sides roundly curved, the 
apex slightly, but distinctly roundly incised ; the face and oral region 
covered with short white pubescence. Vertex punctured but not 
strongly or closely ; the front less strongly punctured and distinctly 
furrowed down the centre. Thorax closely punctured ; the metano- 
tum is more closely, more rugosely punctured ; the central apical 

T 8(17)05 



132 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

part is bounded by a rounded keel and is closely distinctly reticulated. 
The basal three segments of the abdomen are closely, distinctly, 
rugosely punctured, as is also the basal half of the fourth and less 
strongly the basal third of the fifth ; the apical half of the fourth is 
sparsely punctured ; in both segments the punctured basal part is 
bounded by a transverse furrow, there being also a similar furrow on 
the third and a less distinct one on the second. The raised central 
part of the first segment of the abdomen is depressed in the centre. 
The metapleurse below the keel are smooth, above it rugosely 
punctured. 

Allied to the European B. multicolor. The now cosmopolitan, B. 
Icetatorius, Gr., probably is found in Ceylon. I have seen it from 
India, and lately from South Africa. 

44. — Rhorus spinipes, sp. nov. 

Black ; face, apex of clypeus, mandibles, malar space, inner orbits, 
a mark on either side of the mesonotum, the mark triangularly 
dilated on the inner side at the apex, scutellum, a broad band on 
the apex of the metanotum, a roundish mark on the upper side of the 
base of mesopleurse, a larger quadrangular one on the apex below, 
the usual mark under the hind wings, the apex of metapleurae, the 
mark united to that on the metanotum and the apices of the abdominal 
segments, yellow. Four front legs yellow, the hind coxse black, 
yellow above, the trochanters for the greater part black, femora 
rufous, tibiae dark red, blackish at the apex, tarsi black. Wings 
hyaline, the stigma fuscous, ?. 

Length 7 mm. ; terebra 2 mm. 

Kandy. 

Antennae longer than the body, the scape marked with yellow, 
tlie flagellum brownish below. Smooth and shining ; the metano- 
tum obscurely, finely, transversely striated, the basal half furrowed 
down the middle. Abdomen smooth, shining, densely, shortly pilose. 
Areolet oblique, triangular, shortly appendiculated. Four hind 
tii)iae and tarsi thickly spinose. 

This is probably not a typical Rhorus, but there is no other genus 
into which lean make it enter. I do not know the type of the genus. 
In my species the transverse median nervure in hind wings is broken 
near the bottom, the transverse median nervure is interstitial, and 
tlie recurrent nervure is interstitial with the second transverse cubital. 

PlMPLIN^. 

45. — Epirhyssa ornatipes, sp- nov. 
Palo fulvous yellow ; the middle of front, the ocellar region, the 
mark united to the eyes by a black byid of equal width throughout, 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 133 

the occiput in the centre, its black mark united to the black on the 
vertex by a short line ; mesonotum except for a large mark in the 
centre, longer than broad, of equal width and transverse at the base 
and apex , post scutellum , a narrow line on the base of metanotum , a 
large, somewhat triangular mark on the apical liaK, a line on its 
apex, a conical mark on the lower side of the propleurse, the lower 
side and apex of metapleurae and bands on the base and apex of the 
back of the , abdominal segments, deep shining black. Wings 
hyaline, their apex smoky, the nervures and stigma black. Legs 
coloured hke the body, the base of the four hinder trochanters, a 
broad band on all the femora behind in the centre above, a shorter 
line on the hinder pair in front; the base and apex of the hind tibiae 
broadly and the four hinder tarsi, black, 6 . 

Length 10 mm. ' 

Hantane, March. 

Antennae black. Mandibles and the parts at their base black. 
Head and thorax shining, smooth, except for the usual striation on 
the mesonotum and the scutellum which is finely transversely 
striated. Head and pleurae covered with a short, white pubescence. 
The black basal and apical bands on the penultimate abdominal 
segments are united with a black line down the centre. The apical 
joint of the fore tarsi is black. 

46. — Theronia maskeliyce, sp. nov. 

Pallid yellow, the ocellar region, the mesonotum except for two 
lines on the basal three-fourths in the centre and the outer side, a 
mark in the centre of the scutellum, dilated roundly at the apex, 
the base of the metanotum, narrowly in the centre, broadly at the 
sides , a large mark roundly narrowed at the apex , incised at the base, 
and broad bands on the base of the other segments, black. Antennae 
stout, as long as the body, black, the scape yellow below, the base of 
fiagellum fuscous. The femora broadly marked with black above, 
the middle tibiaj infuscated behind ; the base of the hind tibiae and 
a broad band below it, fuscous black ; the four hinder tarsi blackish. 
Wings clear hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, ? and 6. 

Length 10 mm.; terebra 3 mm. 

Kandy, August ; Maskeliya, April. 

Smooth and shining, covered with a short, white down. There is 
no central area on the base of the metanotum, but two lateral ones, 
longer than wide, narrowed towards the apex ; the outer keel is 
straight, oblique, the inner rounded ; from its outer side a keel 
runs along the sides of the segment to its apex, there being thus a 



134 SPOUA ZEYLANICA. 

large central area extending from the base to the apex of the metano- 
tum, the base being narrowed owing to the basal arese. There is a 
curved black line on the occiput. 

A variable species as regards the size of the black markings. The 
scutellum may have no black mark ; the size of the black lines on the 
legs varies, that on the hind femora may be cleft, wholly or in part, 
the pleurae may be marked with black, and, as is the case with many 
Pimplides, there is a considerable variation in size. 

Erythrotheronia, gen. no v. 

Median segment areolated, not toothed ; the spiracles longer 
than wide. Scutellum raised, stoutly keeled laterally to near the 
apex. Abdomen smooth, without furrows. Eyes incised, but not 
deeply on the inner side ; malar space almost absent. Last joint of 
antennae shorter than the preceding two united. Areolet oblique, 
5-angled ; the transverse median nervure interstitial. Transverse 
median nervure in hind wings broken distinctly above the middle. 
Temples moderately large, obliquely narrowed. Legs stout ; the 
claws large, edentate. 

The type of this genus looks like a red Xanthopimpla or Theronia . 
In Dr. Ashmead's system it comes near to the New Zealand 
genus Allotheronia, from which it differs in the regularly areolated, 
not dentate median segment. Theronia and Neotheronia differ, 
inter alia, in having pectinated claws. 

47. — Erythrotheronia flavolineata, sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. 12. 

Ferruginous, smooth, and shining ; the face, clypeus, mandibles, 
palpi, lower outer orbits, malar space, lower half of propleurae, two 
lines on the mesonotum, inner side of tegulae, the edges of mesonotum 
at the base, scutellar keels, apex of scutellum, post-scutellum, apical 
slope of metanotum, pleurae except above and the apices of the 
abdominal segments, yellow. Legs ferruginous, the four anterior 
coxae and trochanters yellow, as are also the hinder trochanters. 
Wings hyaline, with a slight fuscous- violaceous tinge and highly 
iridescent ; the stigma testaceous, the nervures black, ? and 6. 

Length 14 mm.; terebra 3 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Antennae black, the scape yellow, the Hagellum brownish beneath. 
Face sparsely, but distinctly punctured, the sides raised. Thorax 
and abdomen smooth, shining, impunctate ; the mesonotum thickly 
covered with fuscous pubescence. On the base of the metanotum 
are tive large arctu, a large central, twice longer than wide, with two 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 135 

wider than long on either side of it, the basal being the larger, the 
keel bordering it being broadly rounded at the apex ; the apical 
are widest on the outer side ; there is only one larger area on the 
apical slope, on the sides is a large spiracular area, followed by a 
much smaller, somewhat triangular one at the apex. 



48. — Echthromorpha ornatipes, Cam. 
Plate B, fig. 8. 

This species (described from the Khasia Hills, Assam) has been 
taken at Peradeniya by Mr. Green. 

49. — Xanthopimpla taprobanica, up. nov. 

Pale yellow, a triangular mark enclosing the ocelli, a broad band, 
irregularly trilobate — one on each lobe — across the base of the meso- 
notum at the tegulse, a mark on the tegulae continuous with it, a 
large transverse mark, roundly curved at the base and extending 
on to the scutellar depression, a broad band, narrowed in the centre, 
on the base of the metanotum, two large oblique marks on the centre 
of the first abdominal segment, dilated in the centre at the base, a 
small oblique mark, obliquely narrowed at the base and apex on the 
second, a large broad band on the third, irregularly narrowed laterally 
and slightly incised in the middle at the base and apex, two large 
broad bands, rounded on the outer side on the fifth, a broad band on 
the basal half of the penultimate and two marks on the last, black. 
Legs coloured like the body ; the middle knees, base of middle 
tarsi, the greater part of hinder trochanters, a broad band on the 
lower part of the hind femora, apex of femora narrowly above, base 
of tibiae, and the tarsi (the middle joints paler in colour), black. 
Wings hyaline, their apex with a fuscous cloud, ?. 

Length 10 mm.; terebra 2 mm. 

Kandy. 

Face rugosely punctured ; the upper part of the clypeus sparsely 
punctured. Mesonotum smooth, impunctate ; parapsidal furrows 
reaching shortly beyond the middle. Scutellum roundly convex, 
the keels not very stout. Areola large, open at the base, transverse 
at the apex, longer than broad, the sides angled shortly behind the 
middle ; the basal lateral area wider on the outer side, the sides 
roundly curved ; the second large, broad, oblique, of equal width 
throughout ; the apical lateral area triangular ; the apex on the 
outer side, the upper angle longer than the lower. First segment 
of abdomen in length clearly longer than its width at the apex, 
smooth, except for some punctures in the middle, the second to 



136 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

fourth segments closely and strongly punctured, the furrows crenu- 
lated. Areolet small, oblique, triangular, shortly appendiculated. 

The occiput is immaculate, except that the ocellar black spot 
slightly projects into it- Pleurae impunctate. Ovipositor as long 
as the hind tarsi. 

In Professor Krieger's work on Xanthopimpla this species would 
come in near X. splendens. Cf. Bericht d. Naturf. Ges. zu 
Leipzig, 1898, 69. 

50. — Xanthopimpla kandyensis, sp. nov. 

Yellow ; the ocellar region, the mark longer than broad, three 
almost continuous marks on the mesonotum at the base, the central 
placed more in advance than the others, longer than broad, transverse 
at the base, rounded behind, the lateral longer compared with the 
width, more irregular, slightly incised in the middle at the base, 
rounded and narrowed at the apex ; two irregular, shghtly oblique 
marks, narrowed on the inner side, on the first segment ; two large 
marks, broader than long, with the sides rounded, on the third ; 
two somewhat similar ones on the fifth, but broader, more slender 
compared with the length, and two similar but larger (the largest of 
all) on the seventh and two marks on the base of the metanotum, 
broader than long, transverse behind, rounded at the apex, black. 
Antennae black, the flagellum brownish, the scape yellow below. 
Wings clear hyaline, the nervures and stigma black, ?. 

Length 1 1 mm. ; terebra 4 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Face and clypeus closely, distinctly, but not very strongly punc- 
tured. Thorax smooth and shining. The areola on metanotum 
broader than long, slightly obliquely narrowed from the apex to the 
base ; the lateral arese are of almost the same width, the outer side 
obliquely narrowed ; following them is an area which becomes 
obliquely narrowed from the base on the inner to the apex on the 
outer. Basal two segments of abdomen smooth, the others closely 
but not strongly punctured ; the furrows closely striated. 

The occiput has no black. 

Allied to X. punctata, F. 

51. — Xanthopimpla parva, sp. nov. 

Pallid yellow, a triangular mark enclosing the ocelli , an irregular 
transverse line on the base of mesonotum, with ragged edges, a mark 
at the base of the scutellum, two marks, narrowed from the outer to 
the inner side, on the base of the metanotum, and marks, broader 
than long, on the first, third, and following segments, black. Legs 
coloured like the body, two small marks on the hind trochanters, a 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMBNOPTERA. 137 

mark on the base of the hind tibise, and a smaller one on the base of 
the hind tarsi, black. Wings clear hyaline, the nervures blackish, 6 . 

Length 6 mm. 

Peradeniya, August. 

Face closely punctured. Thorax impunctate ; the parapsidal 
furrows indicated only at the base. There is no central area on the 
base of the metanotum, but two semicircular large lateral ones 
enclosing the black spots ; there is none on the apex. The basal 
two abdominal segments smooth ; the furrows striated ; the other 
segments are closely punctured. The apex of the wings slightly 
infuscated. Base of mesonotum rounded. 

This and the following species are very much smaller than any of 
those described hitherto. 

52. — Xanthopimpla minuta, sp. nov. 

Yellow; a triangular mark enclosing the ocelh, the scutellar de- 
pression, two marks on the first abdominal segment, a transverse line 
on the third, two closely continuous ones on the fourth, two more 
widely separated ones on the fifth, two still more widely separated 
marks on the sixth, and a line on the seventh, black. The base of the 
hind tibiae marked with black. Wings hyahne, the nervures and 
stigma black, ?. , 

Length 5 mm. 

Kandy, July. 

Face minutely punctured. Base of mesonotum transverse, the 
parapsidal furrows distinct, the middle lobe clearly separated. 
Smooth and shining. There is no area on the base of metanotum ; 
there is a clearly defined lateral area, broader than long, broad on the 
outer, becoming gradually narrowed to a fine point on the irmer side; 
the sides of the metanotum are keeled. Abdomen closely punctured, 
with distinct, striated furrows. The apical half of the first segment 
is raised, clearly separated, smooth, of equal width and twice longer 
than wide. Antennal scape for the greater part yellow, the flagel- 
lum brownish beneath. The antennae are clearly longer than the 
body. The ovipositor short. 

This species can easily be distinguished from X. parva by the 
distinct parapsidal furrows and by the mesonotum being transverse, 
not rounded at the base. 

Philopsycke, gen. nov. 
Eyes very large, reaching to the base of the mandibles, there being 
no malar space ; on the inner side they are distinctly incised. Face 
keeled down the middle, clearly separated from the clypeus by a 



13H SPOIJA ZEYLANICA. 

furrow ; theextioine apex of clypeus depressed, not (juite transverse. 
Last joint of antennae as long as the preceding two united. Scutel- 
luni roundly convex. Transverse median nervure in hind wings 
broken far below the middle. Areolet triangular, small, appendi- 
culated. Transverse median nervure in fore wings placed immediately 
behind the transverse basal, almost interstitial. Abdomen and 
legs as in Pimpla. Metathoracic spiracles round. Claws slender, 
curved, untoothed. The sharp lateral ridges of the mesonotum do 
not extend on to the scutellum. The eyes do not converge anteriorly 
The last joint of hind tarsi about three times longer than the pre- 
ceding. 

If the apex of the clypeus is to be considered " impressed anteriorly 
at apex " this genus, in Dr. Ashmead's arrangement, would come in 
near Itoplectis and Eremochila, vidth neither of which can it be con- 
founded ; if " not impressed' ' then it would come nearest to Tromato- 
bia, which is easily known from it by the entire eyes. The meta- 
pleural keel is distinct, complete. The disco-cubital nervure is 
angled beyond the middle, but not broken by the stump of a nervure. 
The genus should be readily known by the large, clearly incised eyes, 
reaching close to the base of the mandibles, round metathoracic 
spiracles, angled disco-cubital nervure, transverse median nervure 
in hind wings broken near the bottom, and smooth, white-banded 
apex of abdominal segments 

« 
53. — Philopsyche albobalteata, sp. nov. 
l^late B, fig. 10. 

Black ; the antennal scape except above, palpi, hind edge of 
pronotum, tegulse, and the apices of the basal six abdominal seg- 
ments, white. Four front legs white, the hind coxae and femora 
red ; the basal joint of trochanters red, the apical white ; the hind 
tibiae at extreme base, and broadly in the middle, white, the rest 
black ; the hind tarsi black, the basal joint white to near the apex, 6 . 

Length 7-8 mm 

Bred from Psyche albipes and P. subteralbata. 

Matale ; Peradeniya, August. 

Head smooth and shining, the face covered with white, the clypeus 
with longer white hair ; the former obscurely shagreened. Mesono- 
tum and scutellum closely punctured, thickly covered with white 
pubescence. Metanotum smooth, shining, and bare at the base and 
apex, the middle punctured and thickly covered with long white 
hair. Abdomen closely and strongly punctured except on the white 
apices of the segments and thickly covered with black pubescence. 
Pleurae smooth, almost bare, except on the metapleurae above the keel. 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PAEASITIO HYMENOPTBRA. 139 

Lissotheronia, gen. no v. 

Abdominal segments broader than long, perfectly smooth, shin- 
ing, impunctate ; the first segment bituberculate at the base. 
Median segment strongly, closely, transversely striated, the spiracles 
about three times longer than wide, broader below than above. 
Eyes large, incised on the inner side ; malar space smaU. Clypeus 
clearly separated, its apex obHquely depressed. Transverse median 
nervure in hind wings broken distinctly above the middle. Trans- 
verse median nervure received beyond the transverse basal. Disco- 
cubital nervure broadly rounded, unbroken. Claws simple ; tarsi 
thickly spinose. Antennae slender, longer than the body, the last 
joint nearly as long as the preceding two united. 

This genus might be mistaken for a Pimpla, from which, however, 
it can be readily known by the perfectly smooth, shining abdomen. 
In Dr. Ashmead's system it would come in near AUotheronia, which 
may be known from it by the metathorax having a strong transverse 
apical area, with the upper angles dentate or tuberculate, the whole 
thorax, too, being " closely, finely, rugosely punctate " except for a 
spot on the middle of the mesopleurse. It has the metanotum closely 
transversely striated as in Lissopimpla, having also the smooth 
abdomen of that genus ; but otherwise is readily separated from it 
by the absence of parapsidal furrows and of a tooth on the hind 
femora. 

54. — Lissotheronia flavipes, sp. nov. 

Black, shining, except the median segment which is closely striated, 
the pleurae more closely and obfiquely than the dorsal surface ; the 
legs yeUow, except the fore coxae in the middle below, and the 
four hind coxae and trochanters, which are black ; wings hyaline, 
shghtly suffused with yellow. A spot on the scutellum in the centre, 
a curved one on the post-scutellum, and one on the base of the 
tegulae are yellow. The depressed apex of the clypeus is smooth and 
shining ; the raised upper part sparsely punctured. Face closely 
punctured ; the sides of the lower part roundly convex. Tarsi 
spinose, much longer than the tibiae. Sternum and under side of 
coxae thickly covered with fulvous pubescence, ?. 

Length 15 mm. ; terebra 4 mm. 

Pundalu-oya, February. 

55. — Charitopimpla annulipes, sp. nov. 
Plate B, fig. 9. 

Black ; antennal scape except above, tegulae, hind edge of prono- 
tum, and palpi, yellow; the apex of the abdominal segments narrowly 
yellow ; the yellow hnes dilated at the sides and tinged with rufous 

u 8(17)05 



140 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

there. Four anterior legs yellow, tinged slightly with rufous ; the 
hind coxae and femora rufous, their trochanters yellow ; hind tibiae 
black, their base narrowly and the middle broadly white ; hind tarsi 
black, the metatarsus to near the apex black. Wings hyaline, the 
nervures and stigma black, the areolet small, triangular, with a 
long pedicle, it being as long as the branch of the first transverse 
cubital nervnre, ?. 

Length 12 mm. ; terebra 5 mm. ; 

Pundalu-oya. 

Face sparsely pilose and punctured, the middle keeled. Apex 
of clypeus brown round the central incision. Mandibular teeth 
piceous. Front and vertex smooth and shining. Pro thorax smooth , 
except along the upper edges. Mesothorax and meta thorax closely 
punctured, thickly covered with pale pubescence ; on the metanotum 
the pubescence is longer and more fulvous in tint. Except at the 
apices of the segments the back of the abdomen is closely and strong- 
ly punctured ; the apical segments are only slightly punctured. 

The antennae are stout, as long as the abdomen ; the last joint 
is as long as the preceding two joints united. The apices of the 
tarsal joints are spinose. The metapleurse below the keel are 
smooth. The hind coxae below and the extreme apex of the hind 
femora are black. 

Charitopimpla was described by me in the Journ. Str. Br. Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1902, 48. 

56. — Lissopimpla ruflpes, sp. no v. 
Plate B, fig. 14. 

Black ; the upper orbits broadly, the outer narrowly above, broad- 
ly below, the malar space, face, clypeus, labrum, mandibles, palpi, 
a raised line on the basal half of the pronotum, interrupted by the 
parapsidal furrows, a mark on the apex of the middle lobe of the 
mesonotum, transverse at the base, gradually roundly narrowed to 
the apex, scutellar keels to shortly beyond the middle, the apex of 
scutellum, the lateral keels, post-scutellum, the three tubercles on the 
apex of metanotum, a line on either side of the base of pronotum, the 
lower edge of propleurae, tubercles, a small roundish mark on the 
base of mesopleurae above the middle, the basal half below, a 
large mark, roundly narrowed at the apex, obliquely truncated at 
the base on the apex of the metapleurse, the apex above the hind 
coxae, two narrow lines on the centre of the first abdominal segment 
and about the apical third of the others, yellow. Legs rufous, the 
four coxae and trochanters yellowish, the apex of the hind coxae 
marked with black, as is also the base. Wings clear hyaline, highly 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 141 

iridescent, the nervures and stigma black or fuscous black. The 
hind tibiae are darker coloured, the hind tarsi fuscous, ?. 

Length 9-12 mm.; terebra 3-4 mm. 

MaskeUya, April ; Peradeniya, August. 

Antennae longer than the body, slender ; the 8-12 joints of flagel- 
lum white. Labrum and clypeus closely and rather strongly punc- 
tured. Face depressed, stoutly keeled in the centre, the sides of the 
depression roundly curved. Prothorax and mesothorax smooth, 
shining ; the pleural sutures closely striated. Metanotum, except in 
the centre at the base, closely transversely, the upper part of the 
metapleurae obhquely, striated. Areolet, as in the typical species of 
the genus, obHque, the nervures uniting above. Femoral tooth 
small, but distinct. 

The occurrence of Lissopimpla in Ceylon is of great interest, the 
genus hitherto having been regarded as Australian. 

Tanera, gen. no v. 

Abdominal petiole long and slender, narrowed at the base, as long 
as the following two segments united; the segments smooth and 
shining, longer than wide ; there is a projecting ovipositor. Median 
segment uniformly coriaceous, without a transverse keel ; there is 
a stout metapleural keel. Legs slender ; the claws not pectinated ; 
hind coxae three times longer than wide. Areolet with a long pedicle, 
the cubital nervures roundly curved ; the recurrent nervure is 
received at its apex ; transverse median nervure received 
behind the transverse basal. Clj^peus roundly convex, separated 
from the face ; its apex broadly rounded. Occiput transverse ; the 
ocelli placed close to the edge. Temples very short, almost obsolete 
behind the eyes. Antennae nearly as long as the body ; the last 
joint longer than the penultimate, but not so long as the preceding 
two united. 

The eyes are large, converging shghtly above ; there is a distinct 
malar space ; the ocelh are on the outer edge of the vertex. The 
keel on the edge of the metastemum projects at the apex into a 
distinct tooth. Metathoracic spiracles small, oval. The abdominal 
petiole is longer, more slender and narrower at the base than it is in 
Lissonota. If it is to be called "sessile," in Ashmead's table (U. S. 
Nat. Mus. XXIIL, 49) it would fit in near Trevoria, with which it 
cannot be confounded ; if " petiolate " then it would come in near 
Atropha. 

57. — Tanera annulipes, sp. no v. 

Plate B, fig. 1 1. 
Black, smooth, and shining, except the pleurae and metanotum, 
which are closely and strongly punctured ; the latter more coarsely 



142 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

than the former ; the clypeus, mandibles, palpi, a spot on the malar 
space, the inner orbits, more broadly above than below, scutellum, 
a line on the centre of the pronotum, tegulae, tubercles, the apex 
of metapleurae ; the basal third of the first abdominal segment, 
about the basal third of the second and third, tlie apex of the third 
more narrowly, and the apical segments, yellow. Legs rufous, the 
four front coxae and trochanters tinged with yellow ; the hind tibiae 
and tarsi fuscous, tinged with rufous, their base white. Wings 
hyaUne, the apex of the radial and of the third cubital smoky ; the 
stigma fuscous, ?. 

Length 8 mm. ; terebra 5 mm. 

Hatton. 

58. — Lissonota greeni, sp. nov. 

Black ; the cl3rpeus broadly at the apex, more broadly in the centre, 
mandibles except the teeth, palpi, underside of the antennal scape, 
and the lower edge of the propleurae, yellow ; first abdominal seg- 
ment, basal third of the second, the base of the third narrowly, 
and of the fourth still more narrowly, red ; the apices of the second 
and third yellow, tinged with rufous. Legs red ; the anterior coxae 
and trochanters and the middle coxae at the base, yellow; the hind 
tibiae and tarsi black. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures dark 
fuscous, ?. 

Length 8 mm. ; terebra 5 mm. ' 

Peradeniya, March. 

Closely and regularly punctured. First segment of abdomen 
closely, distinctly, longitudinally striated, except in the middle at 
the apex ; the second and third segments and the base of the fourth 
closely and regularly punctured ; the apical smooth and shining ; the 
last and the apex of the penultimate white. Areolet not appen- 
diculated. 



SPOLIA ZEYLAmCA. 



Plate A. 




Wesli, Newman ad.jiatliLh, 



HYMENOPTEH.A 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



Plate B. 




West, Newman ad.nat.liuh. 



HYMENOPTERA 



PHYTOPHAGOUS AND PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. 



143 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 

illustrating Mr. P. Cameron's Paper on Phytophagous and Parasitic 
Hymenoptera. 

Plate A. 

PAGE 

1. — Xiphydria striatifrons ... ... 70 

2. — Rhacoteleia pilosa ... ... 73 

3. — Spilomegastigmus ruficeps ... ... 74 

4. — Rhacospathius striolatus ... ... 86 

5. — Troporhogas maculipennis ... ... 94 

6. — Holcobracon fulvus ... -, 90 

7. — Iphiaulax erythroura ... ... 85 

8. — Troporhogas tricolor ... ... 94 

9. — Paraspinaria pilosa c. ... 88 

10. — Deniya pleuralis ... ... ... 103 

11. — Aluina erythropus ... ... 102 

12. — Skeatia acutilineata ... ... 113 

13. — Buodias rufipes ... ... ... 106 

14. — Fenenias erythropus ... ... 112 



Plate B. 

1. — Friona rufipes 

2. — Melcha erythropus 

3. — Earraua lutea 

4. — Bathythrix rubriornatus 

5. — Bathythrix striatus 

6. — Clitiga excavata 

7. — Clitiga forticornis ... 

8. — Echthromorpha ornatipes 

9. — Charitopimpla annulipes 
10. — Philopsyche albobalteata 
11. — Tanera annulipes .. 
12. — Erythrotheronia flavolineata 
13. — Spilophion maculipennis 
14. — Lissopimpla rufipes 



110 
109 
120 
116 
116 
118 
118 
135 
139 
138 
141 
134 
125 
140 



144 SrOLIA ZBYLANICA. 



NOTES ON SNAKES GOLLEGTEO AT HAKGALA, GEYLON. 

By F. Wall, C.M.Z.S., Captain, I.M.S. 

Fyzabad, United Provinces, India. 



rriHROUGH the kindness of Mr. Nock I have received two 
-*- collections of snakes at different times from Hakgala, 
Ceylon (5,600 feet). 

The number of species included is small (6), and all are 
common ; nevertheless, collections such as these are of distinct 
value with reference to distribution. It will be seen also that 
some very interesting information has been gleaned from the 
numerous specimens of Aspidura trachyprocta and Ancistrodon 
hypnale. I have omitted to give measurements, as the specimens 
were all preserved in spirit, and under these conditions do not 
lend themselves to accurate investigation. 

Aspidura trachyprocta. 
(48 specimens.) 

With reference to this species I notice Gtinther says (Rept. 
Brit. Ind., p. 203) : '* This species is nearly as common in Ceylon 
as A. hrachyorrlwsH'' In the locality of Hakgala A. trachy- 
procta is evidently not only vastly more numerous than^. hrachy- 
orrhos, but by far the commonest snake to be met with at all. 
No single specimen of A. hrachyurrhos was included. 

Food. — Several specimens had their stomachs distended with a 
soft putty-like mass, the nature of which I could not determine. 
Once I thought I could distinguish a slug, and once a grub. On 
four occasions without doubt the ingested material consisted of 
earth-worms. I never found traces of any hard-cased insects. 

Breeding. — The ovarian follicles are normally about g^ inch in 
length. In one specimen I found 8 follicles (4 in each ovary), 
about ^ inch long, and in another 6 (3 in each ovary) about the 
same size, and these appeared to be impregnated. The dates of 
both are not known. A third specimen obtained on the 10th of 
August, 1904, had 14 follicles (6 in one ovary and 8 in the other) 
enlarged to -^q of an inch. The smallest specimens, which I 
believe were hatchlings, measured 4^ and 4^^^ inches. The latter 
were found in company with an adult female on the 10th of 



SNAKES COLLECTED AT HAKGALA, CEYLON. 145 

August. The adult, however, showed nothing unusual upon 
anatomical investigation. The navel involved 2 shields in 
both cases. In the 6 10 ventrals intervened between the navel 
and the anal shield, in the ? 7. 

Sexes. — Of the 48 specimens collected, 21 were males and 27 
females. Without actually measuring them, I think there is 
no doubt that the females were usually larger. Adult males had 
all the scales about the anal region keeled. In the median rows 
these were tuberculate, and often bi, tri, or pluridentate, and 
in the lowest lateral rows markedly spinose, with the points 
directed backwards. The spines were hooked, reminding one 
forcibly of rose-thorns, and were attached by a long base to the 
anterior three-fifths of each scale. 

In young males, or at least in some, the keels were obtusely 
tuberculate as in females. The tails of the males were longer, and 
the subcaudals varied from 21-26, whereas in females these 
shields numbered from 11-16. The ventrals in males were 
however 135-148, against 139-151 in females. 

Scale peculiarities. — The scales anteriorly (two head-lengths 
behind the head) number 15, mid-body 15, posteriorly (two head- 
lengths before vent) 15, keels were absent in all these situations. 
The vertebral row was the narrowest of the series, and the 
ultimate row very slightly largest. The supracaudals were in odd 
rows, as is the rule where the subcaudals are entire. The first 
subcaudal was as often divided as entire. 

Abnormalities. — One specimen had no prseocular. The upper 
postocular was confluent with the parietal in one. The labials 
were 7, of which the 4th only touched the eye on one side in one 
specimen ; 7 with the 5th only touching the eye on the left side 
in two specimens. 

One very aberrant specimen requires special remark, viz., a 
male in which the subcaudals numbered only 16. In addition 
the scales anteriorly (two head-lengths behind the head were 
15 or 14, mid-body 13, posteriorly (two head-lengths before the 
vent) 13. Investigation showed that the 2nd and 3rd rows above 
the ventrals blended on both sides, one rather before the other, 
at the site I select to count the scales anteriorly. The large row 
occasioned by this coalescence divided and blended two or three 
times before the rows were finally established as 13. One sees 
the same vacillation frequently exhibited in snakes whose scales 
normally reduce in number, as for instance in Trojjidonotus 
piscator, where the scales number 19 in the anterior and mid- 
body, and 17 posteriorly. In all other respects this specimen was 
normal, and so probably does not deserve specific isolation. 



146 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Colour. — Uniform or nearly uniform black, or blackish 
dorsally, or varying shades of brown, olive-brown, or olive-green 
more or less spotted or speckled blackish. The spots vertebrally 
and laterally have a tendency to confluence, and may form lines. 
Belly pale yellowish, yellow, ochraceous, or ruddy, sparsely or 
profusely spotted, speckled, or marbled with black. 

Tro2Jidonotus stolatus. 
One female killed on the 12th September, 1904, besides 
containing a much digested frog was found to be pregnant. 
There were 8 eggs (6 in one ovary and 2 in the other). The 
ventrals were 139, subcaudals QQ, of which the 32nd, 50th, 51st, 
59th, and 60th were entire. As in Malabar specimens the labials 
were 8, with the 3rd, 4th, and 5th touching the eye. The nasals 
were in contact with the 1st and 2nd labials, a very unusual 
character in Indian examples of this species. Usually it is only 
the 1st labial that is apposed to the nasal. 

Zamenis mucosus. 
One specimen about one-third grown, with nothing remarkable 
to mention. 

Naia tripudians. 
I received the head of one of this species, which is uncommon 
at the same altitude in India. 

A7icistrodon hyijnale. 

Twenty-seven specimens of this species were collected, so that 
it must be a very common snake in this locality. 

Food. — It evidently subsists mainly upon the skink, Lygosoma 
taprobanense, as no fewer than 11 specimens contained one or 
more of these lizards, or in some instances the tails only. I also 
found in the stomach of 5 examples small soft-shelled eggs about 
half an inch long, probably lacertine, but possibly ophidian. 
From one male specimen one such was seen protruding from the 
anus, which I extracted and examined. It consisted of the egg 
envelope only, compressed, and wrinkled longitudinally, but with 
no opening that I could discover, so that it was a mystery to 
me how the contents had been absorbed unless by a process 
of exosmosis. I floated it in water, teased out the wrinkles, 
and examined it most closely, then cut it carefully from pole to 
pole and re-examined it from the interior, but could find no sus- 
picion of a breach in its continuity. Birds' eggs are occasionally 
passed entire " per anum," but are more frequently, I believe, 
wholly dissolved by the digestive juices. Perhaps the coriaceous 
investment of ova such as this offers a greater resistance to the 



SNAKES COLLECTED AT HAKGALA, CEYLON. 147 

action of the alimentary secretions than the calcareous envelope of 
the former. One specimen contained about two inches of the 
tail of a lizard such as a Calotes. Two others contained frogs in a 
condition too dissolved to identify, and in one example I found a 
snake AsjJi'diira {trachyprocta). 

Breeding. — Three specimens were pregnant, but unfortunately 
the dates of capture were not noted in any instance. The 
prospective mothers measured 1 ft. 2 in., \\\ in., and 11^ in. 
Two contained 6, and one 4 immature eggs. 

Sexes. — Of the 27 specimens 10 were males, 13 females, and in 4 
the sex was doubtful owing to mutilation. Both sexes appear to 
grow to about the same length, and the tails also show little, if any, 
disparity. The ventrals and subcaudals were as follows : — 

Ventrals 6 123-131 (.?); subcaudals 29-37 
Ventrals ? 121-138 ; subcaudals 27-36 

In 7 at least out of 9 males the tails were bent over ventrally 
in a hook-like manner, but in no single female was this seen. 
The clasper of the male was bifid on each side as in other 
members of the family V/peridce, and was surmounted with the 
usual array of falciform tentacles. The testicles were not nearly 
so elongate as is the rule in snakes, but, as in some other vipers 
I know, were oval in form. I could discern no difference in 
colouration between the sexes, nor were the keels more pro- 
nounced in the scales of males. 

Scale peculiarities. — One or two things deserve notice. The 
nasal shield touches only one labial, viz., the first, and this often 
is produced upwards behind the nasal to meet the supraloreal, or 
when this is not the case one or more minute intercalary scales 
occupy this situation. The lowest prceocular is often entire, 
often broken up into two. The suhoc^ilar may be entire, in 
which case it meets the 3rd and 4th labials, or a small portion is 
often detached anteriorly. The 2nd lahial variably contributes 
to the formation of the loreal pit, often it does not do so, a separate 
furrowed scale lying above furnishing a floor to the pit. The 
scales are anteriorly (2 head lengths behind the head) 17, midbody 
17, and posteriorly (2 head lengths in front of the vent) 17. 

Ahnormalities. — In one example there were 9 labials on the left 
side. The sublinguals touched 2 inf ralabials only in 3 specimens. 
The 5th subcaudal was entire in one example, and the 8th, 9th, 
and 10th in another. 

Vipera russelli. 

Two small specimens were procured, showing that in Ceylon as 
in India this species sometimes ascends to a considerable elevation, 
though really an inhabitant of the plains. 

X 8(17)05 



148 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



NOTES CHIEFLY ON BIRDS SEEN AT THE PEARL FISHERY CAMP, 
MARCH AND APRIL, 1905. 

By W. E. Wait. 



'T3IRD-LIFE in the dry littoral zone of the north-western part 
-■— ^ of the Island possesses many distinctive features, and as the 
birds which for three-quarters of the year are left in undisturbed 
possession of the camp site do not appear to be scared away by the 
bustle during the fishery, one constantly saw forms or marked 
habits unnoticed elsewhere. 

Among the flocks of Brahminy Kites and Gray Crows which 
gathered over the offal on the beach, one generally saw two or 
three Marsh Harriers {Circus ceruginosiis). The Common and 
Blue-tailed Bee-eaters {Merops viindis and philli2'>ensifi) chose the 
same unsavoury haunts to feast on the swarms of flies. There 
was a foetid pool fed by the drain which carried off the refuse 
water from Mr. Dixon's oyster-washing machine. Here they 
might be seen not ox\\y hawking for insects on the surface, but 
dipping their beaks into the water, probably to fish out the 
drowned maggots which were carried down in myriads. 

On the short walk from my bungalow just above the beach to 
the Kachcheri a few hundred yards inland I invariably met with 
the Rufous Rumped Shrike (Lanius caniceps) flitting among the 
mustard trees. This bird, which is I believe almost confined to the 
Manaar District, was one of the commonest in camp. Towards the 
end of the Fishery while out on an evening stroll with Mr. Ferguson 
we saw one attack a large rat-snake. 

The bird swooped down into some high grass near the road, and 
we watched to see what it had caught. Immediately a six-foot 
rat-snake came out into the open, followed by the shrike, which 
pecked viciously at its head. The snake made straight for a 
hollow tree close by, up which it disappeared, and the bird, 
catching sight of us, flew away. It had probably been driving off 
the intruder from its nest, but the wonder is that a bird no larger 
than a thrush cowed such a big snake. 

Between the Governor's and the Government Agent's bungalows 
lay a small open space on which stood two or three gnarled trees. 
These were frequently occupied by a few Chestnut-headed Bee- 
eaters (i/. Sivinhuii) and a pair of Hoopoes {Upupa ceylunensis). 



BraDS'SEEN AT THE PEARL FISHERY CAMP. 149 

Close by was a sandy bank, in the side of which a pariah belong- 
ing to Mr. Dixon had excavated some burrows wherein she 
brought up a litter of puppies. I noticed that another pariah had 
dug a similar burrow in the bluff above the Government kottu. 
They were doubtless made for the sake of coolness and shade, 
which could not be obtained otherwise. I wonder whether the 
jackal, or any species of wild dog, is ever in the habit of making 
such lairs : wliether in fact this was a reversion to the instincts 
of the fox or an adaptation to environment. No one that I asked 
had noticed pariahs elsewhere make burrows like these. 

The neighbourhood of the tank set apart for drinking water 
was a favourite roosting-place for a large flock of the Lesser White 
Egret. A few Whistling Teal occasionally came there, while the 
strip of jungle on the north sheltered several pairs of the Gray 
Indian Dove {Tm'iiir risorms). A solitary Grey Heron {A. 
cinerea) used often to fish in the shallows at the head of the tank. 
To the south of this tank on the opposite side of the cart track 
leading to the Manaar road lay several insignificant little tanks 
irrigating a small tract of fields which during the fishery lay 
fallow. In the small trees and bushes which fringed the water 
the Black Drongos (Z). atra) had their headquarters, while on 
two occasions I saw a pair of the pretty little Yellow-fronted 
Woodpecker (Piciis mahrattensis) round some Euphorbias which 
grew near one of the tiny bunds. 

South of the camp, the bare tidal flats of the lagoon at the 
river mouth were the happy hunting grounds of innumerable 
waders, from the Large Stone Plover to the Little Stint. Several 
species of tern flocked here, sometimes accompanied by a colony 
of the beautiful Brown-headed Gull, which usually kept to the 
sand-spit on the south side of the bar. On the northern bank, in 
the face of the sand cliff just under the Governor's bungalow, a 
large Fish Owl {Ketupa ceylonensis) had his burrow, at the 
entrance of which he used to sit of an evening blinking and 
ruffing his plumage until it was time for him to fly off on his 
rounds. A little further up the river I occasionally met with 
the Pied Kingfisher (Ceiv/le rudis) skimming along under the 
bank. 

Of other noticeable birds, a species of Sky -lark could be heard 
twittering in the air any morning, and a Gray Partridge {Ortyg- 
ornis pondicerianri) might be found on the outskirts of the camp. 
A large Fish-eagle came several times to the lagoon ; whether it 
was H. leucogaste7\ or P. ichthycetus I never got close enough 
to ascertain. I also heard of the occurrence of a Pariah Kite 
{Miluiia (joutnda), but did not see it myself. 



150 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

In conclusion I would express the hope that some one possess- 
ing a good knowledge of ornithology could spare a visit to the 
camp when a pearl fishery is in progress. My observations were 
made at odd iutervuls during two very busy months ; my know- 
ledge of birds is limited, and if it had not been for Mr. Ferguson, 
who knows the Natural History of the district well, and in whose 
comj)any I saw practically all the species mentioned, I should 
have been, in many cases, uncertain of my identification. 

The circumstances are particularly favourable for observation. 
Most of the birds have paired before their quiet is invaded. They 
are unwilling to leave the breeding-places they have chosen, and 
soon become accustomed to the busy crowd, which passes them 
by unheeded. For the species that feed on insects and carrion 
there is the attraction of a food supply, the like of which they 
can find nowhere else. 

An official at the camp, however good his knowledge of the 
subject might be, has but little leisure. To the ornithologist an 
interesting but out-of-the-way district is rendered easily accessible 
by the steamers which during the fishery run from Colombo to 
the camp. His visit could not fail to be of interest to himself, 
and would, I feel sure, add considerably to the knowledge of the 
avi-fauna of Ceylon. 



KANDYAN HORN COMBS. 151 



KANDYAN HORN COMBS. 

By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, B.Sc, and Ethel M. 

COOMARASWAMY, 

With three Plates and two text-figures. 



A S its title shows, the present paper has no reference to the 
-^-^ merely ornamental tortoise-shell combs now worn by the 
low-country Sinhalese (a comparatively modern fashion), nor to 
the practical and beautifully carved ^^;ory combs formerly used, 
and still often preserved in Kandyan families ; these ivory combs 
are pretty well known and are seen in most collections ; there is 
a fine series of them in the Colombo Museum. Horn combs, 
though more generally used, are less familiar, but in some respects 
even more interesting than the ivory ones ; for the latter, though 
for the most part certainly made in Ceylon, sometimes seem to 
show Dravidian influence, and at any rate are often very like 
Indian combs of the same type, while the horn combs are more 
purely native in form and decoration. 

A short account of the making of the ordinary 10-cent horn 
comb (PL B, fig. 3), used even by the poorest classes,* will now 
be given. The horn comb-makers are men of low caste, Rodiyas 
in the Bandarawela district for example, and blacksmiths (achari 
caste) near Kandy. At Ratnapura and Balangoda the work is 
done by Beruwayas and Durayas ; it is never done by goiyas, 
who would consider it very degrading. The pictures and descrip- 
tion apply specially to the manufacture of combs by Rodiyas 
near Bandarawela. 

The combs are made of bufEalo horn cut transversely, the tops 
of the horns being used for tool and knife handles and the like. 
The usual tools of the horn comb-maker include a small adze (1^ 
inch cutting edge), a coarse rasp, one or two knives, a marking 
awl, a vice, two or three saws, a file, and one or two tools for 
incising patterns ; the iron tools are made by local blacksmiths. 

A flat piece of horn is sawn off and cut roughly into the 
shape of the comb, and then made thinner with adze and rasp 
(PL A, fig. 1), and the shaping then finished with a knife. Next 
the guide lines for the inner ends of the teeth and for the patterns 

* Those who are better off would now use ordinary European-made combs, 
instead of decorated horn or ivory ones of native make. 



152 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



are scored with the marking awl, which is a small bone tool with a 
sharp point inserted near one end. The comb is now set in the 
vice, which is held conveniently against a stone by pressure of the 
worker's leg (PI. A, fig. 2). 

The vice (tig. I.) consists o\' two pieces of wood tied together 
near one end, and having a wedge inserted at the other, which, 
when it is driven in, causes the short ends to grip very tightly 
whatever is placed between them. The vice is usually orna- 
mented with a little primitive carving. The teeth are now cut 
(PL. A, fig. 2), first on one side, small teeth with a fine saw, then 
on the other, coarse teeth with a thicker saw ; these teeth are cut 
very regularly and with astonishing quickness. Each tooth is 
next filed back and front to make its edges smooth. Finally the 
comb is taken out of the vice and a simi:)Ie pattern incised with a 
chisel-shaped iron tool, as in the upper comb (PI. B, fig. 3), or 




Fig. I. 
A, the vice, length ] U inches (Baudarawela District). 

B and C, two pattern-marking' tools (Pallebedde, Atakalan Koralc, Province of 
Sabaragamuwa) (reduced). 

with a two or three-pointed tool as in the lower comb (PI. B, fig. 3). 
The pointed tools (B and C) in fig. I. were used in ornamenting 
the comb last referred to, which was made at Pallebedde, Atakalan 
Korale, Province of Sabaragamuwa. Last of all the comb is 
polished by rubbing with wood ashes and horn shavings. 

More elaborately carved and pierced horn combs are sometimes 
met with, but their actual manufacture has not been seen by us, 
and it is very doubtful if they are any longer made. 

The comb shown in fig. II. is pierced, and deeply carved with 
a characteristic Kandyan pattern. Fig. 4, PL B, shows a 
more elaborate comb, carved and pierced with the ndri lata 
(woman creeper) design. The ndri, lata is a well known and 
interesting Kandyan pattern, consisting essentially of a female 
figure holding a creeper in each hand. In the horn comb shown 
the figure seems almost to spring from the tree itself, suggesting 
a possible origin of the design in the idea of a sacred tree with its 



KANDYA'N HORN COMBS. 



153 



in-dwelling or guardian spirit ; but in other examples the lower 
part of the figure is fully developed, and the dress carefully 
indicated (as for example on an embroidered betel bag in our 
possession), and the pattern is a good deal less suggestive of a 
mythological origin ; it seems likely, however, that it may once 
have had a symbolical significance of the sort suggested. The 
design is a very usual one and is found on all sorts of Kandyan 
decorative work. 

A still more elaborate comb is seen in fig. 5, PL C; this 
unusually large comb is carved and pierced with a hcmsa putuva 
design (geese with intertwined necks), and four heads of w^aZr/ras 
in the corners, and inlaid as well with ivory pegs, square for one 
bird and round for the other. This hansa puhwa is also a well 
known Kandyan design ; it may be found for example on such 




Fig. II. — Carved aud pierced horn comb, Ratnapiiru District, X fi- 

various things as key plates, embroidered betel bags, and painted 
pottery. It will be seen that these decorated horn combs are 
striking and appropriate in character, and varied and individual 
in their ornamentation, and it is a reproach to the modern 
Sinhalese that there is now-a-davs so little demand for good home- 
made wares of this or any kind. 



Note. — Since this paper on Horn Combs was written it has 
occurred to us that the ndri lata design so frequently seen in 
Kandyan decorative art may possibly be derived from the early 
representations of the goddess Siri (Lakshmi), seated on a lotus 
and holding lotus flowers in either hand. If so, the abundance 
of foliage is a late rather than a primitive feature ; but its 



154 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

development from the original simple sprays appears quite 
natural considering the fondness for " creeper " decoration shown 
in Kandyan design. On this view the most elaborate types, in 
which human faces appear like flowers amongst the foliage (the 
main stems of which are always grasped in the two hands of the 
seated figure), would be a still later development. 

A. K. C. 

E. M. C. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate A. 
Rodiyas making Horn Combs at Ella, near Bandarawela. 

Fig. 1. — Using the rasp ; a vice, knives, and other tools are seen 

in the foreground, ready for use. 
Fig. 2. — Cutting the t(3eth ; an adze is seen on the right. 

Plate B. 

Fig. 13. — Above : horn comb made by Rodiyas at Ella ; incised 
pattern done with a chisel -shaped tool. Below : horn 
comb made at Pallebedde (Sab.) ; incised pattern done 
with the three-pointed tool shown in the text, fig. I. 
X f . Authors' collection. 
Fig. 4. — Horn comb carved and pierced with ndri lata design. 
X |. Kegalla Kachcberi collection. 

Plate C. 

Fig. 5. — Horn comb carved and pierced with hansajnitiiva design 
and four heads of niakaras, and inlaid with ivory pegs. 
X 9. Authors' collection. 

Fig. 6. — Another example of the nan' lata design, from an 
embroidered betel bag. x |. Authors' collection. The 
embroidery is chain stitch in red and white cotton on 
(Kandyan) blue cotton. Compare this with fig. 4, Pl. B. 



SPOLIA ZEYLAJMICA. 



Plate A, 



be 





// 



V / 



C4 







Bfinrose I. Id.. n,-rliy. l-tlK- 



SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA, 



Plate B. 




C 



^ « "^ 




Jiemrose Ltd., IVrhy, /;'; 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



Plate C. 



Fig-. 5. 




CAUVED AND PIERCED HORN COJIB WITH HAxSA PCTUVA 
AND MAKARAS. 



Fiff. 6. 




KARl LATA DESIGN ON EMBROIDERED BETEL BAG. 
To he conqnircil icltkjiij. 4, I'late B. 



Kemrose lid., Dcrhy, liiii; 



NOTES. 155 



NOTES. 

1. On tlie Loris in captivity. — With any wild animal in capti- 
vity the first and most important thing to find out is what 
food is most likely to suit its taste. And with a very small 
nocturnal beast, such as the Loris, concerning whose habits I 
imagine that but little is laiown, this is not at first easy. A 
list of what I have found Loris eat and thrive on, and of what I 
have known him eat and not thrive on, may therefore be of 
interest. 

First of all, I am convinced that the Loris is by nature purely 
insectivorous, and even carnivorous. If not fed for a day or so he 
will eat plantains, pumpkins, boiled rice, &c., so will a hungry 
leopard eat rice, or a starving man his boots, but not with any 
marked gusto. 

What a Loris really enjoys is a heavy meal of grasshoppers ; 
all varieties seem to be equally appreciated, from the large brown 
red-underwinged piece de resistance to the thin pale green 
" salad." I have known a Loris eat 60 mixed grasshoppers at a 
sitting. Crickets, moths, ordinary flies, most beetles, and cock- 
roaches are all accepted eagerly ; while the rather horrid skill 
with which a loris seizes and manipulates a strongly struggling 
gecko seems to suggest that this is a not unfamiliar prey. 

Worms, brightly-coloured butterflies, certain evil-coloured 
beetles, and meat, such as chicken, beef, &c., are rejected, some- 
times rather indignantly, and I have known the brown shell- 
backed variety of cockroach (I do not know its name) make a 
Loris very sick. 

About a teaspoonful of water a day seems to be the correct 
quantity of liquid, but I fancy the little beast can go for a long 
time without any drink at all ; he must often have to do without 
it in the hot windy weather from June to September. 

After food, perhaps the next most important subject is medicine. 
With the Loris I have only experienced two forms of ill-health, 
diarrhoea and cramp, and both seem c arable by the same remedy, 
viz., opium, taken in the form of laudanum ; three drops in a 
teaspoonful of milk and water is in my experience a safe dose, 
and it can be repeated twice in a day if the patient can be got to 
take it ; he can be forced to do so of course, but he is rather frail. 

Y 8(17)05 



156 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

If moral characteristics be added to physical, the Loris is very 
high in the scale ; for his manners are excellent, rather like those 
of an old-fashioned child who does not play, but takes his 
pleasure in some more dignified manner. For the Loris never 
plays ; life is for him a very gerious matter. Except the Pan- 
golin, all other animals I have kept or known, play, all but the 
Loris. If one comes to think of it, any Loris who in his natural 
haunts attracted attention by frisking about and playing, would 
very soon be snapped up by an owl or other enemy, for he is 
very weak, and very slow, and his safety, like that of a new boy 
in a public school, must depend almost entirely on unostentatious 
self-effacement. Hence his good manners. 

But besides modesty he has one other means of defence, and a 
very curious one indeed it is. For he imitates a cobra. Before 
relating the instance in which I saw this done, I must supportmy 
testimony by the only reference to this habit that I know of. 
Sinhalese of the North-Central Province have several times told 
me little stories about the "Unahapuluwa," and I have thought 
them far-fetched and absurd. And among the stories of its habits 
told me by jungle men has been this : " That the Loris copies the 
sound of the cobra as a means of self-defence." 

Now that I have had an opportunity of testing this story and 
of finding it true, the other yarns do not seem so absurd. It 
happened this way. 

I was sitting in the verandah spoiling my eyes by reading by 
the last flicker of afterglow, when I heard the regular breathing 
sound made by a cobra when he inflates and deflates his body. A 
cobra moving ordinarily, or hunting anything much weaker than 
himself, does not make this sound, but only when with expanded 
hood he sits up to fight. 

With the breathing sound came the occasional quick hiss of a 
strike. So I got up and took a stick , for I thought that a cobra 
might be attacking my Loris, who was not in his cage, but only 
tethered to the top of it. 

The sound came from my room, where, although it was dusk, 
there was plenty of light to kill a snake. 

As I went into the room I looked at the cage, which was on the 
floor, and on the top of it I saw the outline of a cobra sitting up 
with hood expanded, and threatening a cat who crouched about 
sixfeetaway. ThiswastheLoris, who, with his arms and shoulders 
hunched up, was a sufficiently good imitation of a cobra to take 
me in, as he swayed on his long legs, and every now and then let 
out a perfect cobra's hiss. As I have said, it was dusk at the time, 
but the Loris is nocturnal, so that his expedient would rarely be 



NOTES. 157 

required except in the dusk or dark ; and the sound was a perfect 
imitation. I may mention that I have kept snakes, including a 
cobra, and am therefore the less likely to be easily deceived by a 
bad imitation. 
And, as I said above, the native legend bears me out. 
Another native legend concerning the Loris, which obtains 
universal acceptation in the North-Central Province, is that he 
kills peafowl by creeping slowly up their backs when they are 
roosting, and then, twining his long arms round the poor bird's 
neck, clings on until he has bitten to the brain. 

The Loris is a charming and most original pet ; his fault is 
peevishness. But any one who has seen one thrust his long arm 
into a bottle full of grasshoppers, pick one out and eat it like a 
radish ; who has seen one sit on the table at dinner and catch the 
moths and " poochies " that fly against the lamp ; or has felt one 
climb up his face and pounce into his moustache as into an 
insect — will agree with me that our not so very distant cousin 
is as fascinating a being as any in the forests of Ceylon, 

JOHN STILL. 
Anuradhapura, February 27, 1905. 



2. On the larval habits of the hutterfiy, Parata alexis, Fabr. 
Peradeniya, 27th March, 1905. — It is not often that the larvae 
of Hesi^eridce ("Skipper" butterflies) occur in large numbers in 
close proximity to each other. Parata alexis appears to be an 
exception in this respect. On the 19th March I observed a fair- 
sized tree of Pongamia glabra that had been completely 
defoliated by the larvae of this butterfly. So much so that they 
had been compelled to descend and pupate amongst the foliage 
of the shrubs below, for lack of shelter on the tree itself. There 
must have been many hundreds of these pupse within a space 
of a few square yards. From 50 pupfe — collected at haphazard — 
there emerged 18 males and 16 females ; the remainder failed. 
The flies were disclosed on two successive days (March 24 and 25). 
On the first day 5 males and 12 females appeared ; on the second 
day, 13 males and 4 females, the proportion of the sexes being 
almost exactly reversed. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



3. Curious behaviour of a snake in captivity, Peradeniya, 
27th March, 1905. — A small example of Coluber /ieZena which has 
been an occupant of my vivarium for several weeks, and has 



168 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

hitherto exhibited a gentle and even timid disposition, commenced 
to behave in a quite extraordinary manner to-day. On looking 
into the cage I found it tightly coiled round a toad many times too 
large for its capacity, visibly constricting it, but not attempting 
to swallow it. It presently abandoned the toad and then struck 
out wildly at anything that approached it, including my hand, 
though I have previously repeatedly handled it with impunity. 
The excited Helena then — without any provocation — seized a 
large " Whip-snake " by the middle of the body, around which it 
instantly coiled itself in a tight knot, remaining in that position 
for half an hour — its head free, but its body tightly constricted — 
defying all attempts of the whip-snake (which appeared greatly 
inconvenienced) to dislodge it. When offered a small lizard — 
as a distraction — it bit at it viciously, but would not retain it. A 
large Tropidonotus stulatus was next assailed in the same manner, 
but that snake easily threw it off. In the intervals of these 
attacks it moved about the cage with the anterior part of its body 
laterally compressed and twisted to one side, thereby displaying 
to unusual advantage the white lateral ocelli. The constricting 
habit was most marked, and is probably employed when capturing 
prey ; but I have not yet detected it in the act of feeding. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



4. On the nesting of the snake^ Bungarus cet/lonicus. — I have 
received specimens of some eggs and young snakes which I have 
identified as Bungarus ceyloniciis, Giinth. My correspondent 
tells me that they were found in a shallow depression, beneath a 
wood-pile, in the month of January, 1905. " Both parents were 
curled up in the hollow (made like a duck's nest, but not lined 
in any way, just scooped and hollowed out of earth), and under 
them were lots of eggs and little snakes." 

The eggs have a soft leathery shell and are lightly agglutinated 
together. They are cylindrical, with rounded ends, varying in 
length from 29 to 35 mm., with a breadth of 17 mm. The young 
snakes are brownish black above, with well-defined white annuli ; 
white beneath. The two specimens in my possession show 24 
and 16 annuli resjjectively, exclusive of the broad fascia across 
the head and the white tip to the tail. They measure 230 and 
260 mm. in length. Even at this early age the vertebral row of 
broad hexagonal scales is well demarked. The parent snakes 
were unfortunately destroyed without any measurements being 

taken. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



i?o*ES. 159 

5. Millipede lulled hy Reduviid hug. — "While watching a large 
millipede crawling over my lawn I noticed an immature 
specimen (nymph) of the Reduviid bug (Physorht/nchus linncei^ 
Stal.) following and mancBuvring about it. Suddenly the bug 
closed and fastened upon the hinder extremity of the millipede, 
plunging its proboscis into the intersegmental tissue on the 
ventral surface between the legs. The millipede immediately 
writhed about apparently in great pain, but failed to dislodge 
its enemy. It tried to crawl away, but rather more than half the 
body and limbs were paralyzed. After feeding for about a 
minute the bug left its victim, which I then picked up and 
confined in a box, meaning to note how soon the paralyzing 
effects would pass off. Twelve hours later the millipede, instead 
of having recovered, was found to be quite dead. The victim 
measures 5| inches in length with a proportionate thickness. 
The predatory bug was scarcely | of an inch long. The bite of 
many of the Reduviid bugs is — as I have experienced — extremely 
painful ; but I was astonished to find its action so fatal in this 
case. The poison evidently acted directly upon the ventral 
nerve cord. 

Peradeniya, May, 1905. E. ERNEST GREEN. 



6. Remedies adopted against the Paddy Fly. — One of the great- 
est enemies of the paddy plant {Oryza sativa) is the so-called rice 
sapper or paddy fly (JLeptocorisa varicornis), called in the vernacular 
goyan-messa. 

The common remedy adopted against this pest is smoking the 
fields by smother-burning vegetable refuse to windward. The 
suffocating effect of the dense smoke that is thus raised is some- 
times intensified by adding to the burning mass such substances 
as tar, sulphur, tobaccoi leaf, and margosa oil (from Azadiraclita 
indica). 

The paddy fly is believed to object strongly to the odour of 
resin, and for this reason cultivators often draw a rope saturated 
in melted resin across the field. 

The flies are sometimes captured by means of " bird-lime," in the 
following manner. A winnow smeared with the sticky latex of 
the. jak tree (^Artocarpus integrifolia) is fixed to the end of a pole 
and drawn over the tips of the plants. The flies as tli ey are captured 
are collected in a pot strung to the waist of the operator and after- 
wards destroyed. Tbe process is carried on in the early morning 
or late in the evening. 

A method of decoy is also employed thus. An earthenware 



160 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

pot riddled with holes is set up in the field with a burning 
lamp inside. The flies collect round the heated pot and are 
thus destroyed. 

But there are often extraordinary " remedies " (favoured by the 
more superstitious) carried out through the agency of Ihe village 
soothsayer. One form of this is where the soothsayer, choosing 
his day and hour, enters the field with some tender cocoanut 
leaves plaited into a rough mat or " ola," and supervises the erection 
of a tiny booth or " mal-messa " on which a floral offering is placed. 
In this booth the soothsayer burns some camphor, while he 
indulges in a weird incantation. The final act in this ceremony 
consists of the stretching of ropes from the mal-messa to various 
points in the boundaries of the field. 

The following is another form of charming. The soothsayer, as 
before cboosiug his day and hour, proceeds to the field clothed in 
spotless white, erects a mal-messa on which he gets some rice 
boiled in cocoanut milk (the expressed juice of the kernel of the 
cocoanut), and not the liquid contents of the cocoanut as generally 
understood, and then with a branch from the inflorescence of 
the areca palm proceeds to sprinkle the liquid from the boiling 
pot over the fleld, muttering incantations the while. 

A variation of this last consists in sprinkling charmed water 
from a new clay pot by means of the twig of a lime tree. 

In some Catholic villages it is the custom to carry a few paddy 
flies to the nearest church, there to be anathematized, and let loose 
again in the field to influence the colony of pests to quit. 

For much of the information in this note I am indebted to Mr. 
P. Samaranayaka, late Agricultural Instructor, now of the Veteri- 
nary Department. 

C. DRIEBERG. 

Government Stock Garden, 

June 15, 1905. 



7. The Lacteal Tract of Loris gracilis. — In Flower and 
Lydekker's well-known '* Introduction to the Study of Mammals " 
(London, 1891) it is pointed out that in the order Primates "there 
are always two mammae in the pectoral region, except in Chi- 
romys''' (I.e., p. 681). 

The long-tailed African lemurs of the genus Qalago have four 
teats, namely, two pectoral and two inguinal (/.c, p. 690). 

In the tailless Oriental lemurs belonging to the sub-family 
Lorisinae there are said to be two pectoral mammas only (?.c., p. 691). 

Ghiromysy the Aye-aye of Madagascar, has two inguinal mammae 
only {I.e., p. 695). 



NOTES. 



161 



In a much more recent treatise on Mammalia by Dr. Max 
Weber (Die Saiigetiere, Jena, 1904) the statement that the 
Lorisinse are distinguished from the Galaginae, among other cha- 
racters, by the possession of two pectoral teats only, is repeated 
on p. 760 of that work, 








Situs mammarum of Jjoris gracilis, Ceylon. 

The villagers who, I am told, procure the Luris in Ceylon, while 
snaring monkeys for purposes of trade, occasionally bring them 
alive to Colombo for sale. I have recently procured two females, 
each carrying a young Lorisin© clasped to her bosom. Each of 



162 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA 

the mothers had four eqnal pendulous mammsB placed conse- 
cutively in two pairs in the posterior pectoral (below the last rib) 
and in the anterior abdominal regions, surrounded by a nearly 
hairless tract. 

Each teat is about a quarter of an inch in length; the anterior 
pair is distant about one inch and a quarter from the axillary 
region ; the posterior pair is about two and a half inchesfromthe 
inguinal region. 

The tetramerous arrangement of the teats in the Loria fjracilis 
of Ceylon is a constant character, and may be observed in young 
females as well as in females during lactation. The more primi- 
tive mammals of the orders Edentata and Sirenia, represented in 
Ceylon by the pangolin and the dugong respectively, have only 
one pair of teats in the axillary region, but this fact does not 
militate against the idea that the four teats of Loris may be a 
primitive feature, at least within the limits of its own order. 

Not only the organization but the strictly arboreal habits of the 
Loris suggest that it is a creature of remote antiquity. Whether 
the character of the lacteal tract affords a further indication of 
this may be a matter of opinion, but the numerical data should be 
correctly given. The plurality of teats is remarkable also on 
account of the fact that the Loris, like bats and monkeys generally, 
only produces one young at a birth, which remains clamped to 
the parent by its extraordinary prehensile limbs until able to look 
after itself. 

ARTHUR WILLEY. 
Colombo, July, 190a. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 163 



HELMINTHE8 FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE COLOMBO 

MUSEUM. 

By Dr. 0. VON LiNSTOW. 

(^Gottlngen.') 
With three Plates. 



T I iHIS report on Parasitic Worms from Ceylon is a continuation 
-*- of my description of Nematodes in Spolia Zeylanica,\o\. I., 
part IV. (1904). There are altogether in the second consignment 
which was sent to me fifty-one species, of which thirty belong 
to the Nematoda, one to the Acanthocephala, seven to the 
Trematoda, and thirteen to the Cestoda ; of these, thirty are 
described as new, and three new genera of Cestoda have had to be 
established. 

The following species are dealt with : — 

Nematoda. 

1. Ascaris spicuKgera, Hud., irom Plotus melanogaster. 

2. Ascaris fissicollis, n.sp., from Haliastur indus. 

3. Ascaris coronata, n.sp., from Ardeola Qrayi. 

4. Ascaris brachycheilos , n.sp., from Tropidonotus asperrimus. 

5. Physaloptera brevispiculum, n.sp., from Felis rubiginosa. 

6. Spiroptera secretoria., n.sp., from Plotus melanogaster. 

7. Spiroptera orca, n.sp., from Manis pentadactyla. 

8- Spiroptera sanguinolenta , Rud. , from Canis familiaris. 

9. Spiroptera, spec. '? from Cittacincla macroura. 

10. Spiroptera, spec. ? from Pavo cristatus. 

11. Spiroptera, spec. ? from Sciurus palmarum. 

12. Heterakis pusilla, n.sp., from Oallus Lafayetti. 

13. Heterakis granulosa, n.sp., from Oallus gallinaceus. 

14. Strong ylus digitatus, n.sp., irom Bos taurus. 

15. Kalicephalus roilleyi, v. Linst. , from Typhlops hraminus. 

16. Oxyuris megaloon, n.sp., irom Hemidactylus Leschenaultii. 

17. Oxysoma falcatum, n.sp., from Nicoria trijuga. 

18. Dispharagus macrolaimus , n.sp., from Plotus melanogaster. 

19. Sclerostomum eqiiinum, Miiller, from Equus caballus. 

20. Ankylostomum minimum, n.sp., from Felis rubiginosa. 

21. Ankylostomum trigonocephalum, Rud., from Canis familiaris. 

22. Syngamus trachealis, v. Slab., from Oallus gallinaceus. 

23. Filaria ? Zschokkei, Meyer, from Manis pentadactyla. 

24. Filaria intimitis, Leidy, from Canis familiaris. 

Z 8(17)06 



164 SPOLIA ZEYLAMCA. 

25. Filar ia piscicola, ii.sp., irom Marine Fish. 

26. Filaria equina, Abilg. , from Equus caballus. 

27. Filaria digitata, n.sp., from Bos indicus. 

28. Filaria tuberosa, v. Liast., from Mabuia carinata. 

29. Filaria flavescens, Castellani andWilley, iromCalotes versicolor. 

30. Trichocephalus discolor, n.sp., from Bos indicus. 
Tetradenos tiara, v. Linstow = Ctenocephalus tiara, v. Linst. 

ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

31. Echinorhynchus tener, n.sp., iroia. Spilornis cheela. 

Trbmatoda. 

32. Lyperosomumsqu/:imatum, n.sp. ,f rom Dissura episcopus. 

33. Distomum, spec. ? from Plotus melanogaster . 

34. Distomum hepaticum, L., from Bos indicus. 

35. Paramphistomum calicophoron, Fisch. , from Bos indicus. 

36. Paramphistomum gracile, Fisch., from Bos indicus. 

37. Qastrothylax crum,enifer , Crepl. , from Bos bubalus. 

38. Tristomum megacotyle, n.sp., from Histiophorus. 

Cestoda. 

39. Hymenolepis septaria, n.sp., irom Upupa ceylonensis. 

40. Hymenolepis clausa, n.sp., froin Dendrocygna javanica. 

41. Hymenolepis spinosa, n.sp., ironi Rostratula capensis. 

42. Dipylidium caninum, L., from Canis familiaris. 

43. Tcenia, spec. V froin Haliastur indus. 

44. Diorchis occlusa, n.sp., from Phoenicopterus roseus. 

45. Davainea polycalcaria, n.sp., ivom Corvus inacrorhynchus. 

46. Diplochetos volvulus, n.gen. et sp., from Lobipluvia malabarica. 

47. Ophryocotyle ceylonica, n.sp., from Lophoceros gingalensis. 

48 Brochocephalus paradoxus, n.gen. et sp. , from Mgialitis mongolica. 

49. Cittotcenia bursaria, n.sp., from Lepus nigricollis. 

50. Ichthyotcenia cryptobothrium, n.sp., irom Chrysopelea ornata. 

51. Aphanobothrium catenatum, n.gen. et sp., from Phoenicopterus 

roseus. 

I.— NEMATODA. 

Ascaris. 
The definition given previously (S. Z,, part IV., p. 91) is to be 
amended in so far that the intestinal coecum lies dorsad of the 
cesophaguB ; the oesophageal gland is produced backwards ventral 
to the intestine. 

1. — Ascaris spiculigcra, Rud. 
From the oesophagus and stomach of the Darter, Plotus 
melanogaster, L.; Wirawila, Southern Province. 

2. — Ascaris fissicollis, n.sp. 
PI. I., figs. 1-2. 

From intestine of the Brahminy Kite, Haliastur indus, Bodd.; 
Nedunkeni, Northern Province. 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 165 

Three females, 15, 34, and 36 mm. long, 0-79-l'25 mm. wide. 
Cuticle annulate ; behind the lips the annulation is so deep 
that the contours appear fringed. Lips with intermediate lips; 
without teeth ; dor,sal lip semi -circular, -083 mm. x -11 mm.* 
the two papillfe lie in front ; intermediate lips obtusely conical, 
attenuate from the middle, with an outer groove. (Esophagus ^, 
acuminate tail 4V-t Eggs thin-shelled, spherical, "065 mm.; the 
small vitellus distant from the shell. 

3. — Ascaris coronata, n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 3. 

From the oesophagus and stomach of the Nestling Pond 
Heron, Ardeola Grayi, Sykes ; Tissamaharama. 

Cuticle narrowly annulate ; lips edentulous with large trian- 
gular interlabia ; dorsal lips nearly circular, '065 x -078, with two 
inner anterior prominences ; papillae anterior ; oesophagus ^. 

Male, 17 x -79 ; tail conical, very short, xsa* ^^ each side of 
the caudal extremity 17 prae-anal papillae in a row becoming 
more closely placed behind ; post-anal papillfe absent ; the cirri 
are 2*37 mm. long, straight, the end bent falciform. 

Female, 26 x 1*5 ; tail rounded, anus nearly terminal ; at the 
posterior end a small finger-shaped appendix ; the vulva lies in 
front of the middle, dividing the body in the ratio 7 : 15 ; eggs 
immature. 

4. — Ascaris brachycJieilos, n.sp. 
PI. III., fig. 48. 

From intestine of Tropidonotus asjjerrinms, Boulenger ; 
Colombo. 

Cuticle smooth ; lips depressed, dentiferous, with small conical 
interlabia ; pulp emarginate ; papillse large ; dorsal lip 
•078 X "177 ; oesophagus yV - tV ; t^il ^^ male ^^-r^, in female ^hoi 
rounded in both sexes carrying a small terminal appendix. 

Male, 55 x '83 ; cirri broad, curved like a sabre, rounded at 
the end, 1*19 x -035 ; at each side of the tail three very small 
pras-anal and two post-anal papillse ; the last of the latter lies 
dorsally exactly at the hinder end of the body dorsad of the 
styliform appendix. 

Female, 104 x 1*58 ; anus nearly terminal ; vulva near the 
end of the anterior third, dividing the length in the ratio 14 : 39 ; 
eggs spherical, thick-shelled, closely beset with small granules, 
•086 mm. 

* All measurements are in millimetres, and the length always precedes the 
breadth. 

I These are fractions of the total body length throughout. 



166 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

5, — Physaloptera hrevispiculwn^ n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 4. 

From stomach of Fclis riihiginosa, Geoffr. ; Kandy. 

Cuticle finely annulate ; head end with a thickened cuticiilar 
collar from which two round lips protrude, each of wliich carries 
three small peaks at the summit : at the tail end there is a simi- 
lar prseputium-like cuticular ring from which the tail emerges; 
oesophagus -^. 

Male, 11*1 X '90, with rounded tail -574 ; at each side of the 
cloacal orifice four stalked papillae ; behind these four paired 
ventral post-anal papilla, unstalked, in successive couples ; cirri 
very short, feebly curved, •79-'81. 

Female, 11*4 x r06 ; tail conical, 2^ ; 6ggs thick-shelled, 
•036 X -031. 

P. prceputialis, v. Linst., which occurs in Felts catus in Brazil, 
has a similar caudal sheath with a body length of 21-30 mm. 



6. — Spiroptera secretoria, n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 5. 

From oesophagus and stomach of Plotus melanogaster, L. ; 
Wirawila ; in company with Ascaris sjnciUigera. 

Dimensions up to 32 x 1*6, but all specimens immature ; both 
ends strongly attenuated ; cuticle annulate ; some are larvae in 
process of exuviation. At the head a dorsally placed obtusely 
conical papilla ; in a circle behind this are six roundish papillae, 
and behind these in the submedian lines four truncate papillae 
with a very small one at the inner side. Alongside the 
oesophagus runs a long gland containing a long granular 
secretion often projecting through the orifice which lies close 
behind the papillae. Tail short ' with small finger-shaped 
appendix ; lateral lines strongly developed, one-fifth of the 
diameter of the body, enclosing a lateral canal. 

7. — Spiroptera orca, n.sp. 
PL I., figs. 6-8. 
From stomach of Manis pentadactyla, L. ; Horana. 
Cuticle annulate ; head with two large lips placed dorsal and 
ventral, expanded in front; behind these in the submedian lines 
four finger-shaped procumbent processes. 

The mouth leads into a vestibule, '2 mm. long ; oesophagus 
in the male ^, in the female ^ ; coarse cuticular rings "053 
apart, fine rings '0054 mm. apart. 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 167 

Male, 25 x '71 ; tail involute ; cirri long ; the left cirrus 
measured 3*74 mm. in a young specimen of 11'8 mm., i.e. nearly 
one-third of the body length ; the right cirrus is broader and 
much shorter, '57 mm. ; on each side tliere are four prge-anal 
and two post-anal papillae, large and round ; tail rounded, J^- . 

Female, 32 x '95 ; tail rounded, ^^j^ ; vulva lies behind the 
middle dividing the body in the ratio 7:5; immature eggs 
elliptical, *044 x '026 ; mature, flattened at the poles, '047 x '029, 
barrel-shaped, surrounded in front and behind by a raised hoop. 

8. — Sjiiroptera sanguinolenta, Rud. 

From oesophagus of Cams familiar is, L.; Colombo. 
Cf. A. Railliet, Traite de zoologie medicale, Paris, 1895, pp. 
536-538, figs. 373-375. 

9. — Spiroptera, spec. ? 

From intestine of Long-tailed Robin, Gittacincia macroura, 
Gmel.; Nedunkeni. 

One entire and one half specimen spirally wound, not to 
be identified. 

10. — Spiroptera, spec. ? 

From oesophagus of Pavo cristatiis, L. ; Butfcuwa. 
Three imperfectly preserved fragments. 

11. — Siriroptera, spec. ? 

From peritoneum of Sciurus pabaaram, L.; Colombo. 
Fragments of a female. 

12. — Heterakis pusi/.la, n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 9. 

From rectal cceca of Jungle Fowl, Gallus Lafayetti ; Mamadu, 
Northern Province. 

Head with small roundish lips ; cuticle smooth ; cesophagus 
thickened, club-shaped behind, in the male ^-, in the female ~^. 

Male, 5 x 0-19 ; tail ^^, finely pointed, adhering to the ventral 
side by a granular, opaque cement ; cirri very unequal, the 
left 0-53, the right 0-15 ; in front of the cloacal orifice a round 
sucker, and behind this, on each side, four large post-anal 
papillae, of which the last lies at a greater distance from the 
third than the three anterior from each other. 

Female, 513 x 0*24 ; tail ^, very long and pointed ; vulva 
far behind the middle, the prae-genital region to the post-genital 
region as 12 : 5 ; eggs, thick-shelled, 0-065 x 0-031. 



168 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

13. — Heterakis granulosa^ n.sp, 
PI. III., fig. 49. 

Intestine of domestic fowl, Gallus gallinaceuSy L. ; Colombo. 

Cuticle annulate ; head with three low semi-circular lips : tail 
pointed. 

Male, 27 x (>59 ; CBSophagus yV^ ; tail 4',, ; the two straight 
rod-shaped cirri, 0*57 ; sucker long, oval, with a small circular 
groove behind, and surrounded by granulations ; on each side 
three pr^e-anal and six post-anal papillae, of which the most 
anterior is transversely elliptical, the fourth, seventh, and ninth 
spherical and marginal ; radial muscles pass to the sucker. 

Female, ;">5 x 0*79 ; oesophagus ^^ ; tail ^V ; vaginal orifice 
immediately in front of the middle dividing the body in 
the proportion 16 : 17 ; eggs thick-shelled, 0'078 x 0"042. 

14. — Strongylus digitaius, n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 10. 

Stomach of Bos indicus ; Colombo. 

Cuticle without longitudinal lines, but with very fine annu- 
lation ; head attenuate, mouth surrounded by four papillae ; 
(Esophagus of male ^, of female ^V ; the nerve ring surrounds the 
oesophagus at the limit of the first and second quarters and 
below it the porus excretorius opens. 

Male, 24 x 0*36 ; cirri very long, 4*54, coalescent throughout 
their entire length and thickened fusiform at the end ; the 
lateral lobes of the bursa are curved claw-like inwardly; each 
lobe is supported by six ribs, of which one lies at the inner 
margin, two side by side at the hinder border, and three in 
a f^roup at the outer margin ; there is no median lobe ; the end of 
the body is rounded with a pair of finger-shaped, slightly curved 
hyaline cuticular lobes. 

Female, 29 x 0'47 ; genital orifice lies far back dividing the 
body in the ratio 8:1; tail pointed, 1 J « ; eggs 0'097 x 0*053. 

Eleven species of Strongijlus have been found in Bos 
taurus^ the European domestic ox ; ten of them have short cirri; 
only Strongylus filicoUis, Rud., has long cirri, but in this species 
the cuticle shows 18 longitudinal ridges. 

15. — KaUce2)halus willeyi,v. Linst. 

Rectum of Typldops hraminus^ Russell ; Colombo. 
Cf. 0. V. Linstow, Spol. Zeyl., vol. I., part IV., 1904, pp. 99-100 
pi. I., figs. 14-18. 



HBLMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 169 

16. — Oxyuris viegaloon, n.sp. 

Intestine of Gecko, Hemidactylus leschenaultii, Dum. et Bibr, 
Mamadu. 

Females only in the collection, 6*52 x 0*91 ; cuticle deeply 
annulate ; head with three small lips ; oesophagus -^-ir, narrow, 
ending behind in a spheroidal bulb ; tail conically pointed, -^^ ; 
eggs very large, 0*083 x 0*047. 

Oxysuma. 

Head with three or more lips ; oesophagus with a spheroidal bulb 
behind ; male with two equal cirri and three paired pree-anal 
papillae ; number of post-anal papilla variable; tail in both sexes 
finely pointed; Secernentes-Meromyaria ; in reptiles and amphibia. 

17. — Oxysoma falcatum , n.sp. 
PI, III., figs. 50-51. 

Intestine of the Tortoise, Nicoria trijuga, Schweigg. ; Colombo. 

Cuticle smooth ; head broadly rounded with six stalked 
papillae ; the stalks are divided giving off an inner branch ; 
behind the head are four large papillae in the submedian lines ; 
oesophagus thin, in the male e^, female ~q^ ; the bulb is 
embraced by the cup-shaped commencement of the intestine ; 
excretory pore behind the middle of the oesophagus dividing the 
latter in the ratio 21 : 16. 

Male, 11"6 x 0*55 ; tail ^\y, bent hook-like towards the ventral 
surface ; cirri equal, falciform, very broad before the middle, 0*44, 
pointed at the end; three prae-anal and five post-anal papillae 
(paired). 

Female, 14*1 x 0*56 ; tail y^ ; genital orifice behind the 
middle dividing the body as 5 : 3 ; the vagina runs forwards ; 
eggs 0-14 x 0-097. 



'oo^ 



Dispharagus. 

Head with two lips ; in the region of the so-called neck the 
cuticle shows four longitudinal pleats ; male with two unequal 
cirri ; on each side of the tail four prae-anal papillae ; it belongs 
to the Secernentes-Polymyaria ; occurring in the CBSophagus, 
stomach, and gastric submucosa of birds. 

IS. —Dispharagus macrolainms, n.sp. 

Stomach of the Ddirtev, Plotus melanog aster, L. ; Wirawila. 

Females only in the collection, 7*3-ll*4 x 0'28-0'47 ; cuticle 
annulate, with elevated lateral lines ; head with two small, 
conical, rounded lips ; the mouth leads into a long vestibule ; 



170 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

oesophagus very long, 2^6 ; tail ^f, terminating in a small finger- 
shaped point ; the nuchal pleats run 0*80 mm. backwards, rather 
beyond the first section of the oesophagus ; immediately before 
their termination there is on each side a cone-shaped nuchal 
papilla ; eggs very numerous, with a double shell, 0"0H1 x O'Oll. 

Sclerostomum. 

Head with buccal orifice set with one or several rows of teeth ; 
male with two equal cirri and trilobate costif erous bursa ; female 
genital orifice posterior ; Secernentes-Meromyaria ; in mammals 
and birds. 

19. — Sclerostomum equimwi, Miiller. 

Intestine of horse ; Colombo. 

Cf. A. Looss, The Sclerostoniidae, Records Egyptian Government 
School of Medicine, 1901, pp. 76-77, pi. I., figs. 1-5. 

Ankylostomum.. 

Head with chitinous buccal capsule, bent and open towards the 
dorsal side ; often with teeth in its fundus ; male with trilobate 
bursa and two equal cirri; bursal lobes supported by ribs; 
female genital orifice behind the middle ; Secernentes-Mero- 
myaria ; in the intestine of mammals. 

20. — AnlnjJostomum. minimum, n.sp. 
PI. I., figs. 11-12. 

Stomach of Felis rubiginosa, Geoffr.; Kandy. 

Cuticle thick and annulate ; buccal capsule dorsally inclined 
with four ventral longitudinal "ribs" and a tooth at the bottom. 

Male, 2-38 x 0-21 ; oesophagus ^ ; cirri brown and very short, 
0-062 ; lateral lobes of bursa rounded, supported by six ribs, of 
which ihe two anterior lie close together, the third, fourth, and 
fifth form a group, and the sixth lies isolated. 

Female, 4-46 x 0-20; oesophagus ^g ; tail ^V ? genital organs 
almost confined to hinder half of body ; genital orifice posterior, 
dividing the body as 31 : 12 ; eggs not numerous, 0*088 x 0-053 ; 
one branch of the uterus runs forwards, the other backwards. 

21. — Ankylostomum trigonocephalum, Rud. 

Intestine of dog ; Colombo. 

Cf. A. Railliet Traite de Zoologie Medicale, Paris, 1895, pp. 
470-473, figs, 327-3:50. 



HELMINTHBS : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 171 

Syngamns. 

Mouth with a chitinous capsule, the wall of which is enlarged 
disc-like in front ; male small with a bursa and two equal cirri ; 
female orifice anterior : male and female in permanent copula ; 
Secernentes-Meromyaria ; in the trachea, bronchi, and nose of 
birds and mammals. 

22. — Sj/ngamus trachealis, v, Sieb. 
Trachea of domestic fowl ; Colombo. 

Cf. A.. Railliet, o/j. cit., pp. 453-455, fig. 312, also Neumann's 
Parasites of Domesticated Animals, p. 607, fig. 318. 

2'd.-—Filaria ? Zschokkei, Meyer. 

Peritoneum of Manifi pentadactyla, L. 

Cf. Meyer, Archiv f. Naturgesch. Jahrg. Gl, Berlin, 1896, pp. 
56-69, Taf. IV., figs. 1-9. Sexually immature. 

24. — Filaria immitis, Leidy. 

Pleural cavity of dog ; Ragama. 

Cf. A. Railliet, op. cit., pp. 509-513, figs. 354-356. 

25. — Filaria piscicola, n.sp. 

From supraorbital region of a marine fish {? Lethrinus, sp.). 

One incomplete female, 225 x 0*57 ; the diameter at the head 
is 0*13 ; the head is rounded, destitute of lips, teeth, and papillas ; 
the tail is lost from the specimen ; genital orifice quite anterior, 
only 0-79 from cephalic extremity ; eggs 0*031 x 0*023 ; it is ovo- 
viviparous ; the embryos with acuminate tail measure 0*53 x 
0-016. 

Filarise are very rare in fishes, and it is therefore to be regretted 
that only an imperfect description of this species can be given. 

26. — Filaria equina. Abildg. 

From eye of horse. 

Cf. A. Railliet, op. cit., pp. 524-526, figs. 364-366. 

27. — Filaria digitata, n.sp. 
PI. III., figs. 52-55. 
Peritoneum of J5as indices .- Colombo. 

Head with two straight teeth notched at the summit, thereafter 
four papillae in thesubmedian lines; cuticle finely annulate; a 
long vestibule (in the female 0*59) leads into the oesophagus, 1 
2 A 8(17)05 



172 SPOLTA ZRYTiANICA. 

in the male, }, in the female ; tail rounded, carrying in the 
female a spherical appendix ; in the male the tail is coiled in 
a close spiral, in the female a loose spiral ; in the male ^^j^ ; 
in the female yJ ; in both sexes in front of the extremity on each 
side a finger-shaped appendage, 0-044 long in male, O'lO in female. 

Male, 42-5 x 0-35 ; the curved cirri 0-16 and 0-065 respectively ; 
four prse-anal* and four post-anal* elongated papilla? ; in front 
of the former on each side about 140 small rod-shaped, close-set 
papilla reaching forwards 1*9 mm. from the tail end. 

Female, 56-9 x 0-55 ; genital orifice anterior dividing the body 
as 1 : 71 ; eggs 0-039 x 0-026. 

28. — Filaria tuherosa, n.sp. 

Filaria Mansoni, Castellani and Willey, Spol. Zeyl., vol. II., 
1904, pp. 79-80, pi. VI., figs. 1-6. 

In the peritoneum of Mabuia carinata, Schneid., the Brahminy 
Lizard ; Colombo. Larvas in the blood. 

Only two females in the collection, of which the larger measures 
34 X 0*37 ; tail attenuate, ending with a hemispherical dilatation, 
in front of which there is a papilla on each side ; anus absent; 
head rounded without teeth and papillae ; oesophagus very short 
,V ; genital orifice 0-44 from head end ; thin-shelled eggs 0-018 x 
0-013 ; ovoviviparous. 

The original name of the species must be altered because 
Cobbold named one F. Mcmsoni, from the orbit of Gallus 
gallinaceus in 1880. 

29. — Filaria flavpscens, Castellani and Willey. 

From Calotes versicolor, Dum. et Bibr.; Colombo. 

Cf. Castellani and Willey, imprim. 

Head rounded without teeth and lips ; body attenuate and 
rounded behind ; anus absent ; oesophagus very short, yl in male, 
.yV in female. Male, 19 x 0-33 ; tail, y] .„ with five very small 
post-anal papillae ; cirri, 0-16, conical with very broad base. 

Female, 56 x 0*63 ; genital orifice 1-97 from head end ; eggs 
0*021 X 0*016 ; ovoviviparous. 

Trichocephal us. 

Body strongly attenuate, oesophagus cellular, hind body 
thickened, anus terminal. Male with one spiculum ; female 
genital orifice at the end of the oesophagus at the limit between the 

* These papillas are always paired unless otherwise given. 



HBLMINTHBS : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 173 

thin tore body and thick hind body ; eggs barrel-shaped ; 
belongs to the Pleuromyaria, with muscles in place of the lateral 
tields ; in the coecum of mammals. 

30. — Trichocephalus discolor, n.sp. 
PI. I., figs. 13-14. 

From Bon i/idicus, Colombo ; said to have occurred in the 
stomach. 

Cuticle annulate at intervals of 0*0091 mm.; contours, at the 
fore body, serrate. 

Male white, 45 x 0*14 in front, 0'55 behind; cirrus sheath 
spinose ; cirrus long and narrow, of even width except at the 
rounded apex, 1*76 x O'Oll ; hence not to be confounded with 
T. affinis, Rud., from Bos taurus. 

Female, 50 x 0-13 in front, 0*67 behind ; fore body white, hind 
body yellow ; eggs 0'065 x 0*031, with large spherical opercula 
at the poles. 

Tetradenos tiara, v. Linst. 

In Spolia Zeylanica, vol.1., 1904, p. 102, I described a Nematode 
from Varanus hengalennis under the name Ctenocephalus tiara. 
It happens that Tholenati gave the name Gtenocephalus to a 
Dipteron in the year 1857, and I have therefore altered the 
generic name of the Nematode to Tetradenos. 

Of. Arch, f . Naturg., Berlin, 1904, p. 301. 

II.— ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

Echinorliy nchus . 
Nemathelminthes without intestine ; at the head a proboscis 
beset with hooks which can be retracted into a proboscis sheath, 
alongside which are two lemnisci (fluid reservoirs) ; male with two 
testes, six cement glands (" prostate "), and a protrusible, bell- 
shaped bursa with penis ; female with a ligament in which the 
placentulse arise ; the mature eggs are passed through the 
sphincter apparatus of the bell-shaped uterus into the vagina ; 
the species live in the adult condition in the alimentary canal of 
vertebrates. 

31. — Echinorhynchus tener, n.sp. 

PI. I., figs. 15-17. 

Intestine of the Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela, Daud. ; Nedun- 
keni, Northern Province. 

Body extended very long, delicate and fragile, head feebly 
thickened ; rostellum broad and short, thickened in front, 0*43 x 
0-39 (in front), the so-called "neck," 0*28, closely covered with 



174 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

hooks; rostellum hooks in forty-five transverse rings with twenty 
hooks in each ring; hooks of the twelve anterior rings, 0*042, 
with a long root, those of the thirty-three posterior rings, 0*021 , 
thorn-like without root. 

Male, 39x0*52; the group of genital organs extends forwards 
9*48 ram. from the thickened tail end. 

Female, 72 x 0*79; placentulfe ovate, 0*17 x -097; eggs with 
double shell, the outer shell showing wavy longitudinal lines, 
0"053 X 0*023 : tail end after copulation carries a layer of cement 
substance. 

IIL-TREMA.TODA. 

LijperosnititDn. 
Distomids with long intestinal rami ; testes behind one another 
and behind them lies the ovary; vitellarium on each side laterally 
behind the ventral sucker; genital orifice in front of latter. 

32. — Lijperusomum squamatum, n.sp. 
PI. I., fig. 18. 

(Esophagus of the White-necked Stork, Dissiira cpiscopus ; 
Gould ; Palatupana. 

Length 4*86, breadth 1*78. Oral sucker 0"59 ; ventral sucker 
0"87, its middle point lying at the limit of the second and third 
fifths of the body; the cuticle of the ventral surface alone closely 
beset with scales; cuticle everywhere very thick; the thickness of 
the body is to the width as 1 : 2 ; the oesophagus divides after a 
short course into two intestinal diverticula, the epithelium of 
which is strongly developed ; they extend to the hinder end ; the 
genital orifice lies immediately in front of the anterior margin of 
the ventral sucker; behind this the two testes follow one behind 
the other and, behind the last testis, the small ovary with the 
shell-gland ; the vitellaria occur as two tracts behind the ventral 
sucker occupying about -^ of the body length ; the coils of the 
uterus lie in the posterior half of the body; the eggs are small and 
numerous, narrow and elongate, 0083 x 0*036; they present a 
large double black spot which corresponds with the two ocelli 
of the embryo ; the cirrus sac is small, destitute of a cirrus. 

33. — Distomum, spec. ? 

CEsophagus of the J) nr ter, Plotus inelanorjasirr, Lin.; Wirawila. 

Only one opaque specimen which could not be determined 
without sections, thus destroying it ; moreover a single indivi- 
dual would not have sufficed for the investigation. The genus 
could therefore not be ascertained since the old genus Distomutn 
has been broken up into more than 80 genera. 



HBLMTNTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 17/) 

3-4. — Distoni'wn hcpalicuin^ Lin. 

Liver of Bos indicus, [Scinde Cow] ; Colombo. 

Gf. A. Railliet, Traite de Zoologie medicale, Paris, 1895, pp. 
342-356, figs. 219-235. 

The generic name Distomuni is here adopted instead of 
Fasciola, which was established by Linnaeus in 1746 for 
Distomum hepaticiim, Dendroccelum lacteum, and Schistocephalus 
solidus, these being taken to be one and the same species. 
Fasciola, L., is therefore a scientific impossibilitj% incapable of 
being diagnosed. The definition of Distomum, s. str., is as 
follows : — 

The two intestinal rami richly branched towards the outside ; 
ventral sucker lying well forwards with the /^oriis genitalis in 
front of it, the uterus and branched ovary behind ; farther 
back the much-branched testis and the vitellarium at the 
margin of the body ; parasitic in the liver of mammals. 

Paramphistotaam . 

A small sucker in front, a large sucker behind ; intestinal 
rami long ; two testes lying obliquely one behind the other, 
lobate, without cirrus sac ; porus genitalis in front in the 
median ventral line with the ductus ejaciilatorius and the 
uterus opening into it ; ovary and shell-gland behind the last 
testis ; vitellaria lateral close beneath the surface of the body ; 
parasitic in the stomach and bile passages of ruminants. 

35. — Paramphistonium calicoplioram, Fisch. 

Stomach of Bos indicus ; Colombo. 

Of. F. Fischoeder, Die Paramphistomiden der Saugethiere, 
ZooL, Jahrb. Syst. XVII., Jena, 1903, pp. 541-546. 

36. — Paramphistomum gracile, Fisch. 
Stomach of Ceylon black cattle {Bos indicus). 
Of. Fischoeder, op. cit., pp. 520-524. 

Gnstrotliylax. 
Amphistomids with ventral pouch which commences as a 
transverse groove shortly behind the mouth ; genital pore inside 
the ventral pouch, male and female genitalia immediately in 
front of the caudal sucker. 

37. — Gastrotliylax crumenifer, Crepl. 
Stomach of Bos bubalus, the country-bred buflEalo of Ceylon. 
Cf. Fischoeder, op. cit.y pp. 557-563. 



176 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Trhtomum. 

Body ovate or circular, flat, with two round suckers in front and 
a large, disc-shaped posterior sucker with seven rays and small 
rods ; cerebral commissure with four ocelli ; genital orifices and 
vagina in front on the left ventral side; testes numerous: ecto- 
parasitic on the gills and surface of the body of marine fishes. 

38. — Tristmnum megacotyle, n.sp. 

PI. I., figrs. 19-20. 

From the surface of the body of a sword fish, Histiophoru'i, sp.; 
Beruwala, February 5, 1904. 

Length 7*5, breadth 6 mm. ; ventral cuticle, except on the 
suckers and head, thickly beset with circular papillae, measuring 
0"31 mm. 

The two anterior suckers are equal to I of the body length; 
the caudal sucker has a diameter equal to ^ the body length, and 
shows seven radial ribs (pi. 1, fig. 19) which abut upon a central 
roundish area produced backwards ; the sucker is bounded at the 
peripheryby a striated border; in the posterior region of the sucker 
there are two straight undivided rods attenuated at the ends, 0*48 
mm. long ; these rods are always described as hooks in the defini- 
tion of the genus Tristomum, but they do not deserve this name 
since they do not serve for attachment, but, on the contrary, for 
releasing the sucker from its adhesion, assuming a vertical posi- 
tion by the action of special muscles for this purpose. 

A similar, though much larger species, also living upon Histio- 
phorus, is TrLsfmnum fa^vr,Yevri\l = T)-.ovafe,Goto; the length of 
this species amounts to 13 mm. and its breadth 12 mm. ; the 
diameter of the anterior suckers equals I of the body length ; the 
rays of the caudal sucker are narrow, its margin is unstriated, 
and the rods are expanded and irregularly laciniate at the 
roots. 

Cf. S. Goto, Studies on the Ectoparasitic Trematodes of Japan. 
Journ. Coll. Science, Japan, VIII., part 1, Tokyo, 1894, pp. 
241-244. 

IV.— CESTODA. 

Hymenolepis. 
Tseniids with armed scolex ; proglottids generally broader than 
long ; genital orifices marginal and unilateral ; in each segment 
three testes ; the mature uterus completely fills the proglottids ; 
parasitic in mammals and birds. 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MT^SEUM. 177 

.>9. — Hymenolepis septana, n.sp. 
PI. II., fig. 21. 

Intestine of Upupa ceylonensis, Reich.; Weligatta. 

Length 25 ; the proglottids begin directly behind the scolex and 
measure, in front, 0"13 broad x 0'022 long, farther back, 0*79 
broad x 0*18 long ; towards the end of the chain they become 
longer than broad, 0*35 broad x 0*48 long, the last member round- 
ed : the dorsoventral diameter is to the transverse as 2 : 3. 

The scolex is short, 0'13 long x 0*22 broad, truncate in front ; 
suckers 0*089 ; rostellum small and knob-shaped ; hooks absent, 
no doubt through casual loss. On each side are two vessels, a 
large dorsal and a small ventral ; outside these occurs the nerve. 

Bundles of longitudinal muscles appearing circular in trans- 
verse section course beneath the thick cuticle ; calcareous bodies 
absent. 

Cirrus-sac with inner side directed obliquely ventrally ; three 
small oval testes lie in a row in the middle of the proglottids at 
the dorsal side. Vagina dorsad of cirrus sac, expanding to a large 
roundish receftacvliLm ^eminis, reaching the middle line and 
touching the anterior margin of the segment. Ovary strongly 
developed occupying the whole longitudinal extent of the seg- 
ments; ventrally a broad transverse branch from which right and 
left two broad cornua extend horseshoe-shaped towards the 
dorsal side, leaving room for the testes, the vitellarium, and the 
shell-gland ; the roundish vitellarium (" Dotterstock ") lies in 
the middle line ventrad of the testes ; the small shell-gland is 
still more ventral in position. The uterus fills the last segments 
completely and is subdivided by dorsoventral septa ; the eggs 
have a triple membrane, the outer 0*073 x 0*064, the inner 0*03 1 
x 0-023. 

40. — Hymenolepis clausa, n.sp. 
PI. II., figs. 22-23. 

Intestine of the Whistling Teal, Deiidrocygna Javanica, Horsf.; 
Ti ssamaharama. 

Length 18 ; proglottids commence at once behind scolex, 
measuring in front 0*053 long x 0*35 broad, behind 0*47 x 1*56. 

Scolex small, 0*10 x 0*23 ; suckers 0*10 ; rostellum hemis- 
pherical, carrying eight hooks of 0*057 length. In the paren- 
chyme are to be found two layers of longitudinal muscles, outer 
small numerous bundles, inner large sparser bundles ; calcareous 
bodies not present ; two very large vessels traverse the chain : 
outside them the nerves. 

Genital pores absent ; on one and the same side in each pro- 
glottid, I of the cross-diameter distant from the margin, the 



178 SPOLIA ZBYIiAXTCA. 

cirrus-sac (Inirsft) and vagina nierire into one another directly : 
three testes lie dorsally and posteriorly in each segment, the 
central one somewhat backwards : cirrus-sac very large, about 
;} of the cross-diameter of the body, containing a very long cirrus, 
a uniformly thin chitinous tube coiled several times ; tlie orifice 
of the cirrus-sac where it passes into the vagina is closely beset 
with small equal hooks. The ovary lies unsymmetrically ventrad 
of the vagina and cirrus-sac, a racemose body, in the centre of each 
follicle a black granular nucleus ; vitellarixim ventral, median, 
transversely elongate, in front of it the round shell gland ; no eggs 
developed. 

I agree with Wolffhiigel in the opinion that the absence of 
genital pores is not of systematic importance, and therefore the 
species is assigned to Hymenolepis. 

41. — Hyinenolepis. i^pinoaa^ n.sp. 

PI. II., figs. 24-25. 

Intestine of the Painted Snipe, Rostratula capensis, Lin.; 
Vavuniya. 

Length 15 mm., anterior proglottids 0'12 broad x 0*044 long; 
hindmost proglottids greatly expanded at the hinder margin. 
0"62 broad x 0'35 long ; all are therefore broader than long. 

Scolex thickened towards the fore-body with breadth of 0'22, 
the foremost portion of the chain being O'll broad. 

The rostellum carries ten hooks 0*028 long ; the hooks are 
slender and have a long root and small hook and lever ; genital 
orifices marginal and unilateral, approximately at the end of 
the first quarter of each member of the chain. The cirri are 
remarkablj' large, 0*14 long, 0-018 broad at the base, closely spi- 
nose. The broad cortical layer occupies on each side ^ of the 
dorsoventral diameter ; a layer of transverse muscles occurs at 
its inner side and inside these numerous small groups of longi- 
tudinal muscle-bundles, inside these again eight stronger bundles 
of longitudinal muscles; on each side a large ventral and a 
smaller dorsal vessel, ectad of these, the nerve. 

The large cirrus-sac occupies nearly % of the transverse diam- 
eter; dorsad in the middle of the proglottis, three large testes, 
one in front beside the cirrus-sac, the two others side by side 
farther back. The coiled vagina lies below the cirrus-sac and 
expands to form a small receptaciilum seminis which does not 
reach to tlie middle line ; the ovary lies in the middle third of 
the transverse diameter, behind it the vitellarium, a transverse 
strand of about | the cross-diameter ; the ovate shell-gland 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 179 

occurs in the middle between the second and third testes. The 
eggs have a triple membrane, the outer irregular, 0-047 ; the 
oncosphere is 0*026 long x 0-018 broad. 

Dipylidiurn. 

Rostellum with several circlets of rosethorn-shaped hooks ; 
genital pores marginal and bilateral; genital organs in each pro- 
glottid duplicated ; testes numerous ; parasitic in mammals. 

^2.— Dipylidiurn caninum, Lin. 

Intestine of Ca7its fcuniliai'is ; Colombo. 
Of. A. Railliet, 023. cit., pp. 284-290. 

43. — Tcenia, spec. ? 

Intestine of Haliastur indus, Bodd.; Nedunkeui. 
Defective fragments without scolex, indeterminable. 

Diorchis. 

Scolex with simple crown of hooks ; in each member two 
testes ; genital pores marginal and unilateral ; the mature uterus 
fills the proglottids completely ; parasitic in birds. 

44. — Diorchis occlusa, n.sp. 

PL II., figs. 26-27. 

Intestine of the Flamingo, P/ioen/co^J^erMsroseMS, Pall.; Weligatta. 
Length 75 mm. ; the body is thick, ovate in cross section, the 
dorsoventral diameter is to the transverse as 7 : 9 ; formation of 
proglottids commences at once behind the scolex ; anterior 
proglottids 0-40 broad x O'OIS long, posterior 0-97 broad x 0*18 
long, the breadth always exceeding the length and the contours 
serrate. 

The scolex, 053 broad, is triangular in profile ; the rostellum 
is in some cases retracted, in others protracted, appearing short 
and broad ; it carries eight hooks, 0*14 mm. long ; the root-branch 
is shorter than the hook, in the proportion 25 : 29 ; at the base 
there is a small finger-shaped prolongation, and the concavity 
thus produced articulates with a roundish body, eight of which 
occur in a circle at the summit of the rostellum. 

Genital pores absent ; male and female ducts fuse together on the 
same side in all segments at a distance of 0*03 from the margin ; 
radial bundles of longitudinal muscles occur not far from the 
cuticle ; calcareous bodies are present in small quantity ; on each 

2 B 8(17)05 



180 SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 

side a large ventral and small dorsal vessel, the latter strongly 
and regularly sinuate, outside these the usual nerve, round in 
section. 

A long thin convoluted chitinous cirrus lies in the cirrus-sac, 
the duct is finely spinulose, and a seminal vesicle leads into the 
cirrus-sac ; two small oval testes, 0*10 x 0*06 lie dorsally. 

The wide vagina is ventral to the cirrus-sac ; it is finely 
spinulose internally- and presents a forcipate apparatus ; it leads 
into a receptaculum seminis reaching to the middle line ; the 
fusiform dilatation of the vagina is 0*042 wide. The ovary lies 
ventrally in the middle third and consists of separate aggregates ; 
the horseshoe-shaped vitellarium lies near the dorsal side and 
dorsad of it, the shell-gland. 

Eggs not present. 

Davahiea. 

Scolex with hundreds of very small, generally hammer-shaped 
hooks in two circles : suckers generally beset with hooks at the 
margin ; genital pores unilateral or irregularly alternating ; 
numerous testes; eggs in capsules; parasitic in mammals and 
-birds. 

45. — Davainea polycalcaria, n.sp. 

PI. II., figs. 28-29. 

Intestine of Corvus macrorhynchus, Tem. ; Colombo. 

Length 65 mm. ; in front the proglottids measure 0*03 long x 
0-25 broad, in the middle 0-20 x 1-78, behind 0-99 x 1*34 ; they 
become at the end slightly narrower and longer, but always 
broader than long; the scolex is button-shaped and very short, 
0'31 broad by 0'088 long ; the suckers, 0*10, carry several hundreds 
of small hooks at the margin ; the likewise very numerous hooks 
of the rostellum are closely packed in circlets, they are pointed 
and measure 0*015. A transverse muscular layer marks off the 
broad cortical zone from the medullary layer ; ectad of the trans- 
verse muscles are numerous longitudinal muscles which do not 
form bundles ; calcareous corpuscles are closely packed through- 
out the body ; two large vessels run yV^of cross-diameter distant 
from margin and are connected by a transverse ramus communi- 
cans in the posterior part of the segment ; close beside them 
outside is the nerve. The pyriform cirrus-sac occupies ^V of the 
cross-diameter ; numerous testes occur in the medullary sub- 
stance ; they are oval, about 0*039 by 0*01*0 ; female organs not 
yet developed. 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 181 

Di'plochetos, u .gen . 
Genital pores marginal bilateral : genital glands in only one 
group ; at the scolex a double crown of hooks ; testes numerous ; 
three layers of longitudinal muscles ; segments much broader 
than long ; uterus with ventral orifice right and left of the 
middle line. 

46. — Diplochetos volvulus, n.sp. 

PI. II., figs. 30-31. 

Intestine of Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Sarciophonis malabari' 
cus, Bodd.; Weiigatta. 

Length 8'5 ; anterior segments 0*018 long x 0*21 broad, 
middle segments O'lO x 0*40, posterior 0'37 x 0*70, always 
broader than long. The pyriform scolex is 0*35 broad x 0*26 
long ; the rostellum carries twenty-four hooks in two circles of 
twelve, the hooks O'OlT long ; in the parenchyme are three layers 
of longitudinal muscle-bundles, which become stronger towards 
the interior ; on each side two strongly sinuate vessels, the dorsal 
larger ; the nerve runs along much nearer the margin ; calcareous 
deposits not present. Genital pores marginal, right and left in 
each proglottid ; the cirrus-sac occupies i of the cross-diameter 
and contains coils of the vas deferens; entad of the cirrus-sac 
occl^r extensive convolutions of the vas deferens; the vagina 
lies ventral to the cirrus-sac and expands into an irregularly 
shaped receptaculum semitiis which reaches about ^ of the cross- 
diameter. In each transverse section about ten oval testes are to 
be found. The ovary lies in the inner third of the medullary 
substance and consists of separate follicles ; the round vitellarium 
lies ventrally in the middle ; the site of the uterus breaks 
through the musculatl^re and parenchyme ventrally about 5 
of the cross-diameter from the margin, sometimes to the right, 
sometimes to the left without opening to the exterior ; I have 
not found it in full development. The eggs are 0"016 long 
X 0*013 broad. Other Tteniid genera with biserial genital pores 
are the following : — 

Diploposthe, with simple hook-crown and three testes in each 
segment. 

Amahilia, with double cirrus-sac and simple vagina opening 
ventrally. 

Diplophallus, with double male organs and simple female 
organs. 

Dipylidium, with several rings of hooks on the rostellum and 
elongate segments. 

The large genera from ruminants and rodents do not concern 
the question. 



182 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

Ophri/oeoti/le. 
Scolex without rostellum, with five depressions, the margins of 
which are beset with numerous small hooks ; the margins of the 
suckers are also armed with numerous small hooks ; genital pores 
marginal, irregularly alternating or bilateral ; parasitic in birds. 

47. — Ophryocoiyle zeylanica, n.sp. 

PI. II., fi?s. 32-34. 

Intestine of the Ceylonese Hornbill, Lophoccros gingalensis, 
Shaw; Nedunkeni, Northern Province. 

Length 55; anterior proglottids 0*035 long x 0097 broad^ 
posterior O'l'i long x 0*70 broad. Scolex, 0*29 long x 0-19 
broad, club-shaped, the so-called neck behind it, strongly 
attenuate, 0*079 broad ; no rostellum ; the suckers occur 
laterally behind the middle of the scolex ; the inner ring 
enclosing the lumen is beset with very numerous hooks ; at the 
apex two parallel loops forming five finger-shaped rays whose 
margins are beset with very numerous small thorn-like hooks 
without root and lever, measuring 0*0053. 

The cortical zone is very wide and separated from the 
medullary zone by a transverse muscular layer, outside of which 
are regularly placed large bundles of longitudinal muscles and 
farther outside numerous, irregularly grouped, smaller bundles ; 
two large vessels run ventral in the medullar3' layer forming a 
posterior anastomosis in each segment ; the nerve occurs near the 
transverse ml^scles. In the layer between the subcuticular cells 
and the outer longitudinal muscles lie calcareous bodies. Genital 
pores marginal bilateral at the anterior lateral margin of the seg- 
ment ; cirri protruded, 0*19 long and 0*035 broad at the base, they 
are finely spinulose ; cirrus-sac carries outwardly longitudinal 
muscles, thereunder circular muscles ; it occupies almost | of 
the cross-diameter ; numerous testes lie in the medullary substance, 
about twelve appearing in a transverse section ; the vax deferem 
is coiled and leads into a sigmoid seminal vesicle which has a 
narrow lumen and a very thick hyaline wall. 

The vagina courses ventral from the cirrus-sac and the 
rexeptaculum aeminis reaches almost to the middle of the 
segment ; the ovary consists of large isolated cells and occupies a 
large place in the medullary substance, not forming a closed 
body ; the vitellarium abuts ventrally upon the transverse muscles 
and is a roundish body of ^^ the size of the cross-diameter ; the 
eggs are 0*036 by 0*029. 

The genus O/thri/ocof.ij/c hitherto comprised three species : — 
O. proteiis^ Friis (1869), from Trint/a, CaUidris, Charadrhts. and 



HBLMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 183 

Lams ; O. Lacazei, Villot (187o), from Limusa ; and O. insignis, 
Loiinberg (1880), from Rcemaioj)V^> and Mergus. 

Friis and Villot describe at the apex of the scolex tive distinct 
suckers in a row armed with hooks, whereas Lonnberg speaks of 
undulating loops ; in O.proteux and O. insignis the genital pores 
alternate irregularly ; the similarity in the formation of the 
scolex seemed to require that the species here described should 
be placed in the genus Ophi^yocotyle. 

Brnchocephalus, n.gen. 
Scolex with long rostellum with six backwardly directed loops 
of hooks ; genital pores marginal, regularly alternating ; cirri 
large, strongly and closely spinulose ; no receptaculum seminis ; 
three testes in each segment ; segments (proglottids) broader than 
long ; eggs two-shelled, the inner shell narrowed at the poles, 

•48. — B rochocephalus paradoxus. n.s^J. 
PI. IL, figs. 36 and 38; PI. III., figa. 35 and 37. 

Duodenum of the Lesser Sand Plover, yEgialitis mongulica, 
Pall. ; Weligatta. 

Length 85 mm. ; without '• neck ; " anterior proglottids 062 
broad x 00088 long, posterior 0-75 broad x 0*18 long, always 
much shorter than wide ; scolex with four suckers and long 
protruded knobbed rostellum, 0-10 long x 0"062 broad in front • 
at the apex six backwardly directed tracts of thirteen iiooks each 
i.e., seventy-eight hooks in all ; the hooks are slender with very 
small hook and lever, measuring 0'029. 

Two layers of longitudinal muscle-bundles are seen in cross- 
section under the cuticle ; on each side two vessels, the larger 
forming a posterior anastomosis in each segment ; the nerve runs 
near the margin. Genital pores marginal and almost regular] v 
alternating, rarely two follow on the same side ; no calcareous de- 
posits. Cirri very large, broad and spinulose, as long as half the 
cross-diameter of the proglottid ; the large muscular cirrus-sac 
is expanded outwardly and occupies about ^ of the cross-diameter ; 
three small ovate testes in the middle line, one in front, the 
others symmetrical behind it ; behind the testes a transverse 
vitellarium occupying ^ of the cross-diameter ; the ovary sur- 
rounds the testes in the middle third ; vagina and cirrus-sac 
lie between the two vessels ; the eggs are elliptical and two- 
shelled ; outer membrane 0-081 x 0-047, oncosphere spherical ; 
the inner thick shell is narrowed at the poles. 

The genus GgrocoeUa shows a zig/ag line, interrupted at eight 
points, with forty hooks on the rostellum : four testes in each 
segment, and the spherical eggs have two appendices. 



184 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Oittotcenia. 

r^oth rhe genital organs and their dncisare dnjdicated in each 
segment ; proglottids broader than long ; scolex unarmed ; uterus 
transverse; eggs with pyciforni apparatus ; parasitic in rodents. 

49. — Cittotceaia huvfiaria. n.sp. 

PI. II., figs. 39 -40. 

Intestine of Lepufi nigricollis, Cuv. -. Nedunkeni. 

No complete examples were present in the collection, the 
largest fragments measuring 55 mm. in length. The body is 
broad, rounded in front ; no " neck "; anterior segments 02() long 
X 5 broad, posterior 1'34 long x 7 broad. The scolex is not 
protruding ; the four suckers measure 0*14 in diameter ; rostellum 
absent. In the parenchvnie, two layers of longitudinal 
muscles, transverse muscles and many dorsoventral muscles ; 
on each side two longitudinal vessels, ventral larger, dorsal 
smaller ; outside these, the nerve ; no calcareous bodies. In each 
segment there are two groups of genital organs, each occupying 
I of the cross-diameter and having their several ducts The cirri 
protrude behind the middle of the margin of the proglottid ; they 
measure 0"44 long x 0*035 broad at the base ; the cirrus-sacs are 
short and club-shaped ; entad of them lies a fusiform hursa 
ejaculatoria provided with longitudinal and circular muscles ; 
entad of this a fusiform seminal vesicle and still further inwards 
a convoluted vas deferens ; the very numerous spherical testes, 
0-041 diameter, are distributed through the entire proglottids 
without forming two lateral groups. The vagina is broad, with 
high endothelium, expanding to a large receptaculum seminis ; il 
runs ventrad of the cirrus-sac: entad of the receptaculum and 
ventral in position lies the roundish ovary surrounding the 
vitellariuu). 

The uterus traverses the proglottid from right to left and has 
roundish protuberances in front and behind ; eggs round, 0-078, 
with triple membrane ; the inner membrane forms the so-called 
pyrif orm apparatus ; the spherical oncosphere measures 0*014. 

Iclithyotcenia. 

Scolex unarmed with four suckers, and often a fifth apical 
sucker ; genital pores marginal, irregularly alternating, testes 
numerous ; the vagina forms coils at the posterior margin of the 
proglottids in the middle, which replace a 7'eceptaculum seminis : 
parasitic in fishes and reptiles. 



HELMTNTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 185 

50. — Ichthyotcenia cry23tobothrium, n.sp. 

PL III., figs. 41-42. 

Intestine of Chryso2)dea ornata, Russell, a tree-snake ; Kuru- 
negala. 

Length 130 mm. ; head end rounded, scolex retracted, the four 
suckers being found only in transverse sections surrounded by a 
parenchyme-ring with eight vessels ; the suckers extend 0*40 mm. 
backwards ; their lumen communicates outwardly by two lacunae, 
a dorsal and a ventral, which ceases in the midst of the suckers ; 
a median plug projects freely. 

The anterior proglottids are very short, 0*02 long x I'OO broad ; 
the middle are 0*59 long x 1"69 broad ; the posterior 2"48 long 
X 0'87 broad, much longer than broad ; the last proglottid is 
rounded behind. 

Calcareous bodies sparsely distributed ; two layers of longitu- 
dinal muscle-bundles parallel with the cuticle traverse the 
parenchyme, outer tliinner numerous bundles, inner thicker and 
sparser ; at the margin on each side run two vessels, ventral 
stronger, dorsal thin and liighly sinuous ; outside these the stout 
nerve. 

The genital pores are marginal ;aid irregularly alternating in 
the anterior third of the margin of the proglottid. The cirrus is 
small, rod-shaped and plain ; the cirrus-sac occupies | of the cross- 
diameter ; the genital sinus is retracted ; the vas deferens forms 
abundant coils reaching to the middle of the cross-diameter ; the 
numerous testes lie in a transverse row in the dorsal half of the 
medullary substance and measure 0'052 to 0065. The vagina 
runs ventral straight inwards; ventrad of the ovary it forms 
numerous coils as equivalent of a receptaculum seminis. 

The ovary consists of very large cells and occupies scarcely | of 
the cross-diameter ; dorsal lies the roundish vitellarium ventral 
to which the shell-gland is applied and ventral to this a haust- 
urium (Scliluckapparat). The spherical eggs have a double 
membranous shell, measuring 0047 to 0*052. 

ApkcDiuhothr iiDic, n.gen. 
Body broad and thick like a Scliistocephalus larva, with short 
posteriorly acute -angled proglottids; in the frontal region a 
dorsoventral slit leading to five suckers ; destitute of scolex and 
hooks ; genital organs simple, ducts double, marginal ; the uterus 
discharges ventral in the middle line ; cortical layer broad ; 
cirrus closely beset with hooks ; on each side two vessels, the 
larger with transverse anastomosis ; ovary resolved into coils 
which lie dorsoventral and transverse; belongs to the Anoplo- 
cephalinse. 



186 .SPOLIA ZEYLAXICA. 

51. — Aphanohothriu7n catenatum, n.sp. 

PI. II., fig.s. 43 and i6 ; PI. III., figs. 44, 45, and 47. 

Duodenum of the Flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus, Pall.; Weli- 
gatta. 

Length up to 135 mm.; breadth 9-10 mm.; body attenuated in 
front, truncate behind and very thick ; the dorso ventral diameter 
isto the cross-diameter as 9 : 20; anterior end rounded and retracted 
in the middle and confined by arching cross lines ; scolex not 
visible externally ; proglottids sharply delimited, at first 0*20, 
then 0-27, behind 1-18 long. The middle § of the body width are, 
dorsally and ventrally, occupied by five longitudinal rows of flat 
dells which are also disposed in transverse rows ; posteriorly 
these deepen into small grooves ; the cortical layer is to the 
medullary substance dorsoventral as 2 : 5 ; in the tissue occur 
oval calcareous bodies measuring on the average 0018 x 0'012. 
Under the cuticle are circular and longitudinal muscles; a strong 
transverse muscular layer divides the cortex from the medullary 
substance ; in the cortex run radial bundles of longitudinal 
muscles ; on each side two vessels run close together, dorsal a 
smaller thick-walled vessel, ventral a larger thin-walled ; the 
latter forms in each proglottid a strongly sinuous cross- 
anastomosis ; the longitudinal nerve-trunk runs close outside the 
vessels. 

The scolex is retractile ; in transverse sections 0*05 to 0*07 mm. 
from the frontal point are found four suckers of 0*10 diameter, 
and a fifth in the middle ; these are circular and open outwards 
through a dorsoventral slit. The cirrus, 0-39 x 0*079 (0-12 broad 
at the base), is regularly beset with hooks like therostellumof an 
Echinorhynchus, arranged in transverse rings of sixteen each ; it 
protrudes from a hemispherical protuberance ; the cirrus-sac 
occupies ^ of the cross-diameter ; the numerous round testes of 
026 diameter lie in the medullary substance approximated to the 
transverse muscles. 

The vagina runs dorsad of the cirrus-sac ; both lie between the 
vessels. The ovary consists of strands extending from the dorsal 
to the ventral side and then bending inwards where they unite in 
a short transverse branch ; dorsad of this lies the radiate shell- 
gland, and dorsad of the latter the small vitellarium consisting of 
nodular strands ; the ovarian cells are 0*013 large, those of the 
vitellarium 0-0052 ; only the efferent duct of the uterus was 
developed, perforating the transverse muscles ventral in the 
middle line ; eggs not yet present. 



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ENTOZOA VON LINSTOW 



IteiAnsL vWiffri-Wuxirr, Fr<tnJcfurf''M 



HELMINTHES : COLOMBO MUSEUM. 187 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Illustrating Dr. von Linstow's Paper on Helmintlies of Ceylon. 

g. vessel ; n. nerve ; c. cirrus-sac ; vd. vas deferens ; h. testis ; 
?;. vagina ; rs. reccptacidum mminis ; k. ovary; d. vitellarium ; 
u. uterus ; s. male seminal vesicle ; sch. shell-gland ; sold, liaus- 
torium. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. — Ascaris Jissicollis. Dorsal lip. 
Fig. 2. — Same. Accessory lip. 

Fig. 3. — Ascaris coronata. Dorsal lip with accessory lips. 
Fig. 4. — Pliysaloptera hrevis'pictilum, 6. Tail from below. 
Fig. 5. — Spiroptej^a secretoria. Head ; /.free projecting secretory 
filament. 

Fig. 6. — Spiroptera orca, 6. Tail from below. 

Fig. 7. — Same, ?. Immature egg. 

Fig. 8. — Same. Mature egg. 

Fig. 9. — Heterakis 2nisilla, 6. Tail from below. 

Fig. 10. — Strongylus digitatus, 6. Tail from below. 

Fig. 11. — Ankylostomwn mininuim. Head from the right side. 

Fig. 12. — Same, 6. Tail from the right side. 

Fig. 13. — Triclwcephalus discolor, 6. Tail from right side. 

Fig. 14. — Same, ?. An egg. 

Fig. 15. — EcJdnorJn/nchus teller. Anterior hook of rostellum. 

Fig. 16. — Same. Posterior hook. 

Fig 17. — Same. An egg. 

Fig, 18. — Lyperosomum squnmatiim, from below. 

Fig. 19. — Tristoinum megacotyle, from below. 

Fig. 20. — Same. Rod from the caudal sucker. 

Plates II. and III. 

Fig. 21. — Hymenolepis septaria. Transverse section. 
Fig. 22. — Hymenolepis clausa. Transverse section. 
Fig. 23.— Same. Hook. 

Fig. 24. — Hymenoleiris sjnnosa. Transverse section. 
Fig. 25. — Same. Hook. 

Fig. 26. — Diorchis occlusa. Transverse section. 
Fig. 27.— Same. Hook. 

Fig." 28. — Dai^ainea iJolycalcaria. Transverse section. 
Fig. 29.— Same. Hook. 

Fig. 30. — Diploclietos volvulus. Transverse section ; on one 
side the vas deferens is figured, on the other the vagina. 

2 C 8(17)05 



188 SPOLTA ZEYLANICA. 

Fig. 31. — Same. Hook. 

Fig. 32. — Ophryocotyle zei/lanica. Transverse section ; on the 
one side the male organs are figured, on the other the female. 

Fig. 33. — Same. Scolex from the frontal surface. 

Fig. 34.— Same. Hook. 

Fig. 35. — Brochocfiphalus paradoxus. Horizontal section ; this 
figure is reproduced on Plate III. 

Fig. 36. — Same. Rostellum in side view. 

Fig. 37.— Same. Hook (on PI. III.). 

Fig. 38.— Same. An egg. 

Fig. 39. — (PI, II.). Gittotcenia hursaria. Portion of a trans- 
verse section ; s. I. Bursa ejaculatoria ; s. II. Seminal vesicle. 

Fig. 40.— (PI. II.). Same. An egg. 

Fig. 41. — (PI. III.) Ichtliyokenia cryptohothrium. Transverse 
section through the scolex, 0*30 mm. from the apical point. 

Fig. 42. — (PI. III.). Same. Transverse section. 

Fig. 43. — (PI. II.) Aphanohothrium catenatum. Head end in 
flat view. , 

Fig. 44. — (PI. III.). Same. Head end in frontal view. 

Fig. 45. — (PI. III.) Same. Transverse section through the 
retracted suckers. 

Fig. 46. — (PI. II.). Same. Surface view of posterior end. 

Fig. 47. — (PI. III.). Same. Portion of a transverse section. 

N.B. — The remaining figures are on PI. III. 

Fig. 48,. — Ascaris hrachyclieilos. Dorsal lip. 

Fig. 49. — Heterahh granulosa, 6. Tail from below. 

Fig. 50. — Oxysoma falcatiim. Head end. 

Fig. 51. — Same, 6. Tail from right side. 

Fig. 52. — Filaria digitata. Head end. 

Fig. 53. — Same. Tail end of male from right side. 

Fig. 54. — Same. Tail points of male from below. 

Fig. 55. — Same. Tail points of female from below. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 189 



NEW AND INTERESTING LIZARDS IN COLOMBO MUSEUM. 

By N. ANNANDALE, D.SC. 
(^Deputy Superintendent of the Itidian Museum.') 



rp^HANKS to Dr. A. Willey I have lately had an opportunity 
-■- of examining the Lizards in the collection of the 
Colombo Museum, the specimens in which are, without exception, 
from Ceylon. Notes on many of them have been published in 
Mr. A. Haly's " Report on the Collection of Reptilia and Batrachia 
in the Colombo Museum" (1891); but several additions have 
been made more recently, while a re-examination of some speci- 
mens has had interesting results, the most important of which is 
the establishment of a new genus for the reception of Nevill's 
Euprepes halianus* Another new Skink is also described. 

GECKONID^. 

Gymnodactylus nebulosus, Bedd. 

The collection contains a half-grown specimen of this species 
from a locality 18 miles north of Kandy (see A. Haly, Adminis- 
tration Report, Colombo Museum, 1900). Boulenger records 
another Ceylonese example in the British Museum ; but the 
species, common in some parts of Southern India, must be rare in 
Ceylon. 

Gymnodactylus frenatus, Gthr. 

An examination of the two males and two females in the 
collection enables me to point out a peculiarity of the adult male 
which is possibly assumed at the breeding season and is quite 
absent in the female. The ventral surface of the base of the tail 
is swollen in the former sex, and there are two large closely 
adjacent papillae close behind the opening of the penis on each 
side. 



* H. Nevill. Taprobanian, II., 1887, p. 5G ; also Boulenger, Reptiles, Fauna Brit. 
India, 1890, p. 213. 



190 SPOLIA ZEYLANTCA. 

AG AM I D^. 

Calotes OPHIOMACHUS, Merr. 

Judging from ;i young specimen from Kandy in the collection 
and from an adult lately captured by myself in Colombo, the 
"two groups oi" spines on each side of the head" noted bj" 
Boulenger may be united into a single series. 

SCINCIDyE. 

Mabuia BIBRONII (Gray). 

Though Boulenger only records this species from the Carnatic 
in the *' Fauna," it is probably not uncommon in some parts of 
Ceylon, whence there are several specimens in the Colombo 
Museum which I have re-examined (see Haly's Report on 
Reptilia, &c., Colombo, 1891, p. 14, where the species is recorded 
from Mullaittivu). 

LYGOSOMA MEGALOPS, sp. nov. 

Sub-genus Keneuxia, Gray (see G. A. Boulenger, Catalogue of 
the Lizards in the British Museum, Second Edition, vol. III., 
1887, pp. 210 and 214). 

Habit lacertiform ; length from snout to fore-limb contained 
about 1^ times in the length from axilla to groin ; limbs well 
developed, pentadactyle, overlapping when adpressed ; snout 
short, obtusely pointed ; eye large ; diameter of orbit as great as 
length of snout ; distance from orbit to ear-opening much longer 
than snout ; ear-opening much smaller than eye, circular, 
without denticulations. 

Rostral much broader than deep, forming a straight suture 
with the frontonasal ; no supranasals ; nasal undivided. Frontal 
nearly as long as the frontoparietals and the interparietal 
together ; interparietal completely separating the parietals ; no 
distinct nuchals. Four large, subequal supraoculars ; seven or 
eight superciliaries ; six upper and five lower labials. Dorsals 
and laterals smooth, ventrals feebly keeled ; body scales subequal, 
imbricate, in twenty-four to twenty-six rows round the body ; 
anals and caudals not enlarged ; no enlarged scale on the heel ; 
middle toe with twelve to fourteen subdigital plates. Colour 
almost uniform dark brown. Length of head and body, 2 
inches ; length of tail, 2| inches. 

Localities. — One specimen from Puttalam ; another from 
Kitulgala. 



LIZARDS IN THE COLOMBO MUSEUM. 



191 



Theconyx, gen. nov. 

Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; claws retractile ; other 
characters as in Lygosonia. This new genus is intermediate 
between Lygosoma and RisteUa, from the latter of which it differs 
in having five digits on each foot and in the other points which 
separate the former genus from the latter, except as regards the 
claws. 




Fig. 1. — Young ThccoHi/x halianus showing general form and coloration, 
from above. X 3. 



192 • SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

THECONYX HALIANUS (Nevill). 

As the description of this species drawn up by Haly and 
published by Nevill, who gave it its name (Eiqyrejjes halianus), 
is not very clear, I have based the following diagnosis on three 
specimens in the Colombo Museum. 

Habit lacertif orm, rather stout ; limbs approaching one another 
or slightly overlapping when adpressed ; tail cylindrical, of the 
same length as the head and body. Tympanum as small as 
nostril, deeply sunk. No postnasal ; a narrow supranasal which 
does not meet its fellow ; rostral much broader than deep ; 
frontal three times as long as broad, much longer than inter- 
parietal, from which it is completely separated : four large 
supraoculars, seven or eight superciliaries ; no distinct nuchals. 
Lower eyelid scaly ; body scules large, imbricate ; dorsals with 
three or five indistinct keels ; laterals smooth ; twenty -four scale 
round the body ; anals slightly enlarged. 





Fig. 2. — Left hand from below. Fig. 3. — Left foot from below. 

X about 4. X about 4. 



Fig. 4. — Claw. X 12. 

Coloration. — Dorsal surface olive (yellow in young) with six or 
seven dark transverse bars on the body which are narrower than 
the interspaces, and eight or nine on the tail. These are much 
more conspicuous in the young than in the adult and equal to 
the interspaces. Head variously marked with olive and dark 
brown. Ventral surface dirty yellow. Length of head and 
body 1| inch : length of tail 1| inch. 

Localities. — In addition to Nevill's types (an adult from the 
Western Province and a young specimen from Anuradhapura) 
the Colombo Museum possesses a third example (half-^rown) 
from Horana, collected and presented by G. H. Swayne, Esq., 8th 
November, 1901. It is this specimen I have measured, as the 
tail is injured in the adult, which is at least twice as large. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 193 



STALKED BARNACLES (CIRRIPEDIA PEDUNCULATA) 
THE COLOMBO MUSEUM. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc. 

(^Deputy Stiperintendent of the Indian 3hispnm.') 



A MONG the Cirripedes in the Colombo Museum I have been 
■^-^ able to identify the following : — (1) Lepas anserifera, Linn., 
the commonest pedunculate form on floating objects in this part of 
the Indian Ocean ; (2) Dichelaspis piellucida, Darwin, a somewhat 
scarce species only taken on sea-snakes ; and (3) Dichelaspis 
equina, Lanchester, which was not described until about three years 
ago [Lanchester, P. Zool. Soc, London, 1902 (2), p. 375] but appears 
to be common on shallow-water crabs of the east coast of India 
as well as in some parts of Malaya. 

The specimens of L. anserifera are attached in dense masses to 
pieces of wood and to a bottle ; those of D. pellucida are scattered 
on the body of a sea-snake {Hydrus ifluturus) ; while D. equina 
is represented by numerous individuals crowded together on the 
posterior walking legs and carapace of a Dorippe dorsipes (Linn.), 
and by others scattered on the dorsal and ventral surfaces and 
mouth parts of Scylla ser^^ata (Forsk.). 

The distribution of L. anserifera is world-wide. So far as I 
am aware, neither species of Dichelaspis has been reported 
hitherto from the immediate neighbourhood of Ceylon. D. equina 
was described from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, while 
D.,peUucida is an Oriental species which probably has a fairly 
extensive distribution. 



Dichelaspis tenuivalvata, sp. nov. 
Diagnosis. 

Capitulum compressed ; carinal edge rounded ; occludent edge 
sinuous, slanting outwards from above ; lower edge straight, 
horizontal ; opening large. Five imperfectly calcified plates ; 
carina not reichiiig the upper edge of the capitulum above, 



194 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



furcate below, the two rami extending along the base of the 
capitulum ; tergum large, triangular, almost entirely covering the 
upper part of the membrane between the carina and the opening ; 
scutum large but very imperfectlj- developed inferiorly (the 
lower border being quite indistinct), in contact with the tergum 
along the tergal margin above, feebly separated from the carina 
behind, not cleft. Peduncle very short, transversely wrinkled. 
Mouth-parta well developed; the mandible very large, with five 
teeth ; the labrum feebly bullate ; the maxilla furnished with 
stout bristles along its free edge, the inner half of which is 
almost straight, while tlie outer half is deeply concave. 




Scales of Snake 



D. tennimlvata Annand, X 30. The specimon has been removed from the 
body of the snake to which it was attached, some of the scales nf the snake still 
adhering to tha short stalk of the barnacle. 



STALKED BARNACLES IN THE COLOMBO MUSEUM. 195 

Measu rem en ts. 

Length of capitulum ... ... 5 mm. 

Breadth of capitulum ... ... 4 mm. 

Length of peduncle ... ... ]*.5 mm. 

This interesting species is represented by several specimens, 
growing, side by side with D. equina, on the ventral surface of a 
sea-snake (Hydrus ijlaturus) from the coast of Ceylon. 

All the members of the genus Dichelaspis are notable for the 
reduction of the capitular plates which they exhibit. In D. 
ienuivaluata, however, the degeneracy is of structure rather than 
of form. The five plates represented are all large, but their 
calcification is so imperfect that although the mantle is very 
transparent, I was unable to see their limits without staining the 
specimens. Even when thus prepared they were by no means 
easy to examine critically, and failed entirely to discern the 
lower termination of the scuta. On the whole, the affinities 
of the new form would seem to lie with Lanchester's D. occlusa 
(P. Z. S., 1902 (2) ) from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. 
From this species it may be distinguished by its extremely short 
peduncle and imperfectly differentiated but undivided scuta. 



2 D 8(17)05 



IWr. SPOLIA ZEYl.AMCA. 



NOTES. 



1. Lacteal Tract of Oriental Lorisince. — Dr. Nelson Annandale 
Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum, writes from 
Calcutta under date September 25, 1905 : — 

"In connection with what you told me regarding the mammae 
of Loris gracilis^ I have examined the only two specimens we 
have in spirit in the Indian Museum of Nycticehus tardigradus, 
viz., (1) a male foetus 55 mm. long, and (2) a large female. The 
first is quite hairless, and I had no difficulty in detecting two 
pairs of mammae as minute tubercles on its skin. The first lies 
in a line with the centre of the upper arm when the limb is 
pressed down along the side ; the second only a short distance 
above the umbilicus, but in the same position relative to the 
sides of the body as the first. 

" A somewhat prolonged search among the hair of the large 
female, which was not in lactation, also resulted in the discovery 
of four mammae in the same position. One pair therefore may 
be said to be pectoral and one abdominal, though there is not any 
very great separation between the two pairs." 

N. ANNANDALE. 



2. Curious action of a Toad when confronted by a Snake. — I 
have in my vivarium a "striped ground snake" {Tropidonotus 
stolattiSy L.) which feeds exclusively upon toads and is always 
ready for a meal. Under ordinary circumstances it seizes its 
prey before the latter is aware of its presence. But, if the toad 
catches sight of the snake in time, it can always (temporarily) 
avert its doom by assuming a very characteristic attitude that 
seems to completely disconcert its would-be captor. The toad 
faces its enemy, depresses its head till the snout almost touches 
the ground, erects itself on tip-toe, in which position — owing to 
the superior length of the hind limbs — the rump is elevated.; at 
the same time inflating its abdomen to its utmost extent. If the 
snake does not immediately move off (which it usually does), 
the toad alternately lowers and raises the hinder part of the 
body, a movement which finally routs the enemy. This curious 
action is taken by even quite small toads and cannot be the result 
of individual experience. It would appear to be an inherited 
instinct. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 

Peradeniya, Octobei 26, 1905. 

* Willey in Spolia Zeylanica, part X., 1905. 



NOTES. \1"97 

3. On the constricting habit o/Cohiber helena. — With reference 
to my note (vol. III., part X., p. 157) on the constricting habit of 
Coluber helena, I have since been able to prove the correctness of 
rax supposition that this action is normally employed in the 
capture of its prey. I have several times observed its capture of 
a small skink {Lygosoma, sp.). On one occasion the Coluber had 
captured a lizard and was tightly constricting it, the whole body of 
the snake being twisted into a complicated knot. It commenced 
work upon the tail, which became detached from the body of the 
lizard and was promptly swallowed. The snake then apparently 
forgot that the largest part of its captive was still enclosed in the 
folds of its body, and began looking about for another victim. 
Eventually it re-discovered its original capture and commenced 
to engulph it, drawing it gradually through the encompassing coils. 

In huntingthe lizards it seems to be very inexpert, and repeatedly 
failed to effect a capture. As soon as the lizard stopped the snake 
lost interest in it and was attracted only by moving objects. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



4. Scorpion stings. — The sting of the small gray scorpions 
(Isometrus, spp.) is popularly reputed to be more virulent than 
that of the large black — or rather, dark blue-green — scorpion 
{Palanuiceus, sp,). If this is really the case the sting of the latter 
must be almost negligible. I have been recently stung on the 
palm of my hand by a full-grown male Isometrus europceus. The 
pain was by no means intense — not nearly as severe as that 
caused by the sting of a bee or wasp — and completely passed off 
within a very few minutes, without the application of any 
remedy, leaving no trace or mark of any kind. It is possible that 
the poison spine could not fully penetrate the thick skin, though 
the puncture was in the median softer area of the palm. But I 
have observed a case in which a child of three years old was 
stung on the finger. The skin of a child at such a tender age 
cannot afford any serious obstacle to penetration. In this case 
also the pain was very transient. Though productive of 
momentary tears, within ten minutes the incident had been quite 
forgotten. I have been assured by other persons that no seriously 
unpleasant effects have followed the sting of Palamnceus. 

Are these cases exceptional, or is the popular apprehension of 
scorpion stings greatly exaggerated ? It would be interesting to 
collectevidence on this question. Will readers of this Journal, 
who may have had personal experience in the matter, come forward 
with particulars of their sensations under such circumstances ? 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



198 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

5. Minerals neiv or rare in Ceylon. — Of the following 
minerals, some were omitted from the list of Ceylon minerals 
given in Spolia Zeylanica^ part IX., 1905 ; the remainder have 
been discovered since. 

A. — Minerals new lo Ceyluii. 

Galena. — Occurs in small cubes and rolled fragments in nambu 
from the Getaheta-oya at Murutangala in Getaheta. Reported 
from other localities. 

Cassiterite. — Occurs as small black pebbles in nambu at 
Niriella and Noragala, and in larger fragments at Kuruwita. 

Selenite. — Massive at Kukulawalakanda, Ratmale, Pasdun 
Korale, intergrown with pyrite between veins of graphite [James 
Parsons] ; also in crystals in fossiliferous marine clays, Matti-aru, 
Kuchaveli, north of Tricomalee. 

Monazite. — Occurs in waxy yellow well-worn grains in sands 
of the Getaheta-oya and other rivers near Avisawella ; but was 
first detected by Dr. J. W. Evans in specimens of heavy sands from 
the Niriella-ganga sent to the Imperial Institute by the Mineral- 
ogical Survey. 

Orangite. — It has been pointed out that the " thorite " of 
Ceylon really belongs to the variety known as orangite, dis- 
tinguished by slightly greater specific gravity and orange colour. 
The apparently orthorhombic form of the mineral however 
remains unexplained.' The crystals are not good enough to give 
satisfactory measurements, and too much altered internally for 
optical examination. 

Platinum. — Occurs very sparingly, associated with gold in 
river sands at Dombagomuwa and Karawita, Sabaragamuwa. 
[James Parsons]. 

The following minerals have been reported, but on present 
evidence cannot be accepted as found in Ceylon. The sulphides 
are quite likely to be found: — Ginnabar, Stihnite^ Realgars 
Epsomite, Olivine [see Bertha Vukits Centralblatt fiir. Min. etc., 
1904, No. 23, p. 715]. Minerals sent by the Mineralogical Survey 
to the Imperial Institute were provisionally identified as 
Annerodite and ^schynite or Polycrase. 

B. — Mineral names omitted in the List. 

Molybdenite. — Recorded by Dr. Gygax, and in Gustav Leonhard's 
'* Handworterbuch der topographischen Mineralogie," 1843. I 
re-discovered this mineral this year in the Kegalla District, 
where it occurs [at HettimuUa] in a vein of pegmatite cutting the 
srranulites. 



NOTES. 199 

Wolframite is also recorded by Leonhard, as well as Saltpetre. 
and Rose quartz^ both of which latter are certainly found in 
Ceylon. 

" Oriental Emerald " is mentioned by Max Bauer in his "Edels- 

einkunde," which is however totally unreliable as regards Ceylon. 

Greenish sapphires do occur, but rarely, and hardly deserve the 

name of Oriental Emerald. N.B. — Max Bauer states erroneously 

that Beryl does not occur in Ceylon. 

Beccarite. — A biaxial variety of Zircon from Ceylon. 

Andesine. — (Des cloiseaux, 1884). 

Borax. — (Mentioned by Dana). 

I am indebted to Mr. L. J. Spencer for several of these refer- 
ences. 

C. — Some early Records. 

Nicolo Conti, who travelled in the East between 1419 and 1444, 
speaks of a "very noble island, called Zeilan, in which they find 
by digging, rubies, saffares, garnets, and those stones which are 
called cat's-eyes." 

Albanasius Nilikin, who travelled between 1468 and 1474, 
speaks thus of Ceylon : " Ceylon is another not inconsiderable 
port of the Indian sea. There, on a hill, is the tomb of Adam, and 
in the vicinity are found precious stones, antimony, fastisses, 
agate, cinchai, crystal, sumbada. " A little after he says: "At 
Ceylon you find ammone, antimony, fatisses." Of these, antimony 
is not known to occur in Ceylon ; cinchai doubtless refers to 
spinel (kirinchi). Agate of a sort does occur sparingly in Ceylon, 
but it is more likely that agate of Indian origin is here referred to. 

Ludovico de Varthema, who travelled from 1503 to 1508, 
speaks of the rubies, garnets, sapphires, jacinths, and topazes of 
Ceylon. 

These references are extracted from Sir George Birdwood's 
" Report on the Old Records of the India Office," London, 1891. 

A. K. COOMARASWAMY. 



6. Recent Marine Clays at Kuchaveli, Ceylon: Ananda K. 
Coomaraswamy . 

Note on some Post Tertiary Molliisca from Ceylon: R. Bullen 

Newton. 

Geol. Mag., Dec. v. vol. II., No. XL, November, 1905. 

A recent marine clay is exposed near Nachchiarmalai on the 
Matti-aru (near Kuchaveli, 22 miles north of Trincomalee) about 



200 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

Ih mile from the coast, at about sea level. The section shows 
about 9 feet of alluvium resiing on the clay bed which is about 
2i feet thick, the lower part being under water. The bed is full 
of marine shells, and contains also concretionary nodules with 
shells, serpula3, and crab remains. All these also occur commonly 
washed out and scattered over the sand banks of the Matti-aru. 
The common crab, used medichrAlly, is 3Iacropthalmiis Latreillei 
(Desmarest), the " medicine " crab of the Chinese pharma- 
copoeia ; it has been found in the Post-tertiary clays of Southern 
China. A single chelate pincer belonged to Scylla serrata (De 
Haan), the great Indian swimming crab. The following shells 
together with annelid tubes, Balani, fossil wood, and the crabs 
complete the list of organisms collected : — 

Telescopium telescopium (Linnaeus). 
Potamides Jiuviatilis (Potiez and Michaud). 
Purpura carinifera (Lamarck). 
Nassa ornaia (Kiener). 
Melongena pugilina (Bour). 
Natria, sp. 

Scapharca rhombca (Bour). 
Arca^ sp. 

Placuna placenta (Linnaeus). This is the "window-pane 
oyster," and it is exceedingly abundant in the bed. 
Tapes undulata (Bour). 
Tapes textrix (Chemintz). 
Diplodonta., cf. ohlonga (Hanley). 
Tellina, sp. 

Dosinia salchrosa (Roemer). 
Chione allied imhricata (Sowerby). 

Three points in Mr. Bullen Newton's paper must be 
noticed : — 

(1) As stated in my paper, nodules occur in the clay bed, 

and one crab-nodule was found iv, situ ; there is 
therefore no foundation for his suggestion that the 
fossils in the nodules may be younger than those in 
the clay. 

(2) It does not appear how the identity of littoral fauna 

can prove the recent connection of Ceylon with 
India. 

()}) The particular specimens examined were not presented 
as stated. 

ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY. 



NO'I'KS. 201 

7. " Ounlrihutions to the Geology of Geylon. 4. Intrusive 
Pyroxenites, Mica-injroxenites, and Mica-rocks in the Gharnockite 
Series or Granulites in Ceylon "; Ananda K. Goomaraswamy 
Geol. Mag., Dec. v., vol. II., p. 363, August, 1905. 

The following is a summary of the observations recorded in 
this paper. A group of pyroxenites in which the minerals 
diopside, phlogopite, horneblende, and scapolite predominate, 
while sphene, plagioclase, pyrite, apatite, calcite, and spinel are 
often accessory, occurs in small sills and dykes intrusive in the 
charnockite series or granulites of Ceylon, and in one case 
apparently also in a zircon granite of the Balangoda group. The 
pyroxenic intrusions have usually a zoned or laterally symmetri- 
cal structure analogous to that of mineral veins. The intrusions 
rarely exceed 6 feet in thickness, and are usually" smaller ; they 
are widely distributed in Ceylon. The intrusive material never 
shows a chilled edge, but there is a rapid transition from the 
pyroxenite to the granulite. The course of the small sills and 
dykes of pyroxenic material is usually determined by the 
foliation planes and joints of the granulites. 

ANANDA K. GOOMARASWAMY. 



8. Snake lore. — Some extraordinary ideas about the cobra are 
entertained by the Sinhalese — at least in some parts of the 
Island, as will be gathered from the following : — 

(1) The cobra drops a segment of its body — beginning of course 
at the tail end — after every bite it inflicts, and is ultimately 
reduced to a mere head or " hood," when it is known as " Kobo- 
nayi," in which form it is capable of great activity and is able 
to perch, bird -like, on the branches of trees. 

(2) The cobra grows shorter and thicker as it grows older, and 
finally attains to gigantic proportions, " as thick as the stem of a 
full-grown arecauut palm." An ancient reptile of great age and 
size is believed to be in occupation of the cave to be found in 
Elakande, Horana, where a princess of the Sinhalese dynasty, 
who was afflicted with an incurable disease, is said to have lived 
in retirement. The trail of this cobra is described as like that 
of a log drawn over the surface of the ground." 

(3) When honey bees work for many years in the same spot 
they build in the centre of their hive a dome-shaped comb 
resembling, in shape, the ash-pumpkin, and hence referred to as 
" puhul." To such hives the cobra finds its way. and coiling 



202 >^1'0L1A XKYIjANTOA. 

itsell rouud the "pumpkin" feasts upon bee larvae and honey. 
The colour of the reptile found in such situations is reddish- 
brown, and its sting is innocuous. 

C. DRIEBERG. 



9. Snakes and fowls. — While sitting on the verandah of 
Gokarella resthouse, some 12 miles from Kurunegala, I observed 
a pullet pursuing a snake 12 to 15 inches in length. At intervals 
the latter turned upon its antagonist, and attempted to entwine 
itself round the neck of the bird, which, however, snatched it 
away without much difficulty with its claws, and proceeded to 
peck at its head, when the snake would again try to get away. 
In the end, when the snake was about half dead, the fowl 
started to swallow it, taking the head first, and after persistent 
eflEorts the reptile, wriggling to the last, disappeared down the 
throat of the bird. 

To me this was a novel experience, but I subsequently learned 
Trom the resthouse-keeper and others that it was a common 
enough occurrence in the countryside, and that village poultry as 
a rule attack and make a meal of such snakes as Haldanda,* 
Aharakuka,t and Ehetuwa.l 

C. DRIEBERG. 



10. Moths at sea. — During the forenoon of November 18, 1905, 
when about sixty miles from the coast of Ceylon, several specimens 
of Ophideres fullonica were found on board H.M.S. Sealark and 
were brought to me. The noon position of the ship was 6° 11'5' 
N., 79° 01' E., Colombo Clock Tower bearing N. 49 E. 67 miles ; so 
that the nearest land was the coast about Barberyn. The wind was 
northerly and light (force about 2). It seems probable that these 
specimens came off with the land breeze of the preceding night, 
but the distance from land which they had attained appears 
noteworthy. 

Several specimens of Cephonodes hylas were also tiying about 
the ship at tlie same time, but this species is a well-known 
migrant. 



THOS. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, 

H.M.S. Sealark. 



December 4, 1905. 



* Dcndrophig pictvx. f Tropidonotus xtolatng. % Dryophis mycterizanx. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 203 



TERMITE TRUFFLES.* 

By Dr. F. Doflbin (Munich). 



A MONG social insects the Termites [or " white ants "] have 
■^-^ been the object of the least amount of biological investiga- 
tion. What has become known concerning their life and political 
organization is to be found scattered chiefly in systematic works. 
So it happened that one of the most interesting discoveries 
connected with Termite life was hardly recognized in Science 
although the analogous conditions among the ants had awakened 
the highest regard. 

The faculty possessed by certain Termites of cultivating fungi 
in their hillocks has been remarked and more or less clearly 
portrayed by a succession of naturalists from the time of 
Smeathman, 1781. I will not review the literature here as I shall 
do this in a more detailed work. It may be mentioned that 
hitherto no one has investigated the phenomenon in all its aspects 
and that consequently, in spite of its importance, it has hardly 
been touched upon in general biological literature. 

Thus I was completely taken by surprise as I opened a Termite 
hillock in Ceylon not far from Colombo in order to procure well- 
preserved material of Termite brains which I had promised to a 
colleague. The nest had the form of a high arched dome, 
terminating above in two chimney-like funnels. The height 
amounted to 1-1| metre ; the funnels had a length of about 20-30 
centimetres. 

Upon opening the hillock it was at once evident that its thick, 
solid clay mass was traversed by a large number of chambers. 
Each of these chambers had approximately the size of a cocoanut. 
The walls were smooth and several or many narrow passages 
connected each chamber with the neighbouring compartments. 
Every chamber was filled with peculiar formations, namely, 
brown cakes of a moist, friable substance which in form, size, and 
structure strongly resembled middle-sized bath-sponges. One 

* Translation of an article by Dr. Doflein entitled " Die Pilzkulturen der 
Termiten." published in the Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen 
G-esellschaft (xv., Breslau, 1905), Leipzig, 1905, pp. 140-149, two text-figures. 

2 E 10-06 



204 SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 

or several of such cakes were present in each chamber ; when 
several occurred they were piled one over the other like dishes. 

These cakes were occupied by thousands of Termites. The 
plan of composition of the '• cake " consisted of a multitude of 
small cells each of which had its numerous inhabitants ; especially 
the passages between the cells seethed with larvae and nymphs of 
all stages. 

The framework of the cake was furthermore beset with rela- 
tively numerous white nodules, about the size of a pin's head, 
1-2 mm. diameter, which at first I took to be Termite eggs. 
Microscope examination showed me however that they were 
structures of quite a different nature. 

One could perceive with the unaided eye that the entire " cake " 
was covered, inside and outside, with a fine felt of fungus hyphse 
These associated themselves in masses at certain places and ae 
theirterminal parts branched and expanded in a particular mannei' 
globular aggregates of club-shaped bodies — in other words, the 
white nodules, which I will henceforth designate mycelial nodules — 
were produced. At present I will not discuss the botanical side 
of the question. 

The resemblance to the growths observed by Holier in the 
fungus gardens of ants of the genus Atta in Brazil, immediately 
occurred to me. As a matter of fact the mycelial nodules serve 
the same purpose to the Termites that Moller's nodules do to the 
South American ants. At the same time there are certain bio- 
logical peculiarities to be mentioned which are of interest and 
have not hitherto been observed. 

I was able to prove by different ways that the mycelial nodules 
are eaten. In the first place I opened the intestine of numerous 
individuals and found them in the crops of all the larvae and 
nymphs which I examined. Indeed the crops were completely 
filled with them, and nothing besides. The cells of the mycelial 
nodules were all quite uninjured. The foregoing applies alike to 
the larvae of workers and soldiers and to the larvae and nymphs 
of the sexual individuals. 

I also succeeded in actually feeding the larvge of the workers 
and soldiers as well as the larvae and nymphs of the sexual 
insects with the mycelial nodules. By offering a single nodule 
on the point of a needle to animals which had hungered for some 
hours or for a day, they accepted the proffered diet. It was 
interesting to observe how they first of all investigated it with 
their palps, then took it between the mouth-parts, and slowly 
turned it round for a long time working it with the points of the 
mandibles. It is not easy to observe these operations because the 



TERMITE TRUFFLES. 205 

insects are readily disturbed by the breath, and it is necessary to 
watch them through a fairly strong lens. It is remarkable that a 
nodule exactly fills the space between the mouth-parts when 
these are fully open. Even the queen accepted a nodule and 
consumed it in the same way as the others. 

On the contrary, I have never succeeded in inducing an adult 
soldier or worker to accept a nodule. Indeed I found their 
stomachs to be always filled with vegetable detritus, consist- 
ing exclusively of finely divided particles of wood. In spite 
of careful examination I could detect no trace of mycelial nodules. 

My experiments are not sufficiently numerous to permit a final 
opinion as to the mode of feeding of the Termite species investi- 
gated by me. Meanwhile it seems reasonable to suppose that 
with this species the larvae receive a concentrated and easily 
digested food in the form of the mycelial nodules and that these 
constitute the permanent food of the sexual forms, while the 
larvae of workers and soldiers after a certain age obtain other 
fodder. Through this consideration the further inference is 
suggested that the fodder plays an important part in the differ- 
entiation of the " cells " in the community of Termes obscuriceps, 
Wasm. 

I may here add some remarks upon the structure of the nest, 
the material of the fungus plantations and the bringing of the 
latter within tke Termite enclosure, which I have investigated 
partly in Colombo, partly in Peradeniya and in the Northern 
Province. 

It has been mentioned above that the dome-shaped nest with 
its chimney-like terminals consists of a clayey substance. In its 
construction the Termites employ earth, sand, clay from the 
neighbourhood, and mix these materials together with their 
glutinous saliva. They eject this saliva upon the human skin 
when they bite, whereby viscid, brown, tenacious spots arise. 
The bite is hardly painful. 

For the purpose of observation I placed portions of a nest into 
a large glass receptacle and covered the entire mass which com- 
prised fragments of the wall, fungus cakes, and thousands of 
Termites, with a bell-jar in such a way to allow access of air. The 
whole apparatus was exposed to diffuse daylight. It is well- 
known that the majoi-ity of Termite species, especially the blind 
workers, avoid the light. They immediately commenced in a 
methodical manner to construct a roof over the fungus plantations, 
using the debris of the nest for this purpose, notwithstanding 
the fact that the royal cell with king and queen had been taken 
away from them. Within a few hours they had roofed over the 



206 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

space of a square foot by unceasingly applying small clumps of 
masonry mixed with their saliva. 

An interesting observation could now be made. Owing to the 
fact that evaporation was greatly reduced under the bell-jar, the 
newly built roof remained soft and unstable and retained this 
consistency for several days until I exposed it to the free air, 
when it completely hardened after a few hours. 

The mixing of the building material with the saliva of the 
Termites not only ensures a very firm construction, but makes 
the walls in a high degree resistent towards wetting. The Ter- 
mite buildings brought by me to Munich still show this property 
with great clearness. When I tried to saturate one of the nests 
with lime water in order to strengthen it, it could not be wetted, 
whereas this method was constantly employed with advantage to 
the nests of European Hymenoptera, &c. The Termite nest 
showed an equal resistance against being wetted with alcoholic 
solution of shellac. 

From this observation something may be inferred which other- 
wise the inspection of the internal disposition of the Termite nest 
reveals. For this purpose I will first describe the fungus cakes 
in regard to their structure and in their relations to the nest. 

Upon opening a Termite nest one finds that the substance of the 
" truffle "* is friable and soft. Only when this is the case are the 
recesses of the truffle covered with mycelial nodules and the 
entire structure populated by numerous Termites with their 
larvae. Sometimes I came across places in the nests where the 
truffles were hard and dry ; then they were destitute of nodules 
and were not inhabited, except for a few scattered workers in the 
cells. Fresh " cakes " dry rather readily when exposed to a current 
of air. It is thus very easy to prepare them for transport, and they 
have frequently been received into zoological collections, although 
their actual nature has not been recognized. They become as 
hard as wood, but always remain brittle and very fragile owing to 
their delicate composition. 

Microscopic examination of their substance shows that the fine 
brown scaffolding of which they are composed consists exclusive- 
ly of finely chewed wood. Thus the great wood-hunger of the 
Termites and the cause of their extraordinary destructiveness 
became clear to me. Just as the species of Atta in South America 
occasion great damage to the leaves of living plants in that they 
employ their substance for their fungus plantations, so the 

* The term truffle is used in the translation as an alternative term for fungus 
cake. 



TERMITE TRUFFLES. 207 

Termites are the destroyers of wood. It appears that only a few 
species attack living wood ; most kinds content themselves with 
dead wood or such as has been in any way already damaged 
by fungi. In the open therefore they are beneficial rather than 
injurious, since they act as scavengers of rotten wood. But when 
they come into contact with man they become some of the most 
injurious insects of the tropics, since woodwork which is adapted 
for their purposes forms an important constituent of human 
dwellings and furniture. 

The wood is bitten up quite fine, in the substance of the 
fungus cakes and in the intestinal contents of the workers 
one finds the finest vessels of the wood isolated. This wood- 
brew is discharged through the vent as a small clump which 
is evidently mixed with saliva and used in building the fungus 
cakes. It is interesting to note that in other cases where Termites 
build their dwelling or the main part of it out of dung, the same 
fundamental arrangement of walls and passages recurs, as here, 
where they build for the purpose of the fungus cultivation. 

If a fungus cake from a Termite nest be exposed to the light 
under a bell-jar to protect it from draught and evaporation, the 
fructification of the Termite fungus can be easily induced, a 
property which distinguishes it markedly from the Rhozites 
forms cultivated by the Atta species. After a few days numerous 
long club-shaped fructifications grow forth from the thick felt of 
hyphae which has meanwhile developed. I will say no more 
about the species and form of the fungus in this place as my 
studies are not yet completed. I need only point out that other 
species of fungi appeared very gradually on the cake, whereas 
other objects in the vicinity were subject to a daily coating 
of mould. The tendency of the fungus cultures of the Termites 
to grow in pure culture appears to be very strong, even when the 
cake contains scarcely any Termites. The purity of the culture 
cannot therefore be placed to the account of the tireless weeding 
by the workers, as is done by Moller for the fungus plantations 
of Atta. At the conclusion I will revert to this point once more. 

When a Termite truffle is kept under a bell-jar with moderate 
access of air, in very short time the inner surface of the jar is 
covered with water drops which after some hours run in small 
streams down the glass and form small accumulations of water 
in which the Termites can be drowned. The fungus cake 
therefore gives ofi: a quantity of water by evaporation. Under 
such great moisture the fructification of the fungus takes place 
and the formation of mycelial nodules is stopped and the entire 
structure tends in high degree to mouldiness. 



208 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

There is a farther point worthy of note in the cultivation 
under the bell-jar. After a short time, 1-2 days, one sees the 
Termites in large numbers lying upon their backs and realizes 
that they are suffocated. Termites taken from the same culture 
and kept between two hermetically closing watch-glasses without 
pieces of cake, which were kept during the same time, lived and 
were perfectly active. It follows from this that the suffocation 
of the former was not due to lack of air, especially since access 
of air to the main culture was not entirely prevented. 

Upon raising the bell-jar it was noticeable that the space was 
filled with a gas mixture which was clearly very different in its 
composition from the atmospheric air. In breathing it one 
experienced a strong oppression, as well as a very remarkable 
odour like that of the gas proceeding from fermenting substances. 
In any case a large amount of carbonic acid gas had formed, if 
not other gases, perhaps as a collateral result of the growth of 
the fungus at the expense of the wood. 

All those appearances which are observed under the special 
conditions of culture outside the Termite nest are naturally 
absent inside the hillock. There, through the special construction 
of the nest, it is arranged that necessary temperature and 
moisture for the development of the fungus remains constant. 
The building material is up to a certain point waterproof, so that 
neither an excessive evaporation from the fungus cake through the 
wall of the chamber, nor the entrance of rain from without, ensues. 

What however is most important is that the entire method of 
construction of the hillock ensures the elaborate ventilation of 
its inner spaces ; the Termite hillocks with their chimney flues 
are hygienic dwellings. 

The chimneys are air shafts which conduct away moisture, 
carbonic acid gas, and other injurious gases, while fresh air can 
enter through the lower openings. These ventilation flues can 
at any time according to the increase of the stock, climatic varia- 
tions, &c., be altered and adapted. Thus is explained the quite 
different number of chimneys which arise from a Termite hillock, 
and it would be of interest to undertake a comparative study of 
the size and number of chimneys, size of hillock, number of 
fungus chambers, climate and locality, building material, popula- 
tion, and systematic position of the Termite species under question. 

That the draught in these chimneys can, under circumstances, 
be considerable, is indicated by the application which travellers 
have frequently found for the Termite nests. Quite recently it has 
been repeatedly reported that our troops in South-West Africa 
have used the Termite nests as ovens, selecting those forms 



TERMITE TRUFFLES. 209 

in which chimneys open into a great central dome chamber. In 
the case of the form investigated by me in Ceylon I found the 
chimneys communicating directly with the fungus chambers, 
although the design is generally such that rain cannot directly 
reach the fungus-cultures. Whether there is any arrangement 
for the disposal of water I was unable to ascertain. 

In conclusion, I should like to discuss one point briefly. It is 
a remarkable fact that we find the cultivation of fungi practised 
by ants and termites : that is to say, by the two orders of social 
insects which are farthest removed from one another in point of 
affinity. How is such a wonderful convergence to be explained ? 
In the history of the social insects there are many phenomena 
whose first appearance will always remain inexplicable. More 
interesting and important is the question whether we can in any 
way conceive and analyse the phenomenon. At first sight the 
convergence as between Termites and Ants is quite wonderful 
and could lead to the rashest hypotheses, like the convergence 
between the ant species Oecoplnjlla smaragdina and Camjmnotus 
senex, both of which use their larvas as spinning machines in 
weaving their nests. Is their any means of tracing the causal 
relations in the origin of the fungus cultures of the Termites and 
eventually of investigating them experimentally ? 

I think that the biology of Termites gives us points which will 
support a hypothesis, and I very much regret that the thought 
did not occur to me while I was in Ceylon so that I might under- 
take the not very difficult testing of its principles. My suspicion 
is that the f augus which grows in the fungus cakes is a common 
fungus occurring in rotten wood in the neighbourhood, and that 
it is conveyed with the chewed wood quite unconsciously by the 
insects into the nest. The fact that it grows there almost 
in pure culture could be explained by supposing that the wood- 
brew is partially sterilized by the action of the saliva or gastric 
juice, so that the chewed wood becomes a medium for the 
exclusive growth of the particular fungus, all others being 
suppressed. Thus the structures automatically become fungus 
gardens (although, as in many other cases, originally intended 
only as passages and resting places for the larvae, &c.), which are 
then methodically utilized by the Termites. It is not excluded 
from possibility that the inhabitants acquire a weeding habit, as 
MoUer assumes for the species of Atta. 

Such an explanation still leaves riddles to be answered in con- 
nection with the cultivation of fungi by Termites ; but perhaps 
it helps to elucidate part of the problem and points to the 
solid ground of natural law. 



210 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF "OPIUS" FROM CEYLON. 

By P. Cameron. 



Opius dacusii, sp. nov. 

LUTEOUS, the flagellum of antennae and the hinder tibiae and 
tarsi black ; the wings hyaline, with black stigma and 
nervures ; ?. Length near 5 mm. ; terebra fully 5 mm., Pera- 
deniya; bred by Mr. E. E. Green from Dipterous maggots 
infesting fruit of Cacurbitaceae. 

Antennae longer than the body, over 60-jointed, towards the 
apex minutely haired. Head smooth and shining, the face 
covered with white pubescence. Prothorax and mesothorax 
smooth and shining, the parapsidal furrows deep ; middle lobe 
of mesonotum clearly separated, long, gradually narrowed from 
the base to the apex which reaches close to the scutellum. 
Scutellar depression wide and deep ; a stout keel in its centre. 
Metanotum areolated ; the areola large, its base narrowed to a 
sharp point ; the rest slightly, gradually narrowed towards the 
apex, which does not reach to the end of the segment; it is 
closed and transverse there ; there is a somewhat triangular area 
bordering the base of the areola ; the other areae are not very 
clearly defined. The basal two segments of the abdomen are 
closely, regularly, longitudinally striated ; the other segments 
are smooth and shining ; the first is longer (but not much) than 
its width at the apex ; the second is wider than long. Pleurae 
smooth. Mandibles black on the apical half. First abscissa of 
radius very short, basal abscissa of radius curved ; the recurrent 
nervure is received in the second cubital cellute ; the transverse 
median nervure is received distinctly beyond the transverse 
basal. Malar space as long as the antennal scape ; the clypeal 
foveas large, deep. There is a stout keel down the centre of the 
basal abdominal segment, the lateral striae being weak compared 
with it. The abdomen is slightly shorter than the thorax, broad 
and sessile at the base ; the apex is bluntly rounded. Meso- 
pleural furrow smooth. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 211 



MOTES. 



1. Historic Trees. — The substance of this Note appeared in the 
correspondence columns of the Ceylon Observer on December 
29, 1905, and January 6, 1906. 

It is probably due to Sir James Emerson Tennent that an idea 
prevails that Baldseus preached his first sermon in Ceylon under 
the big tamarind tree which still flourishes at Point Pedro. 
Tennent says : " Close by the beach there is still standing the 
tamarind tree " commemorated by Baldseus, who preached under 
its shade to the first Protestant converts in Ceylon (vol. IT., 
p. 535). 

It is no doubt due to this passage in Tennent that Mr. J.J. Cotton , 
M.C.S., in his " History of Monumental Inscriptions in the Madras 
Presidency," recently published, refers to " the tree at Point Pedro 
under which the celebrated Baldaeus preached his first discourse 
to the natives." 

But Baldseus, though he certainly commemorates the tree by 
recording that " just before the church stands a tall Tamarin 
Tree," which affords *' a very agreeable shadow in the heat of the 
day," says nothing about having preached under it himself, but 
merely that "the people are often instructed by the Minister to 
the number of 3,000 " under it (pp. 806-7). 

It is certainly not true that he preached his first sermon in 
Ceylon at Point Pedro, for that he had done at Mannar on 24th 
February, 1658, and it is recorded that in the same year, " in the 
church at Telippalai, Baldaeus began the introduction of the 
reformed religion into the Jaffna Peninsula." This being the case, 
it seems hardly likely that he preached his first sermon to converts 
at Point Pedro ; at any rate, there is nothing that I know of to 
warrant the statement. Perhaps Mr. Donald Ferguson may be able 
to throw a light on the subject. (See " Baldasus and his Book on 
Ceylon," by Donald Ferguson, p. 6.) 

Tennent goes on to state that " this historical tree " was in his 
day 42 feet in circumference at the base of the trunk. I have had 
the tree measured at the base of the trunk ; it is now 31 feet. 
This is doubtless explained by the fact that until 50 years ago the 

2 F 10-06 



212 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

tree was surrounded by a masonry platform, built right up to the 
trunk. This platform was three or four feet high, and as many 
wide, so that in measuring the tree, Tennent's informant must 
have included the platform. 

There is no doubt that the tree still existing is the tree referred 
to by Baldaeus and Tennent. It is situated about 300 yards from 
the seashore, and was evidently at one time fully visible from the 
landing place. The whole intervening space has since been built 
over with the high stone-walled houses, godowns, and temples that 
are characteristic of Point Pedro, but the top of the tree can still 
be seen from the Customs, and the tree is a conspicuous landmark 
for vessels approaching the harbour. It is, I think, the tallest 
tamarind tree I have ever seen. 1 have ascertained from the oldest 
inhabitants that there were never any old tamarind trees of any 
size in the neighourhood, but that this tree was always said to be 
a very old one. I should think it might easily be 300 years old. 
The tamarind is a slow growing tree. Opposite it used to stand, 
until they were removed by Mr. Dyke to the present sites, the 
Police Magistrate's house and the Police Court, and near them the 
Dutch church. There is no trace of any of these buildings now. 
The square open space behind the tree is now occupied by the 
market. A good many years ago, but within living memory, the 
tree and the adjoining Police Court were frequented by monkeys 
(the wandura). These have long since disappeared. 

Baldaeus alludes to the grateful shade of the tree. There is a 
Tamil proverb that a " widow's son should not sleep in the shade 
of a tamarind tree." It is supposed to be more pleasant than that 
of any other tree, and, therefore, calculated to make any one, who 
lies down in its shade, disinclined to move or to bestir himself as 
is necessary in the case of the son of a widow. 

Christian Frederick Schwarz, the well-known Missionary of 
Tanjore, whose monument by Flaxman is in Schwarz's Church at 
Tanjore, visited Point Pedro on 5th September, 1760, for the ex- 
press purpose of seeing this tree (see " List of Monumental In- 
scriptions of Madras, by J. J. Cotton). In any case it deserves the 
title of " a historical tree." 

As to the age to which tamarind trees attain, I think there can 
be no doubt that like the oak they live for some hundreds of years. 
I have seen a tamarind tree at Kachchilaniadu in the Mullaittivu 
District, which is still known as "Pandara's tree." Pandara was 
aVanni chieftain, who entered into a league with the Sinhalese 
chiefs of Nuwarakalawiya who were hostile to the British, and was 
defeated here by Captain Driberg on 31st October, 1803. (See 





MOORISH DAGGER AND SHEATH X J 



To /ace p. 2 13. J 



NOTES. 213 

" Vanni Manual," pp. 19-63.) The tradition is that after the fight 
the arms of the defeated Sinhalese (for they were chiefly Sinhalese 
of Nuwarakalawiya) were piled under this tree. I had it measured 
the other day ; the trunk was 21 feet in girth, 4 feet from the 
ground, so that it is 10 feet less than BaldaBus's tree. There is no 
doubt that this tree was in existence 102 years ago, and in all 
probability it was even then a large tree. Native opinion is that a 
tamarind tree may live two or three hundred years. I have seen 
very large trees in the Vanni, and they always indicate the sites of 
abandoned villages — villages abandoned perhaps 100 years ago or 
more. 

The Park. Jaffna. J. P. LEWIS. 



2. The Moormen's Weapon. — I annex a photograph of a curious 
kind of dagger with its wooden sheath from the collection of the 
late Mr. R. W. levers, C.M.G., C.C.S., which has been acquired 
for the Museum. It is known as a samusadu or jamijadu, 
for both forms of the word are used, and it appears to be the dis- 
tinctive weapon of the Moormen of Ceylon, for a representation 
of it is one of their brandmarks for cattle. There are two forms of 
this brandmark given in the paper on "Brandmarks on Cattle," 
by the late Mr. James de Alwis, published in the Journal of the 
Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1874 (vol. 
v., p. 60). In one (No. 51) it is represented as of the shape 
(fig. 1), which shows that the weapon itself was hardly familiar 
to the people who used its shape for a brandmark. 

In the other (No. 53), which is given as the brandmark of the 
Moormen of Chilaw it has become an ordinary dagger (fig. 2), 
but in the Tangalla District, where I also found it used as a 
brandmark by the Moormen, the shape was nearer to the original. 
I met with three forms. 

Here (fig. 3) the idea of a weapon al so seems to have been lost, and 
this particular brandmark was described to me as tamhu jadiya (a 
copper jar) into whichthe word samiisao^i^ had been corrupted in 
the course of time— another proof that the true origin of the mark 
had been forgotten. The other shapes were known as ulmadah'kit 
samusadu (samusadu with an inwards bend) (fig. 4), and 
pera-madakku-samusadu (samusadu with an outwards bend) 
(fig. 5). 

I do not know where Mr. levers came across this specimen. 
Possibly specimens of the weapon might be found in India, 



214 



9P0LTA ZEYLANTCA. 



where in all probability this particular form of d^.gger had 
its origin. • 



^ 







This specimen is rather an elaborate one, the handle and sheath 
having on them silver work of artistic design. It is a foot 
in length. It is noteworthy that the handle is rather too narrow 
for a European hand to grasp comfortably, as I have found to be 
the case also with Ceylon knuckle dusters. 



January 1906. 



J. P. LEWIS. 



[The weapon described in the foregoing note has the same form 
as the Katar or Indian dagger, which has been described as the 
national weapon of the Hindu and " is mentioned by Ibn Batuta, 
who lived in the days of Mohamed Toghluk — that is, about 
1332 A.D." 



NOTES. 215 

Examples of it, beautifully damascened, are figured by T. Hol- 
bein Hendley, CLE., in his work entitled " Damascening on 
Steel or Iron, as practised in India ;" London, 1892.] 



3. ScorjJion stings. — In connection with my Note on this 
subject in Part XL of this Journal, the following extracts from 
letters which I have received from Dr. A. K. Coomaraswamy, 
speak for themselves. 

E. B. GREEN. 

Extract referred to. 

" You know scorpion and centipede stings and bites are 
supposed not to be bad, except on " Pohoya " days, four times a 
month. The bite of venomous serpents is also worse on those days. 
Another point of interest is that one should not kill the animal 
that inflicts the wound (snake, scorpion, or centipede) until the 
next day, as there is an idea that in some way it can take back the 
poison if it remains alive." 

" I was stung in the foot one evening at Avisawella by the small 
species of scorpion and it hurt badly, and I expected to have a bad 
time. I rubbed in ammonia and chunam. The pain went off soon 
and in ten minutes there was scarcely any. No trace next day. 
Mr. W. D. Holland tells me the scorpion stings are of no account 
too. I have told you about bad days for bites. People rely on 
mantrams as a cure a good deal. Here is one given by the 
Kadadeka Pansala Priest to Mr. Saxton as a sastri for snake 
bite :— 

©sJ c^d <?§ s^dee©? 

1. e. — On turi turi yeswah 

On jaya jaya annatydneswaji 
On jaya jayap khapaleswali 

" If the snake bites you on the left side, you must stroke 
yourself with the left hand downwards from top of head right 
down the arm, and touch the ground with your right hand ; do this 
many times. If the snake bites you on the right side, do the same 
with the other hand. The above (mmitram) is to be learnt by 
lieart and repeated ". 



216 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

" When I was stung by the scorpion they would not let me kill 
it till the next day. Probably it was considered that, as with 
snakes, the animal withdraws the poison to itself if not killed." 

A. K. COOMARASWAMY. 



4. Flight of white and yellow hutterflies. — This well-known 
phenomenon takes place twice annually, in the months of 
February and November, and is always a source of interest, not 
only to entomologists but to all who have eyes to see, and many 
are the remarks of wonderment at this curious and pretty sight 
which enlivens the monotony of the streets and byways of 
Colombo. I am not going to explain this bi-annual migration, for 
I cannot, but these few lines are based upon observations taken 
during the flights, more especially the flight of November last, 
which commenced on the 1st November and lasted practically 
till the end of that month, although a few stragglers are still to 
be found laying eggs which will give rise to the February flight. 
The butterflies are almost exclusively composed of difiierent 
species of Gatopsilia, and as these show a variety of forms and 
phases the whole makes up a very varied collection of yellows 
and whites. 

I have taken great interest in these flights for several years, but 
never before have I seen the numbers so prolific as during last 
November in Colombo. 

At 2 P.M. on the 21st November, when the flight was at its 
highest, I counted during one minute 150, during another minute 
170, and during a third minute 148 butterflies passing between 
two points 30 feet apart and 12 feet high, making an average 
of 156 per minute. At two other places I made similar reckon- 
ings, resulting in an all round average of about 150 per minute 
traversing a given space. In many different parts of the 
Cinnamon Gardens I observed equally large quantities in flight so 
that, according to my computation, the number of butterflies 
passing in one direction between two points, a mile apart and 12 
feet from the ground, would be 26,400 per minute, 1,584,000 per 
hour, and 6,336,000 between the hours of 11 A.M. and 3 P.M. on 
the one day alone. 

They were flying particularly fast and in constant procession ; 
rarely one would stop for a few seconds to alight on some 



NOTES. 217 

conspicuous flower, such as the Hibiscus and Cosmos, as though to 
quench its thirst, then away again in greater haste than ever as 
if to make up for lost time. 

As usual in Colombo, the flights were northwards, but this 
does not appear to be the case all over the Island, for Major 
Manders* observed that they followed the coast line, starting 
somewhere north of Trincomalee and working right round the 
south coast to Negombo. Major Manders does not record the 
direction of the flights in the more central portions of the Island, 
for instance, Nuwara Eliya, Kandy, Diyatalawa, &c. In Nuwara 
Eliya and Diyatalawa a westerly direction is taken and this is 
probably maintained all over the central portion of the Island ; 
it would therefore be interesting to know the direction taken by 
flights between the central provinces and the east coast, namely, 
whether they strike east and join the circuminsular flight or 
strike west passing over Diyatalawa, Horton Plains, Nuwara 
Eliya, &c. 

Major Manders, in his interesting notes, deals with the direction 
of flight of those proceeding from Trincomalee to Negombo, «.e., 
in the maritime regions only, so that we have still to ascertain 
where the butterflies come from which pass over the central 
provinces. 

The abrupt manner in which the flight starts is very remark- 
able. For instance, last November a few straggling Catopsilias 
were to be seen on the first of that month ; on the following day 
the flight was in full swing, the numbers gradually increasing 
until the 2lst, then diminishing to quite a few on the 31st. 
Before the 2nd November there was no regular flight in one 
direction. 

In the case of Gatopsilia pyranthe I have carefully observed 
that the females begin laying their eggs towards the end of the 
rush, the few straggling females being then responsible for the 
next or February flight. In November of last year oviposition 
commenced towards the end of the month and is still going on 
up to the time of writing, as an examination of the food plant 
{Cassia occidentalis) will show. 

The question now arises — When and where are the eggs laid 
which produce the i^'i^olific Novemher flight? The eggs laid 
towards the end of November flight are undoubtedly responsi- 
ble for the February flight — the period noi-mally occupied from 
egg to imago being from three to four weeks. (In countries 
having a winter many insects hibernate, but I have not observed 

* Trans. Eutom, Soc, London, lUUl, No. 26. 



218 SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 

such a dormant period in any Ceylon butterflies). If the females 
of the February flight lay the eggs for the November flight, 
presuming they are to hatch in November, the chances are that 
the heavy rains of S.W. monsoon (May to August) would destroy 
the majority, leaving few for the November flight, whereas the 
latter is the more prolific ; but supposing the feeding grounds of 
the larvae of the latter are in districts not eflEected by S.W. 
monsoon then it is difficult to understand why they, apparently, 
do not emerge and form a flight similar to the other two, some- 
where about Mar>^h, April, or May, but, in Colombo, at any rate, 
practically no Gatojjsilias are to be seen during the seven or eight 
months preceding the November flight. I can only arrive at two 
explanations : - 

(1) The offspring of the February flight must lie in a dormant 
state during one or other of their stages, for several months ; or 
(2) the species must breed throughout the year in some favour- 
able locality as regards food-plant and weather. The reason they 
do not migrate at regular intervals is most probably due to the 
habit of their favourite food plant, which is an annual leguminous 
shrub ; it dies off during the first dry months of the year after 
shedding its seeds ; these spring up again with the commence- 
ment of the rains, and about September-October the plant is plen- 
tiful and vigorous, thus forming ample food supply for immense 
numbers of the larvae. Their numbers increase so rapidly and 
to such an extent that the females, prompted by some natural 
instinct, migrate, followed by males, and seek pastures new 
whereon to deposit their eggs. Thus the bi-annual migration 
seems to arise from the abundance of food plant available, which 
is greatest shortly before the November flight takes place, 
gradually diminishing as the dry weather approaches. 

The species Gatopsilia chiefly concerned in these flights are 
Gatopsilia x>omona and its variety crocale, and G. 2Jyranthe with 
its varieties gnoma^ ilea, and chryseis. G. pomotia was most 
predominant, but I did not secure a sufficient number during 
the flight to ascertain which sex was most abundant. In the 
case of G. pyranthe the males appeared to predominate during 
the November flight, for out of 100 specimens secured in one 
day, 87 per cent, were males, althougli towards the end of the flight 
the remaining stragglers were almost entirely females. In a 
previous capture during a February flight in Colombo (referred 
to by Manders) 75 per cent, were females. 

OSWIN S. WICKWAK. 
Colombo, January 20, 19U6. 



NOTES. 219 

5. Notes by the Way. — In company with two Entomologist 
friends I have recently visited the low-country below Koslanda 
(in the Province of Uva) ; making Telulla resthouse our head- 
quarters. These notes cover a period extending from November 
15 to 24. 

On a section of the road between Koslanda and Wellawaya a 
few examples of the rare and local butterfly SymplicBdra nais 
were observed and captured. I am told that it always haunts this 
particular locality. I have previously taken the species only on 
the road to Batticaloa. Manders quotes " the eastern side of the 
Island near Trincomalee and the grassy country near Haldum- 
mulla" as localities for this insect. 

The annual migration of butterflies was in full progress. 
Large numbers of them were following the cart road, appearing 
to find it a convenient route for travel. They were moving in a 
northerly direction. Catopsilia crocale and Apinas paulina 
were most in evidence. But Hebomoia glaucippe, Ixias ceylonica, 
Papilio erithonius, Jason, crino, and aristolochice were associated 
with them. Euplcea asela was also on the move, but not in very 
large numbers. It was distinctly a flight of Pieridae, more 
particularly of the genus Catopsilia. They settled in dense 
array at every damp spot in the road, and rose up in whirling 
clouds when disturbed by passing carts or pedestrians. Various 
species of Cassia along the route had evidently provided food for 
their larvae. P. aristolochice appeared to be more exclusive, 
having its separate congregating spots. Crino usually settled 
singly. The other butterflies, noticed above, might be seen 
mingled in the same group. A very remarkable abnormality of 
erithonius was captured by one of my companions and has been 
presented by him to the Colombo Museum. The area beyond 
the postmedial band on both wings is almost uniformly black. 

We collected moths, each night, pitching our powerful 
acetylene lamps in different spots— often in the heart of the jun- 
gle, and secured a prodigious number of moths and miscellaneous 
insects, including such rarities as Azygophleps scalaris, Gunda 
apicalis, Stauropus viridescens and S. grisea, Mimeusemia ceylo- 
nica, and ^gocera himacula ; with many smaller species probably 
new to our lists. My attention was drawn, one night, to an insect 
that, to outward appearances, was an ordinary " Daddy-long-legs " 
{Tipula). It had captured a small Pyralid moth, which it was 
holding" with its hind legs and devouring. On closer exami- 
nation it proved to be one of the so-called " Scorpion Flies " 
{Panorpidce) and appears to be a species of Bittacus. To the 
best of my belief, this family of insects has not previously been 

2 G 10-06 



220 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

recognized in Ceylon. A long series of this species was taken in 
the moth traps. 

In the last number of the Journal of the Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. (vol. XVI., No. 4, p. 74:7) is a note by Capt. Nangle, describ- 
ing an attack by flies upon flying Termites in India. A similar 
occurrence was noticed one night at Telulla, when a flight of 
winged Termites invaded the tent of my moth trap. Imme- 
diately following the "White Ants" came a number of Muscid 
flies which proceeded to pounce upon them. They did not 
attempt to carry away their prey, but commenced to feed upon 
them there and then, piercing their helpless victims between the 
segments of the abdomen. Specimens of this fly have been sent 
to Europe for determination. 

. Beating for moths, in the daytime, was made difficult by the 

presence of enormous numbers of the common Noctuid Amyna 

aelenampha, which rose in clouds whenever the undergrowth 

was disturbed. We saw several trees stripped of their leaves by 

the larvae of this moth. Fortunately this species did not fly at 

night or — at any rate — respected our moth traps. 

Our traps were pitched, one night, on the bund of the Telulla 

tank. Behind us was an abandoned paddy field. As soon as the 

lamps were lighted myriads of frogs joined in a deafening 

chorus which soon became so intolerable that we had to stop our 

ears with cotton wool. 

Reptiles were not much in evidence. But we surprised a large 

specimen of Dendrophis pictus swallowing a full-grown lizard 

{Galotes versicolor). Younger examples of this snake are said to 

feed upon grasshoppers. A fine example of the large rough 

tailed snake — Uropeltis g7'andis — was picked up on the cart road 

where it was engaged in extracting grubs from a pat of cow 

dung. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



6. On the Species of Leaf Insects {PhylliincB) occurring in 
Ceylon. — Mr. W. F. Kirby, in his recently issued " Synonymic 
Catalogue of Orthoptera," credits Ceylon with three distinct 
species of this subfamily of Phas)nidoe. These are, — Pulchri. 
phyllium agathyrsus, Gray ; Pulchriphyllium cruri folium, Serv., 
and Phyllium athanysus, Westw. 

I have recently submitted specimens of our commoner species 
to Mr. Kirby, for an authentic determination. There has hitherto 
been considerable confusion in the nomenclature ; the commonest 
Ceylon species having been variously referred to under the names 




Fig. 1-— fl PULCHRIPHYLLIUM CRURIFOLIUM. 

X i 



'' PHYLLIUM ATHANYSUS. 



To lace p. if2d 



NOTES. 



221 



of siccifolium, scythe, yulchri folium, and bioculatum. In reply, 
Mr. Kirby tells me that this species is apparently crurifolium,^ 
which Gray confused with his previously described bioculatum. 
" It has nothing to do with Phyllium siccifolium, which does not 
occur in Ceylon." He also states that /''. alhcmysus can be recog- 
nized at once by the hinder edge of the front femora being entire, 
and that P. agathyrsus " seems to differ from P. crurifolium in 
having the hinder edge of the front femora more deeply and 
irregularly excavated." 



I 







X 4 



Pig 2. (a) Egg of Pulchriphyllium crwnfolium 

(b) Do. Phyllium athanysus ' 

Fig 3. (c) Femur of front right limb of P.crurifolium I , ^ 



(d) 



Do. 



do. Phyllium athanysus 



Of these three species, crurifolium is comparatively abundant. 
Native boys collect them in considerable numbers, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kandy. They find them by waiting under the trees 
that they are known to affect and watching for falling pieces of 
green leaves dropped by the feeding insects. This species is very 
easily raised from eggs laid by captive females. 

I have met with very few examples of athanysus. 

Agathyrsus is quite unknown to me, though it is recorded only 
from Ceylon. If the "more deeply and irregularly excavated 
hinder edge of the front femora " is the only distinction between 
this species and crurifolium^ then a great number of bred exam- 
ples of the latter might be classed as agathyrsus, for very few 



222 SPOLIA ZETLANICA. 

individuals reach maturity without having this part of the limb 
more or less extensively nibbled away by their comrades in cap- 
tivity. Can this accidental erosion have led to the supposed 
distinction of the species ? The slender individuals in the lower 
right hand corner of the figure (4) aie the males, which have 
functional wings and very small wing-covers, the reverse being 
the case with the female insects. 

There is a well marked difference in the eggs of crurifoUum 
and athanysus. That of the former has five winged lateral ridges 
and a prominent spiked cap. The egg of athanysus is very much 
smaller, has only a small tubercle on the cap, and the lateral ridges 
are low and inconspicuous, merely giving to the eggs a slightly 
angular appearance. 

In the accompanying photograph, the second and third insects 
in the middle row, show signs of having been nibbled by their 
companions. 

E. ERNEST GREEN. 



7. A Harbour Worm and a Boxing Grab. — Ever since the 
visit of Professor Haeckel to these shores in 1881 it has been 
recognized that Colombo offers few inducements to biologists 
who cumber themselves about things of the sea. Nevertheless, if 
time and opportunity allowed, a great deal might be gleaned 
from the outer^reaches of the Colombo Harbour ; and the Northern 
Arm of the Breakwater is already attracting a host of creatures from 
the surrounding depths. Amongst these there comes occasionally 
a remarkably fine Annelid worm belonging to the family Am- 
phinomidse. Its name is Chloela Jiava (Pallas); it is particularly 
characteristic of the Indian Ocean and has been known to 
naturalists for nearly a century and a half. It attains a length of 
nearly five inches or more when fully extended and an inclusive 
breadth of about one inch. The number of segments is limited, 
not exceeding forty, and this number is only reached in the 
fully mature condition. Smaller and therefore younger indi- 
viduals have fewer segments, the number of the latter being 
roughly correlated with the size ; thus examples about half to 
three-quarters of an inch in length will have 24-21:1 segments. 
The head region is characterized by the presence of a peculiar 
organ called the caruncle, which stretches back over several 
of the anterior segments. Behind this region, each segment 






t* 





I i 








^, v\ 



^,^ 



N- 



•^ 



^>. 





^O-jT' 






Pig. 4 —EGGS, LARV/E, NYMPH, AND ADULT (6 AND 9)0F"FULChRIPHYLLIUMCRURIF0LIUM/' 

[To face p 222. 



NOTES. 



223 



carries along the dorsal side a large purplish violet spot, a pair of 
arborescent gills* and, at the sides, two dense tufts (upper and 




Chloeia flava. 



lower) of long, hair-like, golden yellow bristles or setae, with 
which are associated dorsal and ventral sensory cirri. In 



* The gills are coloured a dark sepia with rose-coloured rhachie. Violet 
bands may also occur laterally between the bases of the gills and the dorsal 
bristles, which appear pale, golden-tipped. The colour is of course subject to 
some variation. 



224 8POLIA ZEYLAMCA. 

preserved specimens it often happens that most of the setae are 
lost : they are deciduoTis, those of the dorsal tuft being provided 
with recurved barbs by which they remain attached to foreign 
bodies when touched or handled. The function of the setse is 
therefore partly defensive, but during what may be called the 
swarming period the tufts of setae act as paddles or swimmerets, 
working to and fro in succession like the legs of a centipede, 
accompanying the swaying movements of the body when swim- 
ming. It is not common to obtain full-sized specimens of this 
worm, and the three which the Museum has acquired in recent 
years have been kindly sent by Mr. A. D. Prouse from the 
Harbour Works, one in March, 1904, another in January, 1905, 
and a third in January, 1906. 

The small crab which I have called the Boxing Crab was taken 
by me last November at Weligama from under a rock close 
to the shore at the northern end of the bay. It affords a singular 
and by no means widely known example of symbiosis or com- 
mensalism between a crab and sea-anemones or Actinians. In 
each claw the crab holds a small white sea-anemone in full 




activity, tentacles expanded, which it presents with great science 
in true boxing attitude to the observer, when alarmed. It is 
impossible to exaggerate the singularity of the action. The 
ground colour of the crab is whitish with a delicate roseate flush 
in the anterior half of the carapace, and a characteristic pattern 
formed by blackish lines ; there are tufts of bristles behind 
the frontal margin and on the surface of the carapace. 

I forwarded a sketch of the living crab and its two guests to the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, and was favoured by Major A. Alcock, 
F.R.S., with the name of the crab and references to the literature 
dealing with it. It is not mentioned in Dr. J. G. de Man's 
Crustacea of the Mergui Archipelago (Journ. Linn. Soc, London, 



NOTES, 225 

XXII., 1888), nor in the same author's work on the Crustacea 
of the Malay Archipelago (Decapoden des Indischen Archipels, 
1892), nor in Dr. J. R. Henderson's Contribution to Indian 
Carcinology (Trans. Linn. Soc, London, vol. V., part 10, 1893). 
It was described from Mauritius under the name Melia tresselata 
by H. Milne Edwards in 1834 (Hist. Nat. Crust., Paris, vol. I., 
p. 431, pi. 18, f. 8) and figured though without the actinians. Its 
correct name is Melia tessellata (Latreille) and a capital figure of 
•t is given by L. A. Borradaile in his Report on the Marine 
Crustaceans in Stanley Gardiner's Fauna and Geography of the 
Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, vol. I., Cambridge, 1903, 
p. 249. 

Borradaile places this crab in the subfamily Menippin^ of the 
family Xanfchidae and points out that its habit of holding actinians 
was noted in 1880 by Richter in Mobius' Meeresfauna, Mauritius, 
but since then the fact has been generally overlooked. 

Probably both crab and actinians benefit by the association, the 
actinians enjoying an increased mobility and the crab sheltering 
and defending itself with the living gloves with which it is 
provided ; all sea-anemones, coral polyps, hydroid polyps, and 
medusae possess microscopic weapons of offence called urticating 
or stinging threads, and no doubt these come into play in this case 
when occasion requires it, although I was unable to detect their 
presence by the sense of touch. On this subject I may quote from 
Mr. Borradaile's work {I.e., p. 250). He says : " The object of this 
habit is not known, but it is certainly a voluntary act on the part 
of the crab, for the actinian is not attached, but held between the 
fingers of the Melia, and, if it be taken away, will be again seized. 
Usually there is an anemone in each hand, but sometimes one or 
both hands are empty. The actinians, which are grasped firmly 
round the middle below the tentacles, may be useful, by means of 
their stinging cells, either for defence or to ' fish. ' for food with, 
or perhaps for both purposes. The chelipeds are slender and 
feeble, ill-suited for defence, but at the same time mobile and 
well adapted to wield the anemones they carry, and, if the crab be 
threatened, it will stretch out its arms towards the aggressor, as 
though it would ward him off with the disagreeable obstacles it 
thus presents to his attack." 

The crab from Weligama is small, measuring only 10mm. in 
width between the lateral angles of the carapace ; the actinians 
are retained in position in the preserved state, but the ground- 
colour has darkened to a reddish brown. 

Finally, it must be mentioned that two other species of Melia 
have been recorded from these seas by Major Alcock, namely, M. 



226 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

ccestifer (J. A. S. Bengal, vol. LXVIL, pt. 2, 1898, p. 231) and M. 
pugil {ibid.). 

I desire to express my thanks to Major Alcock for his kindness 
in referring me to the above sources of information concerning 
Melia. 

A. WILLEY, 

Colombo, January 28, 1906. 



8. Strididation of Gongylus gongylodes. — Daring a recent 
visit (December) to Anuradhapura as I was descending the bund 
of Tissa tank behind Isurumuniya, I espied a dark brown 
Mantid upon a low green shrub, and upon bending closer found 
that it was a male Gongylus. Its actions upon being alarmed by 
my approach arrested my attention. Its colour and general 
appearance were those of a brown shrivelled leaf, but it appeared 
to be intent upon a foraging expedition with no idea of mimicry 
or of any conformity to its surroundings. The under surface of 
the flattened prothorax had a dull neutral tint paler in the centre, 
but not glistening nor in any way attractive. Such mimicry and 
protective coloration as carnivorous animals — of which Gongy- 
lus is one — frequently exhibit appear to be closely correlated with 
their infinite capacity for lying motionless in wait for passing 
prey. 

As I drew near to the Mantid several times in succession, 
on each occasion it dressed itself for the fray, squaring the elbows 
of its forelimbs nearly at a right angle to the body as shown in 
the upper figure of the second plate illustrating this species 
in Spolia Zeylanica, part VIII. (vol. II.), 1905, page 198. The 
alert defensive attitude which it assumed was evidently intended 
to be terrifying in the sense in which this term has become fami- 
liar to students of mimicry, and the terrifying effect was enhanced 
by a loud rasping sound which it produced by rubbing the 
borders of its hind femora against the rim of the forewings. 

The male is distinguished from the female by gx*eater slender- 
ness and length of body and wings, by the smaller size of 
the foliaceous expansions of prothorax and limbs, and above all 
by the feathery antennae, these being hair-like in the female. 
The outer free border of each forewing is thickened by a distinct 
chitiuous rim which is finely serrate. In the region of the hind 
femur, on each side, the border of the wing is slightly concave, 
allowing free play to the thigh under ordinary circumstances. 
The femur itself is smooth, carrying a few minute hairs but 
without any rough edge. 



NOTES. 227 

When the insect is alarmed euch hind femur ia deliberately 
rabbed to and fro against the saw-like edge presented to it along 
the concave border of the wings and a very effective stridulat- 
ing sound results from the friction. The sound can be approxi- 
mately reproduced upon the dead insect by gently passing a 
porcupine quill backwards and forwards along the wing-border. 

The serrate border of the wing is also present in the female 
where the concavity is more pronounced ; and it seems likely that 
the sound can also be emitted, on occasion, by the female. 

Many pther insects, especially beetles, produce sounds by rasp- 
ing. The stridulation of the caterpillar of the Death's Head Moth 
has been alluded to on page 47 of this volume. Many grass- 
hoppers emit a loud clicking sound when rising from the ground 
in flight, but I have not yet succeeded in ascertaining how this is 
produced. The vocal apparatus of male locusts and cicadas be- 
longs to a different category of sound-producing organs, and the 
object of the call is also different. 

What may perhaps lend particular interest to the habit of 
stridulation as manifested in Gongylus is the delibei'ation with 
which the action is performed by an insect which is well known 
in other ways for its defensive and offensive tactics. 

A. WILLEY. 
Colombo. Januarv. 1906. 



9. Terrestrial Coluhridm of Ceylon. — In his admirable syste- 
matic work on the Reptiles of British India, Ceylon, and Burma 
(1890), Mr. G. A. Boulenger notes the existence of a general desire 
felt by those not well acquainted with snakes to know at least how 
they may distinguish poisonous from harmless kinds. It is not 
a simple matter and there is no way of rendering it simple. The 
examination of the teeth is the fundamental test, but they are 
often broken and some snakes, the Dipsadinae, possess grooved 
fangs and yet are not poisonous. It is in fact necessary to know 
the snake before pronouncing upon its charac+er. 

In an island like Great Britain where only three species 
of snakes occur, one of which — the adder — is poisonous though not 
deadly, their identification is not a matter of daily or frequent 
necessity. In Ceylon, which covers an area of some 20,331 square 
miles, smaller in extent than that of Ireland and yet possesses an 
ophidian fauna comprising, exclusive of the sea-snakes, upwards 
of fifty species, of which eight are poisonous and three or four 

2 H 10-06 



228 SPOLTA ZE7LANTCA. 

fatal, their determination not only stands in constant request, 
but may even assume a medico-legal or statistical importance. 

In the Vital Statistics issued by the Registrar-General of Ceylon 
for the year 1903, the number of deaths attributed to snake-bite 
during that year amounted to 217, and the average from 1898 to 
1902 is given as 198. In 1904 the number of deaths from snake- 
bite was 174, and the average from 1898 to 1903, 201'2, or in 
round numbers 200 per annum. 

In the Indian Empire, which is roughly about seventy times as 
large as Ceylon both in area and population, there' is only 
a slightly greater proportion of deaths attributed to snake-bite 
annually ; namely, about 20,000. 

I believe it rarely happens that the offending reptile is caught 
and identified, so that statistical tables give little or no informa- 
tion concerning the number of victims claimed by different 
species of poisonous snakes. 

Last September a Malay woman living in Colombo was bitten 
by a snake during the night while she was asleep. She must 
have unconsciously alarmed the snake in some way, other- 
wise it would not have bitten her. A vedarala was called in, but 
the woman was beyond help, and died within twelve hours. 
The snake had been caught and killed at the time of the accident 
and was subsequently sent to the Museum by the Coroner for 
identification. It proved to be a dangerous poisonous snake of 
the kind called " bungarum " or, in Northern India, ' krait," in 
Sinhalese " karawala." 

Two months later, in November (1905), another snake was sent 
to me from Mullaittivu by Mr. R. A. G. Festing, C.C.S., with the 
information that it had bitten and killed a woman two nights 
previously. This time the snake was a harmless one and very 
common in Ceylon. Lycodon milieus, often called *' karawala" or 
" tel-karawala " through confusion with Biwgarv a, since it 
resembles the latter very strikingly and may be said to mimic it. 
It was generally believed that the victim in this case had died o1 
fright, since it appeared from the evidence at the inquest that she 
had been bitten, twelve small punctures being visible on the 
right forearm. 

Bimgaius maybe recognized at once by the circumstance that 
the median dorsal or vertebral scales are much enlarged ; in 
Lycodon the scales are equal. It is, however, partly owing to the 
extraordinary parallel series of colour variations in poisonous and 
harmless snakes, giving the impression of a natural mimicry, that 
so much confusion exists with regard to the vernacular names in 
this country. There are also other sources of confusion. The 



NOTES. 229 

late Mr. William Ferguson, F.L.S., pointed out in 1877,* that the 
common Pit-viper, well known here as the " kunukatuwa," was 
originally figured bj^ Dr. Davey as the " karawala," and the latter 
erroneous name has adhered to it in English writings ever 
since. 

There are three or four kinds of so-called "karawala" in 
Ceylon, namely, the " dunu-karawala," Bungarus cei/loiiicus, the 
'• mai-karawala " or " pol-mal-karawala," Ghrysopelea oniata ; and 
the •' mudu-karawala," Colaher helena. The expression " tel- 
karawala " is sometimes applied indifferently to varieties of 
Bungarus ceylorncus and Lycodun aulicuSi'f in allusion to the oil- 
like gloss of the scales. The term " mapila " belongs to certain 
.snakes which have a suspicious look but are not dangerous, 
namely, species of the genus Dijjsas (cf. Spot. Zeyl., vol. I., part 
III., 1903, pp. 81-84). 

The most convincing evidence of mimicry as between harmless 
and poisonous snakes is afforded by the specimens of a white- 
ringed variety of Bungarus ceylonicus and the white-ringed 
species of Lycodon, L. carinatus, which have been kept in the 
same jar in the Museum. The similarity between these two 
forms was remarked upon in 1877 by Mr. William Ferguson. To 
the unaided eye the resemblance is quite deceptive, but with a 
lens it will be seen at once that the scales of the Lycodon 
carinatus are keeled, besides being equal. 

Precisely analogous examples of mimicry are known to occur 
among the so-called coral-snakes of Brazil, of which there are four 
genera, one (Flaps) poisonous, a second suspicious, the two others 
harmless. The colour is described as a " rich red with black and 
yellow transverse bands," and the species of these snakes 
inhabiting the same districts are so like each other that only 
a naturalist could distinguish the harmless from the poisonous 
kinds (cf. Darwin, Descent of Man, Second Edition, p. 353). 

The accompanying schedule, which is based primarily upon 
Mr. Boulenger's Monograph, is intended to serve as a guide to the 
identification of a section of the snakes of Ceylon. It is complete 
80 far as it goes, including as it does all the members of the three 
subfamilies of Colubrid* mentioned, namely, the Colubrinse, 
Dipsadinae, and Elapinaj, which are known to occur in Ceylon. 
The sea-snakes (which are poisonous) and two other small sub- 
families of water-snakes (Acrochordinte and Homalopsinae) 



* Wm. Ferguson, Reptile Fauna of Ceylon. Letter on a collection 
sent to the Colombo Museum. Colombo, 1877 (printed by the Governmenk 
Printer). 

t Lycodon auUcuts is also called ■• alu-polonga" at times. 



230 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

are omitted. The earth-snakes ('*depat-naya"), the Python or 
rock-snake (" pimbura "), and the Vipers (" polonga ") are not 
included within the scope of the schedule. 

Two points may be noted in connection with the guiding 
characters which I have selected in the index. All the species 
mentioned have less than thirty rows of scales round the body 
(excluding the ventral shields) and in all cases the general con- 
dition of the head-shields is normal and remarkably constant on 
the whole. Seen from above there is a rostral shield in front 
(usually barely visible in dorsal view) followed by a pair of 
internasal shields between the nostrils, then a pair of praefrontals, 
a median frontal between two supraoculars and a pair of parietals 
behind. The shields which appear in side view of the head are 
less constant, the most important feature being the presence or 
absence of a loreal shield between the praeocular and the nasal, 
this being one great distinction between Lycodon and Bun- 
f/arus. 

When once a character has been observed all the species which 
are shown by the index not to possess this character are excluded, 
and thus by continuing the process of exclusion at least the genus 
of the specimen can be fixed with certainty, and this is enough for 
practical purposes. 




1-7 



^ 




A. Side view of head of Ljjcodon nulicus ; I. LorcaJ «liield; L". Ninlli 
upper labial. 

B. Side view of head of Bungarus ccylonicus ; showing absence of loreal 
shield; L\ Seventh upper labial. 

The species which oflEers the most generalized characters is No. 
XII., Pulyodontophis subpanctatus, a harmless snake which may 



NOTES. 2'M 

be found under lo»s. I took one recently near Puttalam,* and it 
occurs round Colombo and Kalutara, 

The regularity with which snake-bite returns appear in Vital 
Statistics demonstrates the necessity for a more detailed analysis 
than is usually given. What is wanted is information concerning 
the snakes which are alleged to have inflicted bites on human 
subjects. Like as not many of them would prove to be harmless. 

In the schedule the numbers prefixed by the letter B refer to 
the numbers of the species in Mr. Boulenger's volume on Reptilia 
and Batrachia in the Fauna of British India ; *S'. Z. refers to Spolia 
Z''!/lanica ; Tropfdonotus asperrimus, No. XXVI., the Ceylon 
representative of T. piscator was named by Mr. Boulenger subse- 
quently to the publication of the volume (see Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. vol. VII., 1891, p. 281). 

By way of coincidence it is to be noted that the principal and 
proper food of Lycodon aidicus consists of the Brahminy Lizard 
or " hikanella " {Jlabiiia carinata) which is swallowed entire by 
the snake and may be removed practically uninjured from the 
stomach of the latter, if taken at the right time. The size of the 
ingested lizard in comparison with the snake is sometimes astonish- 
ing. This lizard is believed both here and in South India to 
inflict a poisonous bite, and in the Vital Statistics for 1904 (Ceylon) 
one death is attributed to injury caused by Brahmin Lizard. In 
reality the *' hikanella" is harmless. A similar tradition of folklore 
is recorded by Dr. Gadow (Cambridge Nat. Hist. Amphibia and 
Reptiles, 1901, p. 506) from the South of Spain and Portugal where 
geckos, called "osga," are abundant and are considered to be 
dreadfully poisonous by the country folk. Dr. Gadow points out 
that geckos are absolutely harmless; they cannot even inflict 
painful bites, but in many countries they are feared as much as 
the most poisonous snakes. 

There are special difficulties in the way of identifying snakes 
which have inflicted bites upon the person. Firstly there is the 
difficulty of catching the snake and of making certain that the 
one caught is the culprit. Then again in the country districts of 
Ceylon, as all residents in the Island are aware, there is a reluct- 
ance to kill the snake, and if killed in some cases, notably in 
regard to " mapila " and " karawala," the snake must be burnt in 
accordance with immemorial custom. Because the " mapila " and 



* At Karawalas^awwewa, on the road from Puttalam to Auuradhapura. This 
Huake was quoted by Bateson (Materials for the Study of Variation, London. 
1894. p. 123) as an example of maximum variation in the number of ventral 
shields which correspond with the number of vertebrae, as may be easily seen by 
observing the ribs pressing ajfainat them during- locomotion. Tn this case the 
number of ventral shields has been observed to vary from 151 to 240. 



232 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

" karawala " are believed to travel in flocks of seven, and when one 
is killed and burnt the smoke is supposed to keep away the other 
six. This incineration of snakes is an actual and definite practice 
in Ceylon and the burning of a " pol-mal-karawala" {Chrysopelea 
ornata) under the conditions indicated has been witnessed by my 
friend Mr. James Parsons of the Mineralogical Survey, as he has 
been good enough to inform me. 

Another difficulty in connection with the casual identification 
of snakes is more apt to trouble those who know something about 
snakes to begin with than those to whom they are a terra incog- 
nita. I refer to the occasional capture of snakes of unusual size 
belonging to well-known species. A case in point has quite 
recently occurred to me as concerning the snake Aspidura copii. 
The specimens of Aspidura which I have seen are slender snakes 
of rather small size, a length of two feet being exceptional ; and 
the head is long and tapering (compare this Journal, vol. II., 
part VIL, plate facing p. 96). 

The other day (January, 1906), a bulky snake was sent to the 
Museum from Avisawella by Mr. William Ferguson, Jr., which 
severely tested the merits of my schedule. The last genus to 
which it might belong seemed to be Aspidura. It had a single 
internasal, short frontal, no praeocular, * 6 upper labials, 17 
smooth scales round the middle of the body, 137 ventral shields 
mottled with the dark ground colour, anal entire. 20 unpaired 
caudals : in short, it was a female example of Aspidura copii. Its 
size however, and therewith its general appearance, was remark- 
able ; the length, as nearly as it could be measured in the coiled 
condition in which the snake had been preserved and hardened, 
amounted to rather more than 25 inches, of which the tail only 
occupied two inches ; the girth was as much as 3f inches, giving an 
appearance of great bulk; the head was widest in the occipital 
region, close upon one inch across and greatly flattened, the small 
eyes occupying a dorsal position and the snout rapidly tapering in 
front of the eyes. In the Fauna of British India, Mr. Boulenger 
gives the following dimensions of A. copii : Total length 16*5 
inches, tail 2*8, these figures probably relating to a male. 

Upon opening the snake now under consideration, the ovaries 
proved to be full of large eggs, three-quarters of an inch long by 
about half an inch wide, seven in the left ovary, fourteen in the 
right. From what has been said it will be clear that this is quite 



* The pnvsocular shields are shown in the text-figures A and B. As/ndiirn 
copii and Dfwminimdhayi are the only Colubrine snakes in Ceylon which have no 
prseocular. 



NOTES. 



233 



a noteworthy individual. In Mr. Haly's Report on the Reptiles, 
&c., in the Colombo Museum (1891) .4 . copii is recorded from Dik- 
oya and Balangoda and is said to range between 2,000 and 7,000 
feet. 



Schedule of the Terrestrial Colubrid^ op Ceylon. 



Names. 

A. — Colubrince . 

T. Aspidura bi'achyorrhos ... B342 

ri. „ copii ... B343 

III. „ gueutheri ... B344 

IV. „ trachyprocta ... B345 

V. „ drummondhayi 'B.S.Z. 

VI. Haplocercusceylonensis B346 

VII. Lycodon striatus ... B347 

VIII. „ aulicus ... B.351 

IX. ,, carinatu.s ... B356 

X. Hydrophobus nympha ... B357 

XI. ■ „ gracilis ... B358 

XII. Polyodontophis subpunc- 



Remarks. 
Harmless. 



^•^ 



(^ (Jeylon Hill-snakes, .sometimes 
I brightly coloured. 



J 



tatus 

XIII. Ablabes calamaria 

XIV. Siraotes arnensis 

XV. Oligodon templetonii 

XVI. ,, subliueatus 

XVII. „ subgriseus 

XVIII. Zamenis mucosus 

XIX. ,, fasciolatus 

XX. Coluber heleiia 



B8G4 
B367 
B380 
B391 
B392 
B394 
B397 
B402 
B406 



Striated Wolf-snake, Peradeniya. 
Bungalow Wolf-snake, " Tel- 

karawala." 
White-ringed Wolf -snake. 
JafPna, Anuradhapura. 
" Ceylon." 

Collared Sand-snake. 
Rare. 
Black-banded snake. 



y Paucidentate Dwarf snakes. 

Rat-snake, " Garandiya." 
Jaffna. 

Ocellated Land-snake, " Mndu- 
karawala." 

XXI. Dendrophis pictus ... B417 ...") 

XXII. „ bifrenalis... B419 ... V Tree-snakes, "Haldanda." 

XXIII. .. caudolineatus B420 ...J 

XXIV. Tropidonotus ceylo- 

nensis .. ... B43U 

XXV. .. stolatus ... B4.34 



XXVI. 



asperrimus B1891 



XXVn. ., plumbicolor B439 

XXVTTT. Helicops schistosus B440 

B . — Dipsadince . 

XXIX. Dipsas barnesii ... B445 

XXX. ,, ceylonen.sis ... B446 

XXXI. „ forstenii ... B451 

XXXII. Dryophis mycterizans B46I 
pulverulentus B462 



Ei 



Ceylon Ground-snake. 
Striped Ground-snake. 

kukka." 
Amphibious Ground-.snake, 

'• Diya-polonga.'" 
Viperine Ground-snake. 
Freshwater snake. 

Non -poisonous . 



Aliara- 



XXXIII 
XXXTV. 

XXXV. 
.XXXVI. 



Chrysopelfin ornata B4r)3 

C. — Elapinoe.. 
Callophis trimacula- 

tus ... ... B474 

Bungarus cevlonicus B481 



Nocturnal Tree-snakes,"Maitila." 

Green Whip-snake, " EhetuUa." 
Brown Whip-snake, " Hena- 

kandaya." 
Florid Tree-snake, " Pol-mal- 

karawala.'' 

Poisonous. 



Dwarf Bungarum. 
Ceylon Bungsirum, 

karawala." 
Indian Krait (Jaffna). 
Cobra. 



Dunu- 



XXXVII. „ coeruleus B482 

XXXVIII. Naia tripudians ... B485 

Note. — Nos. VIII. and XXV. are the commonest snakes in Ceylon ; next 
in abundance is XXVI.. and then follow the Tree-snakes and Whip-anakea. 



234 



SPOLTA ZKYLANTCA. 



INDEX. 

N.B.— The following common characters may be regarded as occurring 
normally since they are presented Avith great frequency and are therefore 
not specially noted in the index ; they are to be presumed unless otherwise 
stated : — 

(a) Anal Shield divided ; (b) Head not clearly distinct from neck ; (r) 
Internasals paired ; (^/) Loreal single, separated from eye ; (0 Prseocular 
single : (f) Pupil round ; (^) Rostral barely visible from above ; (/*) Scales 
equal and smooth ; (^) Subcaudals paired. 



Anal shield entire i to v.. vi., ix., xi. 

XX. 



Head distinct from neck, x., xi., xviii., 
xix., XX., xxi to xxiii., xxiv to 
xxvii., xxix to xxxi., xxxii., 
xxxiii.. xxxiv . xxxriii. 



Internasal single, i to v.. vi.. xxviii. 



Labials' six. i to v., xxxv. 

Labials seven, vi., x., xi., xiii., xiv., xv 

to xvii., xxvii., xxxvi., xxxvii., 

xxxviii. 
Labials eight, vii., xviii., xix., xxiv.. 

XXV.. xxix., XXX., xxxii., xxxiii. 
Labials nine, viii., ix., xii., (9-10), xx., 

xxi. (9-10)., xxii., xxiii, (8-9), 

xxvi., xxviii., (8-9) xxxiv.,(9-10). 
Labials indefinite, xxxi., (8-11). 

Tioreal absent, i to v., vi., xxxii., 
xxxiii.. xxxv., xxxvi., xxxvii., 
xxxviii. 

Loreal entering the eye. x. xi. xv. 

Loreals two, xxii. 

Loreals three, xviii. 



Maxillary teeth equal, i to v.. (20)., 

vi. (10)., xii. (40).. xiii. xx.. xxi to 

xxiii. 
Maxillary teeth enlarged in front, 

vii to ix. 
Maxillary teeth enlarged behind, x., 

xi., xiv.. XV to xvii., xviii., xix., 

xxiv to xxvii., xxviii. 
Maxillary teeth fanged behind, xxix 

to xxxi.. xxxii., xxxiii., xxxiv. 
Maxillary teeth fanged in front, 

xxxv., xxxvi.. xxxvii., xxxviii. 

Colombo, January 23, 1906. 



Praiocular absent, ii., v. 

Pra30culars two, xxiv., xxvi., xxxii.. 

xxxiii. 
Praeoculars three, xxix. 
I'rfeoculars variable (1 or 2).. x., xxx. 

Pupil horizontal, xxxii., xxxiii. 
Pupil vertical, vii to ix., x., xi.. xxix. 
to xxxi. 



Rostralf large, xiv., xv to xpii. 
Rostral produced., xxxii.. xxxiii. 

Scales in 13 rows, x., xxiii., xxxv. 
Scales in 15 rows, iv., v., xi., xiii., xv.. 

xvi., xvii., xxi., xxii., xxxii., 

xx.Kiii., xxxvi., xxxvii. 
Scales in 17 rows, i., ii., iii., vi., vii., 

viii., xii., xiv. xviii., xxxiv. 
Scales in 19 rows, ix., xxiv.. xxv.. 

xxvi , xxviii., xxix. 
Scales in 19 or 21 rows, xxx. 
Scales in 21 or 2S rows, xix. 
Scales in 23 to 27 rows, xx., xxvii., 

xxxviii. 
Scales in 25 to 29 rows, xxxi. 
Scales keeled, vi., ix., xxiv., xxv.. 

xxvi., xxvii., xxviii. 
Scales keeled in posterior part of 

body only. ii.. iv., v., xviii. J 

Subcaudal shields in single row, i to 

iv.. vi., ix. 
Subocular present, xviii., xix., xxxii., 

xxxiii. 



Ventral shields keeled laterally x., xi., 

xxi., xxiii., xxxiv. 
Ventral shields with dark spots at 
the sides, xii., xxv., xxx., xxxiv. 
Ventral shields with dark spots along 

sides and middle, xv., xvi. 
Vertebral scales enlarged, xxi to 

xxiii., XXX., xxxii.. xxxiii., xxxvi.. 

xxxvii. 

A. WILLEY. 



* Upper labials or shields l;)ordeiinfr the upper lip. 

f The rostral shield covers the front of the snont. 

J In the yo\mg rat-snnko the keeling of the scales may be nljsenl. 



NOTES. 235 

10. Viviparity of Gophotis ceylanica and Oviparity of Cera- 
tophora stoddarlii. — Gophotis and Oeratophora are two genera of 
Agamoid lizards containing species which are peculiar to Ceylon.* 
Gophotis ceylanica and Geratophora stoddartii are found in the 
districts of Nuwara Eliya (6,200 ft.) and Hakgala (5,580 ft.) ; the 
former species is distinguished by the possession of a prehensile 
tail, the latter by its rostral appendage (c/. Spolia Zeyl., p^rt I., 
opposite p. 11). Another species belonging to the same family 
(Agamidie), also peculiar to Ceylon, is common at Hakgala on way- 
side bushes ; this is Galotes nigrilahris. 

The other families of lizards which are represented in Ceylon 
are the Geckonidas, Varanidae, Scincidae, and Chameleodontidae. 
Here I am only concerned with the Agamidse and Scincidse. 

It is well known that most of the Agamoid lizards are oviparous, 
laying their eggs in small holes in the ground. The occurrence of 
viviparity or ovo viviparity, where the eggs undergo their develop- 
ment within the oviducts so that the young are born active with 
the characters of the parent, is both rare and exceptional among 
Agamoids. The only case noted in the Fauna of British India, &c., 
of a viviparous Agamoid is that of the genus Phrynocephalus, not 
found in Ceylon (op. cit., Bouleuger, Reptiles and Batrachians, 
p. 110). 

During a recent visit to Hakgala, where I occupied the Botanical 
Laboratory by kind permission of Dr. J. C. "Willis, at the end of 
January and beginning of February, I ascertained that the tree- 
dwelling lizard, Gophotis ceylanica^ is viviparous. At the proper 
season the ripe eggs pass into the oviducts and there undergo their 
development without any shell being formed, so that the half- 
formed embryo is clearly visible through the thin transparent 
wall of the oviduct. One female showed three whitish embryos 
lying upon the yolk in the right oviduct and two in the 
left, all in the same stage of development; a second had two 
advanced embryos in each oviduct, with scales and dark pigment 
appearing. 

The size of the eggs, 13 mm. in major diameter, causes the wall 
of the oviduct to stretch and to invest each egg closely. After 
removal of an egg from the oviduct, the embryo with the yolk is 
still surrounded by three membranes, which I interpret as follows 
from the examination of flat preparations : — (I) a very thin, trans- 
lucent, finely fibrous, non-cellular, vitelline membrane ; (2) an 
equally thin and transparent chorionic membrane which is cellular 

* All species of Ceratophora are endemic. CophotU has another species i n Sunja- 
ira (Boulenger). 

% I 10-06 



'236 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

but non-vascular ; this membrane, which I take to be the epidermal 
tract of the outer iimnion, couBists of a pavement-epithelium in 
which the cell-boundaries, vesicular nuclei and nucleoli are clearly 
visible without staining ; (3) a thicker, though still transparent, 
vascular allantoic membrane traversed by blood-vessels which 
give rise to dense capillary networks over the surface of the egg. 

From the above description it is evident that, from a reptilian 
standpoint, the viviparity of Cuijhotis is very complete. In this 
connection it may be noted that the wall of the oviduct is also 
well-supplied with blood-vessels, a large trunk proceeding along 
the mesometric line. It seems almost certain that gaseous and 
probably also liquid transfusion from parent to embryo takes place 
through the thin intervening membranes. It is not always easy 
to suggest an explanation for the exceptional occurrence of 
viviparity in groups of normally oviparous animals. It seems to 
depend upon various conditions which may react upon the 
organism separately or in combination. Of these conditions the 
most obvious are habits and habitat (whether arboreal, deserti- 
colous, subterranean), temperature and moisture. There are 




Embryo of Cophotis ceylanic ; lying in a dilatation of the oviduct. The 
dotted portion indicates the yolk. At each side of the figure is the cut end 
of the oviduct. 



several parallel examples which may help to throw light on this 
subject. Cophotis is arboreal as shown bionomically by its actual 
occurrence as well as structurally by its prehensile tail, but less so 
than the Chameleon which has modified hands and feet in addition 
to its prehensile tail. Nevertheless most Chameleons lay eggs, an 
exception being afforded by Chameleon pumilus, the Dwarf 
Chameleon of South Africa which is ovoviviparous. This species 
is described by Dr. Gadow (Cambridge Nat. Hist. Amphibia and 
Reptiles, 1901, p. 580) as "relatively hardy, being as a native of 
South Africa, accustomed to cold nights." In this respect it offers 
an analogy to Cophotis ceylanica, which has almost exactly the 
same size as the South African Chameleon, namely, 5-6 inches, 
and is accustomed to the cold nights of the upper montane zone 
of Ceylon. 



NOTES. 237 

Another parallel example is afforded by the Agamoid genus 
Phrynocephahis (referred to above) which inhabits the desert 
regions of Central Asia, as compared with the viviparous Iguanoid 
genus Fhrynosuma* which inhabits the desert regions of Central 
America. 

In many or most cases of viviparity among reptiles an egg-shell 
is formed round the vifcellus, but the egg is not laid, the young 
hatching out in situ in the oviducts. In Cophotis there is no trace 
of an egg-shell. 

With regard to Cerato2)hora the eggs are laid in small holes in 
the ground after the manner of Galotes. I came across such a hole 
containing four freshly-laid, soft-shelled eggs in the Hakgala 
jungle in January and disturbed the female who was apparently 
attending to it. Ceratophora stoddartii is usually found clinging 
to the trunks of trees or the stems of shrubs and saplings in a 
vertical attitude with the rostral appendage directed upwards. 
This appears to be its normal resting attitude and it remains 
motionless for hours together. Its food consists in large part 
of earthworms, to obtain which it descends to the ground. The 
female descends to the ground also for the purpose of egg-laying, 
the mating taking place on the stem of a young or small tree. 
The existence of the rostral appendage is, I think, more or less 
closely correlated with the vertical resting attitude of the lizard. 

In contrast with the Agamidse most of the Scincoid lizards are 
viviparous, but an exception occurs in the species, Mahuia 
macularia,'\ which is oviparous. Some eggs which I found in 
the month of December at the base of a kumbuk tree at Karawala- 
gaswewa, between Puttalam and Anuradhapura, no doubt 
belonged to this species. I placed them in a match-box, and within 
an hour or two young skinks hatched out which by an oversight I 
omitted to identify. The species however occurs in Ceylon as well 
as in India and Burma. It is closely allied to the well known 
Brahminy Lizard which is viviparous (Boulenger op. cit., p. 190). 

There is an Australian skink, Trachysaurus,X which is strictly 
viviparous in so far that like Copliotis no egg-shell is formed, 
and the embryos " are ripened in uterus-like dilatations of the 
oviducts." 

In conclusion, it may be noted that the geckos (Geckonidae) are 
oviparous lizards; "the only species at present known to be 
ovoviviparous are the New Zealand Naultinus elegans and Hoplo- 
dactylus 2iCioificus ''' (Boulenger, op. cit., p. 55). 

Colombo, February, 1906. A. WILLEY. 



* See Gadow, op. cit., p. 533. f See Boulenger, op. cit., 180. 

X See Gadow, op. cit., p. 560. 



238 SPOLIA ZBYLANICA. 

11. Subsidence at Kokkilay on the East Coast. — The village of 
Kokkatoduvay lies on the uarrow strip of land which separates 
Kokkilay lagoon from the sea and is some half a mile from 
the latter. Across a small " villu " from the village and right on 
the sands just above highwater mark, where a very moderate 
north-east gale would carry the waves, is a large area containing 
a deposit of ancient pottery debris, undoubtedly the site of an old 
settlement. This, in conjunction with an existing tradition that 
Kokkilay lagoon was once a stretch of paddy fields, is very strong 
evidence of the land having subsided. 

The pottery is old — how old it is impossible to say ; perhaps a 
thousand years, perhaps more. But the land hereabouts must 
have also risen and that long before the time of the potters. For 
the coast is strewn with fossils, sea-shells imbedded in sandstone 
which was formed I suppose in a considerable depth of water. 
Thus at this little village we have evidence, natural and artificial, 
of two alterations, in opposite directions, from the present level. 

JOHN STILL. 
Anuradhapura, April 19, 1905. 



12. Association of a crocodile with a tortoise. — Early in March, 
1905, 1 was at a village named Kanjuramotai, a few miles south of 
Nedunkeni in the Mullaittivu District. Two of the villagers 
showed me a few ruins in the jungle, just by the edge of their 
paddy fields ; and among them was an old well. This had been 
dug out six or eight years ago, and then abandoned, after which 
the sides had collapsed inwards leaving a hollow about 10 feet 
deep, circular in shape, and 12 or 1.5 feet in diameter. Its sides 
are perpendicular save at the* very top where they overhang, held 
up by thf» matted roots of the undergrowth, so that the place is a 
regular trap. 

In the well there are two captives, both well known to the 
villagers : one a crocodile, about six feet long, the other a very 
large mud tortoise {Nicoria trijugd). The villagers aver that the* 
crocodile got in during the rainy weather three years ago and that 
the tortoise has been there for six months. Neither can get food 
(except perhaps frogs), neither can get out; and in the dry 
weather they must go without water for months on end. 

The turtle has no fear of the crocodile, but when stirred up will 
walk np to his snout. The crocodile, which is miserably thin, 
resents being stirred up by hissing and snapping his jaws, but 



NOTES. 239 

makes no attack on the tortoise. The villagers say he is afraid of 
being left alone if he eats the tortoise, but perhaps the sltell is too 
much for him in his enfeebled state. 

JOHN STILL. 
Anuradhapura, March, 1905. 



13. Distribution of flying squirrels in Ceylon. — The squirrel 
called Pteromys oral which possesses a dermal parachute by means 
of which it can travel through the air for limited distances, and on 
this account is always called the flying squirrel, belongs to the 
Rodent family Sciuridae, which is the squirrel family. This 
information is given in a condensed form on p. 38 of this volume. 

An illustration showing the animal at rest and in flight is given 
on p. 361 of Blanford's Mammalia (Fauna Brit. Ind.) Another 
species called the " Small Travancore Flying Squirrel," Sciurop- 
terus fuscicapillus. is recorded by Dr. Blanford from the hills of 
Ceylon, but no information concerning it is available locally. 

The Flying Fox (Pteroijus medius) which, as stated on p. 38 
(this volume), is a Fruit-eating Bat, occurs in the low-country, 
forming" camps " during the daytime at such places as Beruwala 
(Barbery n), Henaratgoda, and Peradeniya. The flying squirrel 
also occurs at Peradeniya, whence several examples have been sent 
to the Museum by Mr. E. E. Green. This is an example of a local 
overlapping in distribution, since the flying squirrel hardly 
occurs below the elevation of Peradeniya and the flying fox does 
not go much above it. Mr. Edgar Turner has kindly written to 
say that he has never seen "flying foxes" in the up-country 
jungles, but has often seen the " flying squirrels " in the jungles 
up to 5,000 feet or more, particularly in the Hewaheta jungles by 
Rookwood estate. 

Ed. S. Z. 



End op Volume IIL 



SPOLIA ZEYLAVICA. 


ISSUED BY 

. THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, 


CEYLON. 


VOLUME III. 


COLOMBO : 


G. J. A. SKEEN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 


1906. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



Part IX.— March, 1905. 



PAGE 



Guide to the Antiquities, Minerals, and Natural History Collections 

in the Colombo Museum ... ... ... 1 

Part X. — October, 1905. 

1. Cameron, P. — 

On the Phytophagous and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 

by Mr. E. Ernest Green in Ceylon (First Paper) ... fi7 

2. Cameron, P. — 

Idem (Second Paper) ... ... ... 98 

3. Wall, F.— 

Notes on Snakes collected at Hakgalla, Ceylon ... 144 

4. Wait, W. E.— 

Notes chiefly on Birds seen at the Pearl Fishery Camp, 

March and April, 1905 ... ... ... 148 

5. Coomaraswamy, A. K. and Ethel M. — 

Kandyan Horn Combs ... ... ••• 151 

6 Notes. — 

1. On the Loris in captivity. John Still ... ... 155 

2. On the larval habits of the Butterfly, Parata alexis, Fabr. 

E. E. Green ... ... ... 157 

3. Curious behaviour of a Snake in captivity. E. E. Green... 157 

4. On the nesting of the Snake Bungarus ceylonicus. E. E. 

Green ... ... ... ... 158 

5. Millipede killed by a Reduviid Bug. E. E. Green ... 159 

6. Remedies adopted against the Paddy Fly. C. Drieberg ... 159 

7. The Lacteal Tract of Loris gracilis. A. Willey ... 160 

Part XL- January, 1906. 

1 . Linstow, O. von — 

Helminthes from the collection of the Colombo Museum... 163 

2. Annandale, N. — 

New and interesting Lizards in the Colombo Museum ... 189 

3. Annandiile, N. — 

Stalked Barnacles (Cirri^se^'ft Pechmculata) in the Colombo 
Museum ... ... •-. 193 

4. Notes. — 

1. Lacteal Tract of Oriental Lorisinse. N. Annandalo ... 196 

2. Curious action of a Toad when confronted by a Snake. 

E.E.Green ... ... ... 196 

3. On the constricting habit of Coluber helena. E. E. Green ... 197 

4. Scorpion stings. E. E. Green ... ••• 1^' 
6. Minerals new or rare in Ceylon. A. K. Coomaraswamy ... 198 



( iv ) 

♦ PAGE 

6. Recent Marine Clays at Kuchaveli, Ceylon. A. K. Cooma- 

raswamy ... ... ... 199 

7. Contributions to the Geology of Ceylon. A. K. Cooniara- 

swamy ... ... ... ... 2((1 

8. Snake lore. C. Drieberg... ... ... 201 

9. Snakes and Fowls. C. Drieberg .. 202 
10. Moths at sea. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ... ... 202 

Part XII.— April, 1906. 

1. Doflein, F.— 

Termite Truffles ... ... ... 205 

2. Cameron, P. — 

Description of a new species of Opius from Ceylon ... 210 

3. Notes.— 

1. Historic Trees. J. P. Lewis ... ... 211 

2. The Moormen's Weapon. J. P. Lewis ... ... 213 

3. Scorpion stings. A. K. Coomaraswamy ... ... 215 

4. Flight of white and yellow Butterflies. O. S. Wickwar ... 216 

5. Notes by the Way. .E. E. Green ... ... 219 

6. On the Species of Leaf Insects occurring in Ceylon. E. E. 

Green ... ... ... ... 220 

7. A Harbour Worm and a Boxing Crab. A. Willey ... 222 

8. Stridulation of Gonqylus gongylodes. A. Willey ... 226 

9. Terrestrial Colubridae of Ceylon. A. Willey ... 227 

10. Viviparity of CopTio^is ceyZowica. A. Willey .. 236 

11. Subsidence at Kokkilay on the East Coast. John Still ... 238 

12. Association of a Crocodile with a Tortoise. John Still ... 238 

13. Distribution of Flying Squirrels in Ceylon. Ed. S. Z. ... 239 



SPOLIi ZEYLimCA. 



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ISSUED BY /VO a il 9> 



THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, 



CEYLOI^. 



Vol. III.— Part IX. March, 1905. 



CONTENTS. 



Guide to the Antiquities, Minerals, and Natural History Collections 
in the Colombo Museum. 

IVith Plates ami Illttstfationa. 



[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
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1905. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANIOA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of 
the Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany) for the 
information of residents in the Island, and also for the advance- 
ment of Science. 

It vfill contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
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Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
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The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

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Messrs. R. Friedlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



ISSUED BY 




THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, libra 



CEYLON. 



Vol. III.— Part X. October, 3905. 




CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

1. Cameron, P. — 

On the Phytophagous and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 

by Mr. E. Ernest Green in Ceylon (First Paper) ... G7 

2. Cameron, P, — 

On the Phytophagous and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 

by Mr, E. Ernest Green in Ceylon (Second Papei-) ... 98 

3. Wall, F.— 

Notes on Snakes collected at Hakgalla, Ceylon ... 144 

4. Wait, W. E.— 

Notes chiefly on Birds seen at the Pearl Fishery Camp, 

March and April, 1905 ... ... 148 

5. Coomaraswamy, A. K. and Ethel M. — 

Kandyan Horn Combs ... ... ... 151 

6. Notes.— J. Still, E. E. Green, C. Drieberg, A. Willey ... 155 

tVith Plates ami Itltittrattotis. 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
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1905. 



SrOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Pablicfition designed to promote a IcnoAvledge of 
the Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany) for the 
information of residents in the Island, and also for the advance- 
ment of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be published as near 
to the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies. Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal maj^ also be obtained from 
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from Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from 
Messrs. Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



ISSUED BY 




THE COLOMBO MUSEUM, 
CEYLON. 

Vol. III.— Part XI. January, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGK 

1. Linstow, Dr. O. von — 

Helminthes from the collection of the Colombo Museum 163 

2. Annandale, N. — 

New and interesting Lizards in the Colombo Museum ... 189 

3. Annandale, N. — 

Stalked Barnacles (Cirripedia Pedunculata) in the 
Colombo Museum ... ... ... 193 

4. Notes. — N. Annandale, E. E. Green, A. K. Coomaraswamy, 

C. Drieberg, T. B. Fletcher ... ... 196 

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[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
GEORGE J. A. SKEEN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 

1906. 



L 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Piiblicfition designed to promote a knowledge of 
the Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany) for the 
information of residents in the Island, and also for the advance- 
ment of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
Topography, Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be published as near 
to the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 25 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies. Re. 1-25 ; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from 
Messrs. R. Fri«dlander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. ; 
from Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from 
Messrs. Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.G. 



SPOLIA ZEYLAIICA. 



ISSUED BY 




THE COLOMBO MUSEUM," 

» 

CEYLON. 

Vol. III.— Part XII. April, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

1. Doflein, Dr. F. (Munich)— 

Termite Truffles ... ... ... 203 

2. Cameron, P. — 

Description of a new species of " Opius" from Ceylon... 210 

3. Notes.— J. P. Lewis, A. K. Coomaraswamy, E. E. Green, 

O. S. WickAvar, A. Willey, J. Still ... ... 211 

, tVith Plates and IllwstraHons. 

[For Rate of Subscription and other Information see back of Cover.] 



COLOMBO : 
G-BORGE J. A. SKEBN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, CEYLON. 

1906. 



SPOLIA ZEYLANICA. 



A Quarterly Publication designed to promote a knowledge of 
the Natural History of Ceylon (exclusive of Botany) for the 
information of residents in the Island, and also for the advance- 
ment of Science. 

It will contain Records and Contributions, together with Notes, 
Abstracts, and Reviews, relating to the economic and systematic 
knowledge of the natural resources (Zoology, Anthropology, 
Topography, Geology) of the Island and of the surrounding seas. 

Each Volume will consist of four Parts, the size of which will 
depend on circumstances, and the Parts will be published as near 
to the quarter days as possible. 

The Journal will be illustrated by line-blocks, half-tone blocks, 
and lithographic plates. 

Authors will receive 2.5 copies of their contributions gratis, or 
.50 copies if desired. 

Subscription, Rs. 5 per annum ; single copies, Re. 1-25; post free. 

Communications should be addressed to the Director, Colombo 
Museum. 

Complete sets of this Journal may also be obtained from 
Messrs. R. Fri^diander and Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin, N.W. ; 
from Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, London ; and from 
Messrs. Wynian & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, LDndon, E.C. 



!f,^L^!^°l Libra 



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